click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains

Built in murus dacicus style, the six Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains, in Romania, were created in the 1st centuries BC and AD as protection against Roman conquest, played an important role during the Roman-Dacian wars. Their extensive and well-preserved remains present a picture of a vigorous and innovative ancient civilization. Today, treasure-hunters sometimes search the area; the six fortresses - Sarmizegetusa Regia, Costeşti-Cetăţuie, Costeşti-Blidaru, Piatra Roşie, Bănița and Căpâlna - that formed the defensive system of Decebalus were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999. All the sites are in Hunedoara County, except for Căpâlna, in Alba County; the town of Sarmizegetusa Regia was the capital and major fortress of the Dacian kingdom built in the mid first century BCE. It consisted of perimeter walls and fortifications, a sacred precinct, a settlement area for nobles and supporting servants, it was located at the top of a 1200-meter hill with excellent visibility of the surrounding lands.

The sacred precinct was with a prominent plaza and circular shrines. There were a larger one on the west. In addition to dwellings they included workshops, storage buildings, agricultural processing areas. Notable for the time is a distribution system for drinking water. Piatra Roșie, which means Red Rock, was a Dacian hill fort two days march to the west from Costești-Cetățuie, at Luncani in Boşorod municipality, it was built in two phases. In the first phase a long rectangular main citadel was built at the height of land with watch towers on each end and two outlying watch towers; the larger area inside the watch towers was enclosed with walls. It appears. Burebista List of Dacian towns Murus dacicus Sarmizegetusa Regia List of World Heritage Sites in Romania Seven Wonders of Romania UNESCO: The Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains Regional portal with locations and information related to the six Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains Virtual 3D reconstruction of the Dacian fortresses

The Screaming Staircase

The Screaming Staircase is a middle grade thriller novel by Jonathan Stroud. It is the first book in a series titled Lockwood & Co. and was released on 29 August 2013 by Random House in the United Kingdom, by Disney-Hyperion in the United States on 17 September 2013. The story is set in an alternate modern day London which experiences an event called "the Problem", where ghosts appear throughout the city by nighttime and attack the living. Agencies have arisen to fend off the ghosts and protect the public, for a fee, but put themselves in extreme danger in the process. However, only children and teenagers have the "talent", and so the agencies under with the leadership of people who have passed their ghost-sensitive ages and with the youth whose talents are instrumental in solving a haunting. All of the agencies but one; that one exception is Co.. The story follows the agency of Lockwood & Co.. The agency is run and led by Anthony Lockwood and has only one other member prior to Lucy's joining: a boy named George Cubbins.

Using their different skills and "talents", they investigate and solve hauntings. As the series progresses, deeper mysteries unravel about the truths behind the ghosts and the Problem. A sinister Problem has occurred in London: all nature of ghosts and spectres are appearing throughout the city, they are not friendly. Only young people have the psychic abilities required to eradicate these unnatural foes. Many different Detection Agencies have cropped up to handle the dangerous work, they are in fierce competition for business. In'The Screaming Staircase', the plucky and talented Lucy Carlyle teams up with Anthony Lockwood, the charismatic leader of Lockwood & Co, a small agency that runs independent of any adult supervision. After an assignment leads to both a grisly discovery and a disastrous end, Lucy and their sarcastic colleague, are forced to take part in the perilous investigation of Combe Carey Hall, one of the most haunted houses in England. Will Lockwood & Co. survive the Hall's legendary Screaming Staircase and Red Room to see another day?

Lucy Carlyle: The newest member of Lockwood & Co. and the narrator of the book, Lucy is 15 years old. And is described as quick to start a fight, she was known in earlier revisions as Lucy Purser. The daughter of a stationmaster in the North of England, she joined a local agency at an early age. However, after a disastrous case resulting in the loss of her fellow agents, Lucy left her former employment and family to start again in London. Lucy's Talent lies in her empathy through touch. Anthony Lockwood: The leader of Lockwood & Co. referred to as just Lockwood. He is described as "dashing" and "a bit reckless", his Talent is a sharp "sight" - seeing ghosts and deathglows, the psychic residue left by a violent death. Lockwood is known for his quick yet thorough approach to hauntings and prides himself on his abilities, he is a mysterious young man. George Cubbins: Anthony's deputy, quite cynical, he is a little slovenly. George is much more focused on research and preparation than the other two agents, prefers a longer waiting time between assignments.

He gets along with his fellow agent Lucy, however shares a strong passion with Anthony Lockwood. He is quite attached to a skull in a glass jar which he owns; the skull is possessed by a ghost. Suzie Martin: The daughter of Mrs. Hope, she meets Lockwood & Co. in her mother's absence, so they can investigate the presence of a Visitor in her family's home. She is quite sceptical of. Annie Ward: A young woman who returns as a type-two ghost following her death. Lockwood & Co. encounter her at the beginning of the book, go on to solve the mystery of her murder. Her Source is a locket which Co. found around the neck of her corpse. Both she and Lucy share a strong psychic connection. Inspector Barnes: An investigator of DEPRAC, based at Scotland Yard. Barnes seems to disapprove of and dislike Lockwood and George, however cooperates with them in the case of Annie Ward Sir John William Fairfax: The wealthy industrialist who owns the haunted Combe Carey Hall, assigns Lockwood & Co. the mystery within the mansion and offers them the money needed to save the company from debt.

Hugo Blake: Annie Ward's 22-year-old boyfriend, accused of murdering Annie Ward. A sequel to the book, titled The Whispering Skull, was released in September 2014. A second sequel, titled The Hollow Boy, was released in September 2015; the fourth book in the series, The Creeping Shadow, was released in September 2016. The final book, The Empty Grave, was released in September 2017; the film rights were acquired in December 2012 by Illumination Entertainment and Universal Pictures, making this the first live-action project for the former. The film, titled Lockwood & Co.: The Screaming Staircase, was to be produced by Illumination Entertainment CEO Chris Meledandri. However, in September 2017 it was announced that Big Talk Productions had optioned the rights to Lockwood & Co. with plans to adapt it into a television series

Red salamander

The red salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae endemic to the eastern United States. Its skin is orange/red with random black spots, its habitats are temperate forests, small creeks, forests, temperate shrubland, intermittent rivers, trees springs. Overall this species is common and widespread, but locally it has declined because of habitat loss and it is considered threatened in Indiana. Red salamanders eat insects, spiders, small crustaceans and smaller salamanders; the red salamander, as a member of the family Plethodontidae, lacks lungs and respires through its skin. Pseudotriton ruber is a medium-large salamander, with adults ranging from 4.3 to 7.1 in in total length. Its sides and back vary in color from an orange-brownish tint to a bright red depending on its age. Like other salamanders, the red salamander seems to lose its color as it ages, becoming more darkly pigmented with less obscure patterns. Another distinguishing characteristic of P. ruber is the appearance of numerous irregular black spots down its back.

Although the red salamander is brilliantly colored and has many distinguishing features, it is sometimes difficult to tell species apart. P. ruber is most similar in appearance to the mud salamander, but can be distinguished by the difference in size and number of spots running down the dorsum and by the difference in the color of the iris. The red salamander has more spots and the spots tend to be larger in size than those of the mud salamander. In regard to eye color, the red salamander's iris is a gold-like tint, whereas the mud salamander's iris is brown. Mud salamanders have a blunter snout than the red salamander; the mud salamanders have a more contrasting dorsal and ventral coloration than the red salamanders that are more uniform in color. In the Plethodontidae, many members respire through the lining in their mouths. Lunglessness in this family may have evolved due to an adaptation for life in streams, members of the family Plethodontidae did evolve other methods for respiration other than lungs due to enhanced survival of larval salamanders in fast-moving stream environments of southern Appalachia.

Lungs in general help aquatic animals maintain position in the water column, but the larvae of Plethodontidae members are benthic creatures, therefore the adaptation of lunglessness would be beneficial to them since buoyancy would endanger their survival. The red salamander is further classified as a member of the genus Pseudotriton. Members of this genus include the mud salamander; the four subspecies of P. ruber are found across the eastern United States, occupying streams through open areas such as fields and meadows, as well as aquatic areas through forested areas and mountains. Each subspecies is similar in appearance with slight differences in size and coloration, but are found in different habitats; the northern red salamander, P. r. ruber, is characterized as being red or reddish-orange with numerous black spots down its back. This subspecies is the most common and can be found from southern New York and Ohio to northeast Alabama, as well as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Similar in appearance to the northern red salamander is the Blue Ridge red salamander, P. r. nitidus.

This species differs it is smaller and lacks black coloration on the tip of the tail and chin. The Blue Ridge red salamander is found in elevations to more than 5,000 ft in the southern part of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia; the blackchin red salamander, P. r. schencki, differs in appearance by having strong black coloration under its chin, as well as spotting all the way to the tip of the tail. It can be found in elevations to more than 5,000 ft in the Blue Ridge Mountains; the southern red salamander is purplish- to salmon-colored and has white spots on its head. This subspecies is found from southern South Carolina to southwest Kentucky. All subspecies of P. ruber occupy moist environments such as under moss and stones near clear water sources such as streams or springs. Red salamanders are not found near large streams, but instead near smaller water sources; some important aquatic and terrestrial ecological aspects of this salamander include its diet and microhabitat preferences. Larvae feed on invertebrates such as insect larvae and worms.

Larval growth rates differ depending on the temperature of the water and tend to be higher in the warmer months when water temperature is higher. The red salamander lays eggs in the fall and hatching season takes place in the late fall and winter; the larval period varies between 27 and 31 months and metamorphosis takes place in the spring and early summer of the third year. Larval red salamanders are generalists. Feeding rates increase when water temperature is low and larger individuals feed more than smaller individuals. Although feeding rates appear to increase with increasing size, mortality rates, seem to be independent of size or age and survival is estimated to be about 50% per year; the longer larval period ensures that transformation occurs when the salamanders are much larger than other species of salamanders and have a short juvenile period, maturing quickly. Males mature at about 53–63 mm at four years of age, females mature at about 55–68 mm at about five years of age. Red salamanders live in springs or streams during the winter and disperse to and from these sites in the fall and spring.

Due to its semiaq

Social actions

In sociology, social action known as Weberian social action, is an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals. According to Max Weber, "an Action is'social' if the acting individual takes account of the behavior of others and is thereby oriented in its course"; the basic concept was developed in the non-positivist theory of Max Weber to observe how human behaviors relate to cause and effect in the social realm. For Weber, sociology is the study of society and behavior and must therefore look at the heart of interaction; the theory of social action, more than structural functionalist positions and assumes that humans vary their actions according to social contexts and how it will affect other people. Action can mean either a basic action or an advanced social action, which not only has a meaning but is directed at other actors and causes action.... The science whose object is to interpret the meaning of social action and thereby give a causal explanation of the way in which the action proceeds and the effects which it produces.

By'action' in this definition is meant the human behavior when and to the extent that the agent or agents see it as subjectively meaningful... the meaning to which we refer may be either the meaning intended either by an individual agent on a particular historical occasion or by a number of agents on an approximate average in a given set of cases, or the meaning attributed to the agent or agents, as types, in a pure type constructed in the abstract. In neither case is the'meaning' to be thought of as somehow objectively'correct' or'true' by some metaphysical criterion; this is the difference between the empirical sciences of action, such as sociology and history, any kind of priori discipline, such as jurisprudence, ethics, or aesthetics whose aim is to extract from their subject-matter'correct' or'valid' meaning. The term is more practical and encompassing than Florian Znaniecki's "social phenomena", since the individual performing social action is not passive, but rather active and reactive.

Although Weber himself used the word'agency', in modern social science this term is appropriated with a given acceptance of Weberian conceptions of social action, unless a work intends to make the direct allusion. Similarly,'reflexivity' is used as a shorthand to refer to the circular relationship of cause and effect between structure and agency which Weber was integral in hypothesising. Rational actions: actions which are taken because it leads to a valued goal, but with no thought of its consequences and without consideration of the appropriateness of the means chosen to achieve it. Value rational or Instrumentally rational social action is divided into two groups: rational consideration and rational orientation. Rational consideration is; this is considered alternative means when secondary consequences have ended. Determining this mean of action is quite hard and incompatible. Rational orientation is being able to recognize and understand certain mediums under common conditions. According to Weber, heterogeneous actors and groups that are competing, find it hard to settle on a certain medium and understand the common social action.

An example would be a high school student preparing for life as a lawyer. The student knows that in order to get into college, they must take the appropriate tests and fill out the proper forms to get into college and do well in college in order to get into law school and realize their goal of becoming a lawyer. If the student chooses not to do well in college, they know that it will be difficult to get into law school and achieve the goal of being a lawyer, thus the student must take the appropriate steps to reach the ultimate goal. Another example would be most economic transactions. Value Relation is divided into the subgroups demands. According to the law, people are given commands and must use the whole system of private laws to break down the central government or domination in the legal rights in which a citizen possess. Demands can be based on justice or human dignity just for morality; these demands have posed several problems legal formalism has been put to the test. These demands seem to weigh at times can make them feel immoral.

The rational choice approach to religion draws a close analogy between religion and the market economy. Religious firms compete against one another to offer religious products and services to consumers, who choose between the firms. To the extent that there are many religious firms competing against each other, they will tend to specialize and cater to the particular needs of some segments of religious consumers; this specialization and catering in turn increase the number of religious consumers engaged in the religious economy. This proposition has been confirmed in a number of empirical studies, it is well known that strict churches are strong and growing in the contemporary United States, whereas liberal ones are declining. For Iannaccone's religious experience is a jointly produced collective good, thus members of a church face a collective action problem. Strict churches, which impose costly and esoteric requirements on th

Benjamin Goldwasser

Benjamin Nicholas Hunter Goldwasser is an American songwriter and musician in the psychedelic rock band MGMT, for which he plays keyboards and sings. In 2009, his song "Electric Feel", remixed by Justice, won a Grammy Award in the Grammy Award for Best Remixed Recording, Non-Classical category. In 2010, his band was nominated for a Grammy as Best New Artist and Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals. Goldwasser was born in Mishawaka, the son of Rachel Hunter and David Goldwasser, he was raised in New York. Goldwasser is Jewish on his father's side; when he was eleven years old, he saw Adrian Belew live in concert, met guitarist Rob Fetters backstage. He began piano lessons with his grandmother and mother, played in his high school's jazz band, attended a "rock and roll camp" in Montpelier, Vermont. One of his musical influences in high school was the electronic protopunk band Suicide. Goldwasser met Andrew VanWyngarden, the other half of MGMT, in his freshman year at Wesleyan University.

Goldwasser was studying Music at the time. While in college, he was a member of a college society, he helped run the society's music venue. Goldwasser a keyboardist, took experimental music classes from composer Ron Kuivila with VanWyngarden which exposed them to progressive musical ideas, they made their debut as MGMT at a party in a college dormitory. The duo would email one another and sign the emails "The MGMT" as a way of satirizing corporate culture, they chose this email signature line as the name of their new band. After graduating from college in 2005, Goldwasser and VanWyngarden moved to New York City, experimenting with music and building a band, they went on tour, opening for Of Montreal. But no record deal came, the band was on hiatus by 2006. Goldwasser began working on a farm and was intending to move to California when the duo was signed by Columbia Records; the band's 2008 release for the label, Oracular Spectacular, was a major success. However, the band's sudden success, Goldwasser says, put a serious strain on his friendship with VanWyngarden for a time.

The band released its second album, Congratulations, in April 2010 to positive reviews. Additionally, in 2013, they released their third studio album, self-titled MGMT. In 2014, along with psychedelic band Foxygen was featured on The Flaming Lips cover album, With A Little Help From My Fwends, on track 12. Ben Goldwasser on IMDb

Champagne (2014 film)

Champagne is a 2014 Nigerian romantic thriller film and directed by Emem Isong. It stars Majid Michel, Alexx Ekubo, Mbong Amata, Susan Peters, Tana Adelana, Kokotso Charlotte, introduces Rosemary Zimu as Champagne; this is Emem Isong's first film as a director. The film tells the story of a young couple, who are in an "open marriage", they meet Mr Douglas, who takes them on an unexpected ride. Alexx Ekubo as Tare Hopewell Rosemary Zimu as Champagne Majid Michel as Mr Douglas Mbong Amata as Susan Peters as Tana Adelana as Kokotso Charlotte as Padita Agu as Anita Chris as On the title of the film "Champagne", Isong states: "I just wanted to do something, a bit associated with glitz and glamour, so I decided to name the lead character'Champagne'. There's nothing more to it"; the film was shot in South Africa and Houston, Texas in the United States. Shooting in South Africa in particular, posed a challenge, as the Isong had never worked in the country before now. Champagne is Emem Isong's first film as a director.

The theatrical trailer of Champagne was released on 19 November 2014. The film premiered in Lagos on 19 December 2014, started showing at the cinemas on the same day, it premiered in the United Kingdom in March 2015. The film so far has received negative critical reviews, Rosemary Zimu's performance has however been commended by most critics. Nollywood Reinvented rated the film 46%, concluding: "Alexx Ekubo and Rosemary Zimu played off each other’s strength and were able to hold the movie together in their scenes. Alexx is improving as an actor and Rosemary does pretty well for a new actress though they both could have explored deeper into the emotions". Oris Aigbokhaevbolo of True Nollywood Stories gave a negative review, commenting: "An exploration of that tension between marital duties and financial necessities could take up the duration of a movie, but not with this attention-deficit fare. An unconvincing thriller in romance, near-comic clothing, it seems no one told the actors. Save for South African newcomer Rosemary Zimu, the actors look unprepared for the film’s turning point moment.

Emem Isong’s Champagne Fails To Pop". Samod Biobaku panned the film and performances from the actors, commenting: "In this movie, Emem struggles with creative consistency. From the lighting to the shallow dialogues and this rolls into a plot, so loose, it becomes painfully disjointed. Midway into the movie, the feeling that you could walk out of the cinema hall and ask a friend to tell you what happened afterwards proved a realistic option; the story grips the highway of a saccharine-littered storyline that falls, trips, takes flight, trips again, breaks down and somehow, manages to hurl its bulky frame across the finish-line where conflicts are resolved". List of Nigerian films of 2014 Champagne trailer on YouTube