SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Korean language

The Korean language is an East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people. It is a member of the Koreanic language family and is the official and national language of both Koreas: North Korea and South Korea, with different standardized official forms used in each country, it is a recognised minority language in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of Jilin province, China. It is spoken in parts of Sakhalin and Central Asia. Historical and modern linguists classify Korean; the linguistic homeland of Korean is suggested to be somewhere in Manchuria. Modern Korean descends from Middle Korean, which in turn descends from Old Korean, which descends from the Proto-Koreanic language, suggested to have its linguistic homeland somewhere in Manchuria. Whitman suggests that the proto-Koreans present in northern Korea, expanded into the southern part of the Korean Peninsula at around 300 BC and coexisted with the descendants of the Japonic Mumun cultivators.

Both had influence on each other and a founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families. Chinese characters arrived in Korea together with Buddhism during the Proto-Three Kingdoms era in the 1st century BC, it was adapted for Korean and became known as Hanja, remained as the main script for writing Korean through over a millennium alongside various phonetic scripts that were invented such as Idu and Hyangchal. Privileged elites were educated to read and write in Hanja. However, most of the population was illiterate. In the 15th century, King Sejong the Great developed an alphabetic featural writing system known today as Hangul, he felt that Hanja was inadequate to write Korean and that this was the cause of its restricted use. Introduced in the document "Hunminjeongeum", it was called "eonmun" and spread nationwide to increase literacy in Korea. Hangul was used by all the Korean classes but treated as "amkeul" and disregarded by privileged elites, whereas Hanja was regarded as "jinseo".

Official documents were always written in Hanja during the Joseon era. Since most people couldn't understand Hanja, Korean kings sometimes released public notices written in Hangul as early as the 16th century for all Korean classes, including uneducated peasants and slaves. By the 17th century, Korean elites Yangban and their slaves exchanged Hangul letters. Today, Hanja is unused in everyday life due to its inconvenience, but it is still important for historical and linguistic studies. Neither South Korea or North Korea opposes the learning of Hanja, though they are not used in North Korea anymore, their usage in South Korea is reserved for specific circumstances, such as newspapers, scholarly papers, disambiguation. Since the Korean War, through 70 years of separation, North–South differences have developed in standard Korean, including variations in pronunciation and vocabulary chosen, but these minor differences can be found in any of the Korean dialects and still mutually intelligible.

The Korean names for the language are based on the names for Korea used in both South Korea and North Korea. The English word "Korean" is derived from Goryeo, thought to be the first Korean dynasty known to Western nations. Korean people in the former USSR refer to themselves as Koryo-saram and/or Koryo-in, call the language Koryo-mal. In South Korea, the Korean language is referred to by many names including hanguk-eo, hanguk-mal and uri-mal. In "hanguk-eo" and "hanguk-mal", the first part of the word, "hanguk" was taken from the name of the Korean Empire; the "Han" in Hanguk and Daehan Jeguk is derived from Samhan, in reference to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, while "-eo" and "-mal" mean "language" and "speech", respectively. Korean is simply referred to as guk-eo "national language"; this name is based on the same Han characters, meaning "nation" + "language", that are used in Taiwan and Japan to refer to their respective national languages. In North Korea and China, the language is most called Joseon-mal, or more formally, Joseon-o.

This is taken from the North Korean name for Korea, a name retained from the Joseon dynasty until the proclamation of the Korean Empire, which in turn was annexed by the Empire of Japan. In mainland China, following the establishment of diplomatic relations with South Korea in 1992, the term Cháoxiǎnyǔ or the short form Cháoyǔ has been used to refer to the standard language of North Korea and Yanbian, whereas Hánguóyǔ or the short form Hányǔ is used to refer to the standard language of South Korea; some older English sources use the spelling "Corea" to refer to the nation, its inflected form for the language and people, "Korea" becoming more popular in the late 1800s according to Google's NGram English corpus of 2015. Korean is considered by most linguists to be a language isolate, though it is included by proponents of the now rejected Altaic family. Al

Dolbogene

Dolbogene is a monotypic moth genus in the family Sphingidae erected by Walter Rothschild and Karl Jordan in 1903. Its only species, Dolbogene hartwegii, or Hartweg's sphinx, was first described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1875, it is found from Texas and southern Arizona to Guatemala. Only a small number have been caught and not much is known about the biology of this species; the wingspan is 54–61 mm. The upperside of the forewing is brown with a light round spot; the upperside of the hindwing has a dark spot and the forewing has a small dark patch. Adults have been recorded in August. James P. Tuttle: The Hawkmoths of North America, A Natural History Study of the Sphingidae of the United States and Canada, The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, DC 2007, ISBN 978-0-9796633-0-7

Hertford (UK Parliament constituency)

Hertford was the name of a parliamentary constituency in Hertfordshire, which elected Members of Parliament from 1298 until 1974. The Parliamentary Borough of Hertford was represented by two MPs in the House of Commons of England from 1298 to 1707 of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 onwards. Under the Boundaries Act of 1868, its representation was reduced to 1 MP; the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 abolished the Parliamentary Borough and it gave its name to one of four Divisions of the abolished three-member Parliamentary County of Hertfordshire, was formally named as the Eastern or Hertford Division of Hertfordshire. As well from the Borough of Hertford, the enlarged constituency included the towns of Ware, Bishop's Stortford and Hoddesdon, it remained unchanged until 1955, but was radically altered for the 1955 general election. It was abolished in 1974. 1885–1918: The Borough of Hertford, the Sessional Divisions of Bishop's Stortford and Cheshunt, parts of the Sessional Divisions of Hertford and Ware, in the Sessional Division of Aldbury the parishes of Great Hadham and Little Hadham.1918–1950: The Borough of Hertford, the Urban Districts of Bishop's Stortford, Hoddesdon and Ware, the Rural Districts of Hadham and Ware, in the Rural District of Hertford the parishes of Bayford, Bengeo Rural, Bengeo Urban, Brickendon Liberty, Brickendon Rural, Little Amwell, Little Berkhamsted, St Andrew Rural, St John Rural and Tewin.

Minor changes. 1950–1955: The Borough of Hertford, the Urban Districts of Bishop's Stortford, Hoddesdon and Ware, the Rural District of Ware, in the Rural District of Braughing the parishes of Albury, Brent Pelham, Furneux Pelham, High Wych, Little Hadham, Much Hadham, Stocking Pelham, Thorley, in the Rural District of Hertford the parishes of Bayford, Bengeo Rural, Bengeo Urban, Brickendon Liberty, Brickendon Rural, Little Amwell, Little Berkhamsted, St Andrew Rural, St John Rural and Tewin. Nominal changes only to reflect changes to rural districts. 1955–1974: The Borough of Hertford, the Urban District of Welwyn Garden City, the Rural Districts of Hatfield and Welwyn. Significant changes with only the Municipal Borough and the part of the Rural District of Hertford retained; the remainder of the constituency formed the basis of the new County Constituency of East Hertfordshire. The Urban District of Welwyn Garden City and the Rural District of Welwyn were transferred from St Albans; the constituency was abolished in the redistribution taking effect for the February 1974 general election.

The Municipal Borough and Rural District of Hertford were included in the new County Constituency of Hertford and Stevenage, with remaining areas forming the new County Constituency of Welwyn and Hatfield. Cowper was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty. Cowper was appointed Civil Lord of the Admiralty. Cowper was appointed president of the General Board of Health. Cowper was appointed Vice-President of the Committee of the Council on Education, requiring a by-election. Cowper was appointed Vice-President of the Board of Trade. Cowper was appointed First Commissioner of Public Buildings, requiring a by-election. Townshend-Farquhar's death caused a by-election. Seat reduced to one member Balfour was appointed President of the Local Government Board, requiring a by-election. Smith's death caused a by-election. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.

General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected.