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Daegu

Daegu spelled Taegu and known as the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth-largest after Seoul and Incheon, the third-largest metropolitan area in the nation with over 2.5 million residents. Daegu and surrounding North Gyeongsang Province are referred to as Daegu-Gyeongbuk, with a total population over 5 million. Daegu is located in south-eastern Korea about 80 km from the seacoast, near the Geumho River and its mainstream, Nakdong River in Gyeongsang-do; the Daegu basin is the central plain of the Yeongnam region. In ancient times, the Daegu area was part of the proto-kingdom Jinhan. Subsequently Daegu came under the control of the Silla Kingdom. During the Joseon Dynasty period, the city was the capital of Gyeongsang-do, one of the traditional eight provinces of the country. Daegu was an economic motor of Korea during the 1960s–1980s period and was known for its electronics industry; the humid subtropical climate of Daegu is ideal for producing high-quality apples, thus the nickname, "Apple City".

Daegu is known as "Textile City". Textiles used to be the pillar industry of the city. With the establishment of the Daegu-Gyeongbuk Free Economic Zone, Daegu is focusing on fostering fashion and high-tech industries. Daegu was the host city of the 22nd World Energy Congress, the 2011 World Championships in Athletics, the 2003 Summer Universiade, it hosted four matches in the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Daegu hosted the World Masters Indoor Championships on March 19–25, 2017. More than 4600 athletes worldwide competed. Archaeological investigations in the Greater Daegu area have revealed a large number of settlements and burials of the prehistoric Mumun Pottery Period. In fact, some of the earliest evidence of Mumun settlement in Gyeongsangdo have been excavated from Siji-dong and Seobyeon-dong. Dongcheon-dong is one of the substantial Mumun agricultural villages; the Dongcheon-dong site dates back to the Middle Mumun and contains the remains of many prehistoric pit-houses and agricultural fields. Megalithic burials have been found in large numbers in Daegu.

Ancient historical texts indicate that during the Proto–Three Kingdoms period, Daegu was the site of a chiefdom or walled-town polity known from that time, according to historical records, as Dalgubeol. It was absorbed into the kingdom of Silla no than the fifth century; the vestiges of the wall can be seen, relics have been excavated in the current Dalseong Park. Silla succeeded in unifying the Korean peninsula by defeating the other kingdoms of Baekje and Koguryo in the late seventh century due to assistance from China's Tang Dynasty. Shortly thereafter, in 689, Silla's King Sinmun considered moving the capital from Gyeongju to Daegu, but was unable to do so; this initiative is known only through a single line in the Samguk Sagi, a most valued historical record of ancient Korea by Koryeo Dynasty historian Kim Bu-sik, but it is presumed to indicate both an attempt by the Silla king to reinforce royal authority and the entrenched resistance of the Gyeongju political elites, the cause of the move's failure.

The city was given its current name in 757. In the late 1990s, archaeologists excavated a large-scale fortified Silla site in Dongcheon-dong, Buk-gu; the site at Locality 2 consists of the remains of 39 raised-floor buildings enclosed by a formidable ditch-and-palisade system. The excavators hypothesize that the fortified site was barracks. Archaeologists uncovered a large Silla village dating to the sixth to seventh centuries AD at Siji-dong. During the Later Three Kingdoms period, 892–936, Daegu was aligned with Hubaekje. In 927, northern Daegu was the site of the Battle of Gong Mountain between the forces of Goryeo under Wang Geon and those of Hubaekje under Gyeon Hwon. In this battle, the forces of Goryeo were crushed and Wang Geon himself was saved only by the heroic deed of his general Shin Sung-gyeom. However, the atrocities of the Hubaekje forces at this time changed local sympathizers to favor Wang Geon, who became the king of Goryeo. Numerous place names and local legends in the area still bear witness to the historic battle of 927.

Among these are "Ansim", which means "peace of mind", said to be the first place where Wang Geon dared to stop after escaping the battle, "Banwol", or half-moon, where he is said to have stopped and admired the moon before returning to Goryeo. A statue commemorating the battle now stands in northern Daegu. In the Goryeo period, the first edition of the Tripitaka Koreana was stored in Daegu, at the temple of Buinsa. However, this edition was destroyed when the temple was sacked in 1254, during the Mongol invasions of Korea. Daegu served as an important transportation center during the Joseon Dynasty, she stands in the mid part of the Great Yeongnam Road which ran between Busan. It lay at the junction of this arterial road and the roads to Jinju. In 1601, Daegu became the administrative capital of the Gyeongsang-do, current Daegu, Ulsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Gyeongsangnam-do. At about that time, the city began to grow into a major city; the status continued for nearly 300 years, the city has been transformed as the capital of Gyeongsangbuk-do since Gyeongsang-do was divided into two provinces, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Gyeongsangnam-do in 1896.

Daegu's first regular markets were established during the late Joseon period. The most famous of these is the Yangnyeongsi herbal me

King Tut's Wah Wah Hut

King Tut's Wah Wah Hut known as King Tut's, is a live music venue and bar on St. Vincent Street, Scotland, it is managed by Glasgow-based gig promoters DF Concerts. The Glasgow live music venue takes its name from a club in New York that hosted music and performing arts events in the 1980s. King Tut's was founded, in the former Saints and Sinners pub in St Vincent Street in the centre of Glasgow, by the DF Concerts boss Stuart Clumpas, who wanted to create a platform for promoting bands at club level, showcasing them with gigs seven days a week at a reasonable hour, after being unable to find such an establishment in the city centre's nightlife; the venue first opened its doors in February 1990, has established a reputation for showcasing new talent and hosting many well-known bands' first Scottish appearances. This reputation was acquired early on in 1993 when The Verve and Oasis all played in the Glasgow venue in a two-week period and it was in this time when Oasis were discovered and signed by the record label Creation.

According to the venue's manager, Dave McGeachan, the band "bullied their way on stage" after discovering that they would not be allowed to play despite traveling the long distance from Manchester. Colin MacIntyre, the singer-songwriter from the Scottish indie band Mull Historical Society was reported as claiming "you haven't made it unless you've played Tut's"; the appeal and popularity of King Tut's has been credited to "its consistency and dedication to bringing a cross-section of different styles to Glasgow's doorstep"Others who have played gigs at King Tut's early in their careers include Fiona Apple, Biffy Clyro, Beck, Crowded House, White Stripes, The Strokes, Franz Ferdinand, Skunk Anansie and Travis, who played the live music venue under their original name of Glass Onion. In 1999 King Tut's decided to branch out with the launch of a monthly comedy night where comedians, including the likes of Phil Kay, Lynn Ferguson and Fred MacAulay have taken to the stage, alongside some of Scotland's rising young comics.

In February 2000, the ten-year anniversary of the Glasgow live music venue was celebrated with a series of one-off concerts and surprise guests running over ten days. Due to the success of the event, a £25,000 refurbishment of the upstairs bar was completed. In November 2001, King Tut's was named Licensed Music Pub of the Year by the Scottish Licensed Trade News, it applied for a 1am licence, which gave more time for performances. In 2005, King Tut's held "The Best Scottish Bands of All Time" night, which featured acts such as Snow Patrol, Eugene Kelly, Colin MacIntyre. From 17 to 21 December 2008, Idlewild performed a series of live shows at the venue, playing each of their albums on consecutive nights. King Tut's Wah Wah Hut played host to the Homecoming Scotland 2009 Finale Celebrations in conjunction with the Clyde Auditorium. In November 2017, the venue served as the location of the music video to former Oasis frontman Liam Gallagher's single "Come Back To Me". King Tut's King Tut's Wah Wah Tent at in Scotland's biggest annual music festival, T in the Park, hosting many big acts.

Their founder, Stuart Clumpas, now runs the festival. Over the years, acts such as the Manic Street Preachers, Teenage Fanclub, Snow Patrol, Primal Scream, Queens Of The Stone Age, The Futureheads, The View, Jamie T, Dum Dums, Goldfinger, Twin Atlantic and the Pet Shop Boys have all performed on the stage. Manic Street Preachers dedicated a song on stage to King Tut's after lead guitarist and vocalist James Dean Bradfield stated that "King Tut's was the first venue to treat us properly and give us hot food on tour". Many famous acts have performed at King Tut's, including Amy Macdonald, Rage Against the Machine, Biffy Clyro, Blur, Pulp, The Verve, Crowded House, Average White Band, Chuck Prophet, Beck. Several performers have praised King Tut's variety such as Paolo Nutini who said: "I’ve never seen a big band at King Tut’s, you know that? But it's the kind of place. One night they’ll have a great band playing their ass off and the next there’ll be a nice acoustic thing on. One gig I remember seeing there is Matt Berry, from The Mighty Garth Marenghi.

That just shows what a range of stuff you can find in Tut’s.". In 2017 The View played a record run of six sold-out shows at the venue. In 2011, singer-songwriter Tom McRae released an extended live album entitled Tom at Tut's featuring songs and banter from his gigs on two consecutive nights in November 2004. Official website Profile page of the venue at The List

Battle of Alnwick (1174)

The Battle of Alnwick is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick, in Northumberland, England. In the battle, which occurred on 13 July 1174, William I of Scotland known as William the Lion, was captured by a small English force led by Ranulf de Glanvill. William had inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However, he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157, he spent much of his reign trying to regain his lost territory. In 1173, whilst Henry II was occupied in fighting against his sons in the Revolt of 1173–1174, William saw his opportunity and invaded Northumbria, he advanced on Newcastle but found the built stone castle too strong to allow him to take the town. He attacked Prudhoe Castle but found the defences too strong. Unwilling to undertake a lengthy siege, William returned to Scotland. In 1174, William again invaded Northumbria with an larger army that included a contingent of Flemish mercenaries; the army was said to have numbered eighty thousand men, but this is certainly an exaggeration.

This time he attacked Prudhoe Castle again. The castle had been strengthened since the previous year and after a siege of three days William moved north to besiege Alnwick. William divided his army into three columns and one of these, under the command of Duncan, Earl of Fife, attacked Warkworth and set fire to the church of St Lawrence with a large number of refugees inside. William made the fatal error of allowing his army to spread out, instead of concentrating them around his base at Alnwick. On the night of 11 July, a party of about four hundred mounted knights, led by Ranulf de Glanvill, set out from Newcastle and headed towards Alnwick; this small fighting force contained several seasoned knights, who had fought against the Scots before. They reached Alnwick shortly after dawn after becoming lost in heavy fog. There they found William’s encampment, where the Scottish king was only protected by a bodyguard of sixty fighting men. At the sound of alarm, William hurriedly prepared to fight.

The English force charged and the Scottish king and his bodyguard met the charge head on. The fighting did not last long. William’s horse was killed beneath him and he was captured; those of his followers who had not been killed surrendered. William was brought back to Newcastle as a captive, his army found itself wandered back to Scotland. William was held at Newcastle for a time but it was not considered strong enough, he was moved to Falaise in Normandy. Whilst he was there, Henry sent an army to occupy part of Scotland, with its five strongest castles: Roxburgh, Jedburgh and Stirling. To obtain his freedom, William was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise, under which he swore an oath of allegiance to the English king and agreed to the garrisoning of the captured castles by English soldiers at Scottish expense; when William was released, after signing the treaty, he travelled back to Scotland via Newcastle, was attacked by a mob. The Treaty of Falaise lasted for fifteen years until Richard the Lionheart sold the castle back to William in order to fund his crusade to the Holy Land.

This was the last attempt by a Scottish king to regain lost territories in northern England. In 1237, under the Treaty of York, Alexander II of Scotland abandoned his forefathers’ claims to Northumbria and Cumbria, set the boundary between the two kingdoms as running between the Solway Firth, the mouth of the River Tweed, as it still does today. David Winter, Peter Milne, Jonathan Brown, Alan Rushworth, Newcastle upon Tyne, Northern Heritage Consultancy Ltd ISBN 1-872346-00-6 John Sadler, Battle for Northumbria, Bridge Studios ISBN 0-9512630-3-X