Monument istoric, a historic monument, is the Romanian term of designation for National Heritage Sites in Romania. A Monument istoric is defined as, an architectural or sculptural work, having significant cultural heritage value, and of immovable scale. Perpetuating the memory of an event, place, or historical personality, monumente istorice cultural properties include listed Romanian historical monuments from the National Register of Historic Monuments in Romania. They may include places that are not specifically listed in whole, inventory There are 29,540 designated monumente istorice entries listed individually in Romania, as of 2010. ro, Register for specialists. Monumente istorice in Romania Map with historical monuments in Sibiu Website of the Romanian National Institute of Historical Monuments
The Dacians were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians. Dacians were the ancient inhabitants of Dacia, located in the area in and around the Carpathian Mountains and this area includes the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Ukraine, Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia and Southern Poland. The Dacians were known as Geta in Ancient Greek writings, and as Dacus or Getae in Roman documents and it was Herodotus who first used the ethnonym Getae in his Histories. In Greek and Latin, in the writings of Julius Caesar and Pliny the Elder and Dacians were interchangeable terms, or used with some confusion by the Greeks. Latin poets often used the name Getae, vergil called them Getae four times, and Daci once, Lucian Getae three times and Daci twice, Horace named them Getae twice and Daci five times, while Juvenal one time Getae and two times Daci. In AD113, Hadrian used the poetic term Getae for the Dacians, modern historians prefer to use the name Geto-Dacians.
Strabo describes the Getae and Dacians as distinct but cognate tribes and this distinction refers to the regions they occupied. Strabo and Pliny the Elder state that Getae and Dacians spoke the same language, by contrast, the name of Dacians, whatever the origin of the name, was used by the more western tribes who adjoined the Pannonians and therefore first became known to the Romans. According to Strabos Geographica, the name of the Dacians was Δάοι Daoi. The name Daoi was certainly adopted by foreign observers to designate all the inhabitants of the north of Danube that had not yet been conquered by Greece or Rome. The ethnographic name Daci is found under various forms within ancient sources, Greeks used the forms Δάκοι Dakoi and Δάοι Daoi. The form Δάοι Daoi was frequently used according to Stephan of Byzantium, latins used the forms Davus, and a derived form Dacisci. There are similarities between the ethnonyms of the Dacians and those of Dahae, an Indo-European people located east of the Caspian Sea, scholars have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since ancient times.
The historian David Gordon White has, stated that the Dacians, appear to be related to the Dahae. The name Daci, or Dacians is a collective ethnonym, Dio Cassius reported that the Dacians themselves used that name, and the Romans so called them, while the Greeks called them Getae. Opinions on the origins of the name Daci are divided, one hypothesis is that the name Getae originates in the Indo-European *guet- to utter, to talk. Another hypothesis is that Getae and Daci are Iranian names of two Iranian-speaking Scythian groups that had assimilated into the larger Thracian-speaking population of the Dacia. In the 1st century AD, Strabo suggested that its stem formed a name borne by slaves, Greek Daos
Hunedoara is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with its capital city at Deva. The county is part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion, in Hungarian, it is known as Hunyad megye, in German as Kreis Hunedoara, and in Slovak as Hunedoara. In 2011, the county had a population of 396,253, romanians -93. 31% Hungarians -4. 09% Romani -1. 9% Germans 0. 25%. This county has an area of 7,063 km². Mainly, the relief is made up of mountains, divided by the Mureș River valley which crosses the county from East to West. Except from the Mureș River with its tributaries Strei, Râul Mare and Cerna which forms wide valleys, in the North side Crișul Alb River forms a valley in the Apuseni Mountains - Zarand region. In the South side along the Jiu River with its two branches Jiul de Vest and Jiul de Est, there is a depression. Alba County in the East and North, arad County, Timiș County and Caraș-Severin County in the West. Hunedoara County was one of the most industrialised areas during the communist period, the industry in the Hunedoara county is linked with the mining activity in the region.
In the mountains, from ancient times and coal have been exploited, there is one large industrial complex at Hunedoara owned by Mittal Steel. Also energy related enterprises are located in the county - one of the biggest thermoelectric plant is located at Mintia and this was a blow to the overall prosperity of the town, which is now recovering through new investments. Agricultural activities take place in Hunedoara county, which include livestock raising, the county has touristic potential, especially through the Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains and the Corvin Castle. The predominant industries in the county are, Metallurgy, in the 1990s, a large amount of mines were closed down, leaving Hunedoara county with the highest unemployment rate in Romania, of 9. 6%, in comparison to the national average of 5. 5%. Retezat National Park and other picturesque regions makes it one of the most beautiful counties in Romania, there can be found Dacian and Roman complexes in the Orăştie Mountains.
The main tourist attractions in the county are, The Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains - nowadays part of UNESCO World Heritage, colonia Augusta Ulpia Traiana Dacica Sarmizegetusa - the capital of the Roman province of Dacia. The medieval edifices of Densuș, Hunedoara, Santămaria-Orlea, although Hunedoara County is the most urbanized county in Romania it does not contain any city of more than 100.000 people. Also, following the de-industrialization after the fall, the major urban centres in the county, particularly Hunedoara and Petroșani
King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, in the context of prehistory and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin rex or either Greek archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood as the highest rank in the order, potentially subject. In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies. The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs, in the West prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East sultan or emir, etc. Kings, like other royalty, tend to wear purple because purple was a color to wear in the past. The English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz, the Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as kuningas.
The English term king translates, and is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx, the Germanic term is notably different from the word for king in other Indo-European languages. It is a derivation from the term *kunjom kin by the -inga- suffix, the literal meaning is that of a scion of the kin, or perhaps son or descendant of one of noble birth. English queen translates Latin regina, it is from Old English cwen queen, noble woman, the Germanic term for wife appears to have been specialized to wife of a king, in Old Norse, the cognate kvan still mostly refers to a wife generally. Scandinavian drottning, dronning is a derivation from *druhtinaz lord. The English word is of Germanic origin, and historically refers to Germanic kingship, the Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. The core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the kingdom of France, the Holy Roman Empire, in southern Europe, the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy.
The Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217, in eastern-central Europe, the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars. The kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, in Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia. In northern Europe, the kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great, king of Denmark, England
Murus Dacicus is a construction method for defensive walls and fortifications developed in ancient Dacia sometime before the Roman conquest. After each layer of the walls was completed, the gap between them would be filled with gravel and rocks cemented together with clay and compacted. A properly built Dacian Wall would be both labor-intensive and time-consuming, a typical wall for the late period, hastily built in the years between the two Dacian Wars, would be about 3–4 meters thick and 10 m tall, an outstanding achievement in the given conditions. The Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains, UNESCO World Heritage Sites are examples of citadels built using this method, the Dacian walls are depicted on the Trajans column in Rome. Davae Hill fort Murus Gallicus Oppidum Pfostenschlitzmauer Media related to Dacia and Dacians at Wikimedia Commons
Burebista was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 44 BC. He was the first king who unified the tribes of the Dacian kingdom. The Dacian kingdom comprises the area located between the Danube and Dniester rivers and covering modern day Romania. In the 7th and 6th Centuries BC it became home to the Thracian peoples, including Getae, from the 4th century to the middle of the 2nd century BC the Dacian peoples were influenced by La Tène Celts who brought new technologies with them into Dacia. Sometime in the 2nd century BC, the Dacians expelled the Celts from their lands, Dacians often warred with the Getae, the relative isolation of the Dacian peoples located around the Carpathian mountains allowed them to survive and even to thrive. By the 1st century BC, the Dacians had become the dominant tribe, as king Burebista pursued both reform and conquest. His second in command, was responsible for the development of religious, creating a caste of priests, brought about sobriety into the Dacian kingdom, and unified the tribes.
During this time Burebista built a system of citadels throughout the Orăştie Mountains and these citadels were of a Greek military architecture. Their function was to secure the obedience of the Dacian peoples internally, from 61 BC onwards, Burebista pursued a series of conquests that expanded the Dacian kingdom. The tribes of the Boii and Taurisci were destroyed early in his campaigns, further pursuing the conquest of the Bastarnae and he led raids throughout Thrace and Illyria. In 61 BC he may have involved in the Battle of Histria. From 55 BC, the Greek cities on coast of the Black Sea were conquered one after another and these campaigns inevitably culminated in conflict with Rome in 48 BC when Burebista gave his support to Pompey. In turn this made him an enemy to Caesar who became determined to start a campaign against Dacia and this plan fell through in 44 BC when he was assassinated. Soon after, Burebista himself was assassinated in a plot by the tribal aristocracy, after Burebistas death, the empire he had created dissolved into smaller kingdoms.
From the reign of Tiberius to Domitian, Dacian activity was reduced into a defensive state, the Romans abandoned plans of mounting an invasion against Dacia. In 86 AD, the king Decebalus successfully re-united the Dacian kingdom under his control, Domitian planned a hasty invasion against the Dacians which ended in disaster. A second invasion brought peace between Rome and Dacia for nearly a decade, until in 98 AD Trajan became emperor, Trajan pursued two conquests of Dacia, the first in 101–102 AD which concluded in a Roman victory. Decebalus was forced to agree to terms of peace, but
Zalmoxis is a supposed divinity of the Getae and Dacians, mentioned by Herodotus in his Histories Book IV, 93–96, written before 425 BC. According to Jordaness Getica, he was a man, before whom. Herodotus writes about Zalmoxis in book 4 of his Histories,93. the Getae are the bravest of the Thracians and the most just. They believe they are immortal forever living in the sense, they think they do not die and that the one who dies joins Zalmoxis. Every four years, they send a messenger to Zalmoxis, who is chosen by chance and they ask him to tell Zalmoxis what they want on that occasion. If he dies pierced, they think that the divinity is going to them, if he does not die, it is he who is accused. And, after he has charged, they send another one. The messenger is told the requests while he is still alive, the same Thracians, on other occasions, when he thunders and lightens, shoot with arrows up in the air against the sky and menace the divinity because they think there is no god other than their own.
Herodotus asserts that Zalmoxis was originally a human being, a slave who converted the Thracians to his beliefs, the Greeks of the Hellespont and the Black Sea tell that Zalmoxis was a slave of Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchos, on the island of Samos. After being liberated, he gathered huge wealth and, once rich, Zalmoxis had lived among the wisest of Greeks, such as Pythagoras, and had been initiated into Ionian life and the Eleusinian Mysteries. He built a hall, and received the chiefs and his fellow countrymen at a banquet. He taught that neither his guests nor their descendants would ever die and he dug an underground residence. When it was finished, he disappeared from Thrace, living for three years in his underground residence, the Thracians missed him and wept fearing him dead. The fourth year, he came back among them and thus they believed what Zalmoxis had told them, Zalmoxis may have lived much earlier than Pythagoras and was rumored either to be a divine being or from the country of the Getae.
Scholars have several different theories about this account by Herodotus the disappearance, Herodotus is mocking the barbarian beliefs of the Getae. Zalmoxis created a ritual of passage and this theory is mainly supported by Mircea Eliade, who wrote the first coherent interpretation of the Zalmoxis myth. Zalmoxis is related to Pythagoras, stating that he founded a mystical cult and this theory may be found in Eliades work. Zalmoxis is a Christ-like figure who dies and is resurrected and this position was defended by Jean Coman, a professor of patristics and Orthodox priest, who was a friend of Mircea Eliade and published in Eliades journal Zalmoxis, which appeared in the 1930s
Trajan's Dacian Wars
The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Roman Emperor Trajans rule. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian Roman Province of Moesia, in AD85, the Dacians swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia and initially defeated the army that Emperor Domitian sent against them. The Romans were defeated in the Battle of Tapae in 88, Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles, defeated the Dacian King Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101. With Trajans troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, Decebalus once more sought terms, Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in 105. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia, besieging the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegetusa, with Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east, his conquests expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent.
Romes borders in the east were governed through a system of client states for some time. Since the reign of Burebista, widely considered to be the greatest Dacian king—who ruled between 82 BC and 44 BC—the Dacians had represented a threat for the Roman Empire, caesar himself had drawn up a plan to launch a campaign against Dacia. The threat was reduced when dynastic struggles in Dacia led to a division into four separately governed tribal states after Burebistas death in 44 BC. Augustus came into conflict with Dacia after they sent envoys offering their support against Mark Antony in exchange for requests, Augustus rejected the offer and Dacia gave their support to Antony. In 29 BC, Augustus sent several expeditions into Dacia led by Marcus Licinius Crassus that inflicted heavy casualties. Although Dacian raids into Pannonia and Moesia continued for years despite the defeat. The Roman emperor Domitian led legions into the province and reorganized the possession into Moesia Inferior and Moesia Superior.
The next year, with the arrival of fresh legions in 87 AD, general Diurpaneus sent an envoy to Domitian offering peace. He was rejected and the praetorian prefect Cornelius Fuscus crossed the Danube into Dacia with 5 or 6 legions on a built on boats. The Roman army was ambushed and defeated at the First Battle of Tapae by Diurpaneus who was subsequently renamed Decebalus, Fuscus was killed and the legions lost their standards, adding to the humiliation. After this battle Decebalus, now the king of the four reunited arms of the Dacians asked for peace which was again refused, throughout the 1st century, Roman policy dictated that threats from neighbouring nations and provinces were to be contained promptly. The peace treaty following the First Battles of Tapae, followed by an indecisive, following the peace of 89 AD, Decebalus became a client of Rome, with acceptance of Decebalus as king. He received a sum of money, annual financial stipends
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine. By the use of such places as a haven, by extension the term has come to be used for any place of safety. This secondary use can be categorized into human sanctuary, a place for humans, such as a political sanctuary. The meaning was extended to places of holiness or safety, a religious sanctuary may be a sacred place, or a consecrated area of a church or temple around its tabernacle or altar. Examples are St. Peters Basilica in Rome and St. Albans Cathedral in England, the place, and therefore the church built there, was considered to have been sanctified by what happened there. In modern times, the Catholic Church has continued this practice by placing in the altar of each church, when it is consecrated for use, the relics box is removed when the church is taken out of use as a church. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the antimension on the altar serves a similar function and it is a cloth icon of Christs body taken down from the cross, and typically has the relics of a saint sewn into it.
In addition, it is signed by the bishop, and represents his authorization. In many Western traditions altar rails sometimes mark the edge of the sanctuary or chancel, in many churches the architectural term chancel covers the same area as the sanctuary, and either term may be used. In some Protestant churches, the term denotes the entire worship area while the term chancel is used to refer to the area around the altar-table. In other Oriental Orthodox traditions, a curtain is used. In most modern synagogues, the room for prayer is known as the sanctuary, to contrast it with smaller rooms dedicated to various other services. When referring to prosecution of crimes, sanctuary can mean one of the following, Church sanctuary A sacred place, such as a church, in which fugitives formerly were immune to arrest. While the practice of churches offering sanctuary is still observed in the modern era, political sanctuary Immunity to arrest afforded by a sovereign authority. People seeking political sanctuary typically do so by asking a sovereign authority for asylum, many ancient peoples recognized a religious right of asylum, protecting criminals from legal action and from exile to some extent.
This principle was adopted by the early Christian church, and various rules developed for what the person had to do to qualify for protection and just how much protection it was. By Norman times, there had come to be two kinds of sanctuary, All churches had the kind, but only the churches the king licensed had the broader version. The medieval system of asylum was finally abolished entirely in England by James I in 1623, a prime example is Queen Elizabeth Woodville, consort of Edward IV of England
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek writer, known as a mathematician, geographer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in a statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is a very late attestation and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria. Ptolemy wrote several treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning Four Books or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen, the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemys family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius who was responsible for granting citizenship, if, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD41 and 68. The astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown and it occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. All the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were Ptolemies, abu Mashar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy. The correct answer is not known”, Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data. He was a Roman citizen, but most scholars conclude that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek and he was often known in Arabic sources as the Upper Egyptian, suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt.
Later Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic, Ptolemys Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy presented his models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. The Almagest contains a catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus
For the extinct cephalopod genus, see Andesites. Andesite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition. In a general sense, it is the type between basalt and dacite, and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide as illustrated in TAS diagrams. The mineral assemblage is dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende. Magnetite, apatite, ilmenite and garnet are common accessory minerals, alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst, hornblende-phyric andesite, if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. Andesite can be considered as the equivalent of plutonic diorite. Characteristic of subduction zones, andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs, the average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Along with basalts they are a component of the Martian crust. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range, magmatism in island arc regions comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge, the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates.
During subduction, the oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole, chlorite etc. dehydrate as they change to more stable, anhydrous forms, releasing water, fluxing water into the wedge lowers the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. Due to the density of the partially molten material, it rises through the wedge until it reaches the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Basalt thus formed can contribute to the formation of andesite through fractional crystallization, partial melting of crust, or magma mixing, andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes, Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma and this removal can take place in a variety of ways, but most commonly this occurs by crystal settling. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a parent are olivines and amphiboles.
These mafic minerals settle out of the magma, forming mafic cumulates, there is geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust