Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Danish National Symphony Orchestra
The Danish National Symphony Orchestra, is a Danish orchestra based in Copenhagen. The DNSO is the orchestra of DR. The DRSO is based at the Copenhagen Concert Hall, the roots of the orchestra date back to the singer Emil Holm, who expressed a wish to establish a full-time symphony orchestra in Denmark. The orchestra grew to 30 players within a year, the orchestra performed its first public concert was in 1927, and began to give weekly concerts in 1928. In 1930, Holm recruited Nikolai Malko to a key role like Grøndahl as conductor with the orchestra. Early concerts were at the Axelborg building, in 1931, the orchestra began to give concerts at the Stærekassen hall of the Royal Danish Theatre. After going into exile from Germany in the 1930s, Fritz Busch worked extensively as a conductor of the orchestra in parallel with Malko. By 1948, the orchestra had attained membership of 92 musicians, the first conductor to have the formal title of principal conductor with the orchestra was Herbert Blomstedt, from 1967 to 1977.
His recording work with the orchestra included recordings of the works of Carl Nielsen. Blomstedt now has the title of æresdirigent with the DNSO, the second principal conductor, after an interregnum of 9 years, was Lamberto Gardelli, from 1986 to 1988. Thomas Dausgaard, who was the DNSOs principal guest conductor from 2001 to 2004, became conductor of the DNSO in 2004. In October 2009, Dausgaard chose to conclude his principal conductorship of the DNSO at the close of the 2010-2011 season, past principal guest conductors of the DRSO besides Dausgaard have included Yuri Temirkanov, Michael Schønwandt, and Dmitri Kitaenko. In 2010, the orchestra announced Søren Nils Eichberg as its first-ever composer-in-residence, in February 2011, the DNSO announced the appointment of Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos as its next principal conductor, as of the 2012-2013 season, with an initial contract of 3 years through 2015. On 4 June 2014, Frühbeck de Burgos resigned as conductor of the orchestra, with immediate effect, in parallel with his retirement from conducting.
He died just one week later, in August 2014, the orchestra announced the appointment of Fabio Luisi as its next principal conductor, effective in 2017, with an initial contract through 2020. The orchestra has recorded commercially for such labels as DaCapo and Chandos, including music of Danish composers such as August Enna, Niels Gade, Rued Langgaard, the orchestra has commercially recorded such composers as Johannes Brahms
DR Ramasjang is a Danish television channel owned by DR targeting aged 7-10. The channel is named after the Danish word ramasjang which means a loud or festive uproar, similar to the English word hullabaloo, DR presented their idea to launch a channel for children in 2005 in preparation for the new media settlement of 2006. When the settlement was presented in June 2006, the plan was for the channel to broadcast in the daytime. In preparation for the launch of the new channel, DR concentrated their division for childrens programmes, DR B&U, signe Lindkvist, who had participated in many childrens programmes, was appointed as editor of the channel in 2008. By then, it had decided that the childrens channel. The name for the channel was revealed in March 2009, the channel would broadcast between 6am and 8pm every day of the year. It would target children between 3 and 10 years old, with a focus on those between 7 and 10. The channel launched on 1 November 2009, and is available on terrestrial television.
The idea of the channel was scrapped, and instead a rewinding footage of the hosts sleeping, with a message saying DR Ramasjang We will wake up in hours. DR operated a station with the same name from 1 November 2009 to 31 December 2014
P4 is the regional radio channel of Denmarks national public broadcasting corporation, DR. The 10 regional stations make up P4 originate their own local programming. P4s programming is a mixture of music, traffic announcements. The name P4 originates from 1973 when it was the name of a radio programme directed towards younger audience and this programme had been broadcast for 24 years when it was closed in 1997. On 4 April 1960 DR started regional programming on DR P2, at the beginning each station broadcast only half an hour of its own programming, each Monday from 19.15. Two years this was expanded to 45 minutes, from 1967 a 40-minute round-up from all the regions was broadcast on Tuesdays. DR had in 2001 won the rights to use Denmarks new fourth nationwide FM channel to which DR P2 was moved on 1 September 2001, the regional programming stayed on the former P2 regional channels and was re-launched as DR P4. In March 2013 DR P4 became the first of DRs radio channels to be available on DAB+ digital radio, the other stations were available on standard DAB.
Launched in 1960 as Bornholms Radio, was launched on 1 January 2007. Launched as Radio Fyn in 1960, was launched as Københavns Radio in 1962. Was launched as Regionalradioen i Holstebro in Holstebro in April 1974, was renamed Radio Midt & Vest. In 2013 P4 Nordvestsjælland was closed, and instead the area would be covered by P4 Sjælland, in 1980 Kanal 94 was launched. Was renamed P4 Trekanten and now covers a smaller area, started as Østjyllands Radio in 1960
Copenhagen Metro is a 24/7 rapid transit system in Copenhagen, serving the municipalities of Copenhagen, and Tårnby. The 20. 4-kilometre system opened between 2002 and 2007, and has two lines, M1 and M2, the driverless light metro supplements the larger S-train rapid transit system, and is integrated with DSB local trains and Movia buses. Through the city center and west to Vanløse, M1 and M2 share a common line, the metro has 22 stations, of which nine are underground. In 2013, the metro carried 55 million passengers, the system is owned by Metroselskabet, which is owned by the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, and the Ministry of Transport. The 34 trains are of the AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro class and stationed at the Control, the trains are 2.65 m wide and three cars long, their 630-kilowatt power output is supplied by a 750-volt third rail. The metro trains were planned to be four cars long. Platforms are – although shorter than originally planned – built to accommodate trains with four cars, operation of the system is subcontracted to Metro Service.
Trains run continually, twenty-four hours a day, with the headway varying from two to twenty minutes. Planning of the Metro started in 1992 as part of the redevelopment plans for Ørestad with construction starting in 1996, stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, opened in 2003, followed by stage 3, from Lergravsparken to Lufthavnen, in 2007. Construction of the M3+M4 City Circle Line is underway, scheduled to open in 2020, this line will form a circle around the city center, be entirely underground and not share any track with M1 and M2. Kongens Nytorv and Frederiksberg will serve as interchanges between M1, M2 and M3+M4, a two-station branch towards Nordhavn is planned to open in 2019. A planned expansion towards Sydhavn will include a linkup with Ny Ellebjerg on the S-train network and these stations will be connected to the regional train network following the completion of the new Copenhagen-Ringsted railway. The Sydhavn extension has been approved, the planning of the metro was spurred by the development of the Ørestad area of Copenhagen.
The principle of building a transit was passed by the Parliament of Denmark on 24 June 1992. Initially, three modes were considered, a tramway, a rail and a rapid transit. In October 1994, the Development Corporation chose a light rapid transit, the tram solution would have been a street tram, without any major infrastructure investments in the city centre, such as a dedicated right-of-way. Through Ørestad it would have had level crossings, except for a crossing with the European Route E20. It would have had a driver and have operated at about a 150-second interval—twice the cycle time of the traffic lights
DR Koncerthuset by Jean Nouvel is a part of the new DR Byen, that houses the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR. The concert hall and the DR Town are located in the part of Ørestad - an ambitious development area in Copenhagen. The concert complex consists of four halls with the auditorium seating 1,800 people. It is the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra, with a total surface of 25000 m², the concert hall complex designed by Jean Nouvel includes a concert hall of 1800 people and three recording studios with variable acoustics. The scenography of the hall and three recording studios was designed with dUCKS scéno. The acoustic studies were realized by Nagata Acoustics, the construction, begun in February,2003, was finished in January,2009. The Queen of Denmark inaugurated the venue on January 17,2009, pritzker Prize winner Jean Nouvel is the architect of the project. The structure can be likened to a covered by big blue screens, supposed to resemble water. Nouvel says on the project, Building in emerging neighborhoods is a risk that has proved fatal in recent years.
We can respond positively to an uncertainty by using its most positive attribute, mystery is never far from seduction. In other words we need to bring value to the context, for this we must establish a presence, an identity. I propose to materialize the context by creating an urban building respecting the planned layout of the site. It will be a volume, a mysterious parallelepiped that changes under the light of day, at night the volume will come alive with images and lights expressing the life going on inside. The interior is a world in itself and diversified, an interior street lined with shops follows the path of the urban canal, a restaurant and bar spill into it. The restaurant is dominated by a square, a large empty volume beneath the wooden “scales” cladding the concert hall above. It is a world of contrasts and surprises, a labyrinth, on one side, the world of musicians, with courtyards and exterior terraces, and vegetation. On the other, Piranesian public spaces link together the different performance halls, the restaurant, the abstract is invaded by the figurative, the permanent is complemented by the ephemeral.
The facades are diaphanous filters permitting views of the city, the canal, at night these facades become screens for projecting images