Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pisa
The Archdiocese of Pisa is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy. It was founded in the 4th century and elevated to the dignity of an archdiocese on 21 April 1092 and its mother church is the cathedral in the Piazza del Duomo. Since 2008 the Archbishop of Pisa has been Giovanni Paolo Benotto, from the late 12th to the early 13th century, the Pisan archdiocese was the feudal suzerain of the four giudicati of Sardinia. In 1092 Pope Urban II gave the archbishop of Pisa the title of Primate of Corsica, the title is nowadays honorary for historical reasons. Gaudentius, present at the Council of Rome St. Senior, Catholic Hierarchy page This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. Pisa
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was a conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies, at issue was who, the pope or monarchs, had the authority to appoint local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries. The conflict ended in 1122, when Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II agreed on the Concordat of Worms and it differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops. The outcome seemed mostly a victory for the Pope and his claim that he was Gods chief representative in the world, the Emperor did retain considerable power over the Church. The investiture controversy began as a struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. By undercutting the Imperial power established by the Salian emperors, the led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. Imperial power was finally re-established under the Hohenstaufen dynasty, historian Norman Cantor, The age of the investiture controversy may rightly be regarded as the turning-point in medieval civilization.
After the decline of the Roman Empire, and prior to the Investiture Controversy, while theoretically a task of the church, many bishops and abbots were themselves usually part of the ruling nobility. Since the eldest son would inherit the title, siblings often found careers in the church and this was particularly true where the family may have established a proprietary church or abbey on their estate. Since Otto the Great the bishops had been princes of the empire, had secured many privileges, the control of these great units of economic and military power was for the king a question of primary importance, affecting as it did imperial authority. It was essential for a ruler or nobleman to appoint someone who would remain loyal. e, the Holy Roman Emperor and placing that power wholly within control of the church. An opportunity came in 1056 when Henry IV became German king at six years of age, the reformers seized the opportunity to take the papacy by force while he was still a child and could not react.
Once Rome regained control of the election of the pope, it was ready to attack the practice of investiture, in 1075, Pope Gregory VII composed the Dictatus Papae. One clause asserted that the deposal of an emperor was under the power of the pope. By this time, Henry IV was no longer a child and it called for the election of a new pope. His letter ends, I, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, and is often quoted with and to be damned throughout the ages. In 1076 Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry, and deposed him as German king, releasing all Christians from their oath of allegiance, enforcing these declarations was a different matter, but the advantage gradually came to be on the side of Gregory VII. German princes and the aristocracy were happy to hear of the kings deposition and they used religious reasons to continue the rebellion started at the First Battle of Langensalza in 1075, and for seizure of royal holdings
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Antipope Clement III
Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna was an Italian prelate, archbishop of Ravenna, who was elected pope in 1080 in opposition to Pope Gregory VII. This led to the known as the Investiture Controversy. He is considered an anti-pope by the Roman Catholic Church and he was born into the noble family of the Correggio, probably between 1020 and 1030. He had family connections to the Margraves of Canossa, a cleric, he was appointed to the Imperial chancellorship for Italy by the Empress Agnes in 1058, which position he held until 1063. And, although Pope Alexander II was reluctant to confirm this appointment, he was persuaded by Hildebrand to do so, Guibert took an oath of allegiance to the pope and his successors and was installed at Ravenna in 1073. Shortly after Pope Alexander II died Hildebrand was proclaimed the next pope, having attended Gregorys first Lenten Synods, Guibert refused to attend the next, the Lenten Synod of 1075, although he was bound by oath to obey the summons to attend. Guibert was unsympathetic to Gregorys opposition to the Imperial Court, which Guibert had served as Chancellor of Italy, by his absence Guibert demonstrated his opposition to Gregory VII, who now suspended him for his refusal to attend the synod.
It was in same year that Emperor Henry IV began his open war on Gregory. At the synod of Worms in January 1076, a resolution was adopted deposing Gregory, among these must have been Guibert, for he shared in the sentence of excommunication and interdiction which Gregory VII pronounced against the guilty Transpadine bishops at the Lenten Synod of 1076. In response to the action of Henrys 1076 Synod of Worms against Gregory, Gregory excommunicated Henry IV. During the next four years, the Emperor and the Pope reconciled but quarreled again, Henry recognized Guibert as pope, swearing that he would lead him to Rome, and there receive from his hands the imperial crown. With Rudolph of Swabia, leader of the nobles, having fallen mortally wounded at the Battle of Mersburg in 1080. In 1081, he marched on Rome, but failed to force his way into the city, which he finally accomplished only in 1084. Gregory took refuge in Castel SantAngelo, and refused to entertain Henrys overtures, however, insisted as a necessary preliminary that Henry should appear before a council and do penance.
The Emperor, while pretending to submit to terms, tried hard to prevent the meeting of the bishops. A small number however assembled, and, in accordance with their wishes, john Lateran as Clement III, and on 31 March Guibert crowned Henry IV as Emperor at St. Peters. Pope Gregory was liberated, but the people were incensed by the excesses of his Norman allies, and he was compelled to leave Rome. Disappointed and sorrowing he withdrew to Monte Cassino, and to the castle of Salerno by the sea, in 1084, three days before his death he withdrew all the censures of excommunication that he had pronounced, except those against the two chief offenders Henry and Guibert
Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA, known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades. His three-volume history has had a impact on common conceptions of the Crusades, primarily portraying the Crusaders negatively. Runciman was an admirer of the Byzantine Empire, and consequently held a bias against the Crusaders for the Fourth Crusade evident in his work. While praised by older crusade historians as a storyteller and prose stylist, born in Northumberland, he was the second son of Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford, and Hilda Runciman, Viscountess Runciman of Doxford. Both of his parents were or became members of parliament for the Liberal Party and his father was created Viscount Runciman of Doxford in 1937. His paternal grandfather, Walter Runciman, 1st Baron Runciman, was a shipping magnate and he was named after his maternal grandfather, James Cochran Stevenson, the MP for South Shields. It is said that he was reading Latin and Greek by the age of five, a Kings Scholar at Eton College, he was an exact contemporary and close friend of George Orwell.
While there, they both studied French under Aldous Huxley, in 1921 he entered Trinity College of Cambridge University as a history scholar and studied under J. B. Bury, becoming, as Runciman claimed, his first, and only, student. At first the reclusive Bury tried to brush him off, when Runciman mentioned that he could read Russian, Bury gave him a stack of Bulgarian articles to edit and his work on the Byzantine Empire earned him a fellowship at Trinity in 1927. After receiving an inheritance from his grandfather, Runciman resigned his fellowship in 1938. Thus, for much of his life he was an independent scholar and he went on to be a press attache at the British Legation in the Bulgarian capital, Sofia, in 1940 and at the British Embassy in Cairo in 1941. From 1945 to 1947 he was a representative in Athens of the British Council, in his personal life, Runciman was an old-fashioned English eccentric, among other things, as an aesthete and enthusiast of the occult. He died in Radway, while visiting relatives, aged 97, earlier the same year, he had made a final visit to Mount Athos to witness the blessing of the Protaton Tower at Karyes, which had been refurbished thanks to a gift from him.
He was interred in Lockerbie, jonathan Riley-Smith, one of the leading historians of the Crusades, denounced Runciman for his perspective on the Crusades. Riley-Smith had been told by Runciman during an interview that he considered himself not a historian. Runciman held sympathies toward the Byzantine Empire and blamed the Crusaders, consequently, a bias against the Crusaders is evident in his work. Less than a decade after the Second World War ended, Runciman called the Fourth Crusade the greatest crime committed against humanity, edward Peters claims Runcimans three-volume narrative history, instantly became the most widely known and respected single-author survey of the subject in English. John M. Riddle says that for the part of the twentieth century Runciman was the greatest historian of the Crusades
Tancred, Prince of Galilee
Tancred was an Italo-Norman leader of the First Crusade who became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch. Tancred had a great-grandfather with the name, Tancred of Hauteville. Tancred was a son of Emma of Hauteville and Odo the Good Marquis and his maternal grandparents were Robert Guiscard and Guiscards first wife Alberada of Buonalbergo. Emma was a sister of Bohemond of Taranto, in 1096, Tancred joined his maternal uncle Bohemund on the First Crusade, and the two made their way to Constantinople. There, he was pressured to swear an oath to Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, although the other leaders did not intend to keep their oaths, Tancred refused to swear the oath altogether. He participated in the siege of Nicaea in 1097, but the city was taken by Alexius army after secret negotiations with the Seljuk Turks, because of this, Tancred was very distrustful of the Byzantines. In 1097 the Crusaders divided their forces at Heraclea and Tancred entered the Levant by passing south through the Cilician Gates, the last three settlements were annexed to the Principality of Antioch.
During their fourteen-year occupation of Anazarbus the Crusaders built the magnificent donjon atop the center of the fortified outcrop, at Sarvandikar, which controlled the strategic Amanus Pass, Tancred imprisoned Raymond of Saint-Gilles in 1101/02. He assisted in the siege of Antioch in 1098, one year later, during the assault on Jerusalem, along with Gaston IV of Béarn, claimed to have been the first Crusader to enter the city on July 15. However, the first crusader to enter Jerusalem was Ludolf of Tournai, when the city fell, Tancred gave his banner to a group of the citizens who had fled to the roof of the Temple of Solomon. This should have assured their safety, but they were massacred, along many others. The author of the Gesta Francorum records that, when Tancred realised this, when the Kingdom of Jerusalem was established, Tancred became Prince of Galilee. In 1100, Tancred became regent of Antioch when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends at the Battle of Melitene. He expanded the territory of the Latin principality by capturing land from the Byzantines, over the decade, Alexius attempted, unsuccessfully.
In 1104, he took control of the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was taken captive after the Battle of Harran. After Baldwins release in late 1108, he had to fight Tancred to regain control of the county, after Harran, Bohemond returned to Europe to recruit more Crusaders, again leaving his nephew as regent in Antioch. Tancreds victory over Radwan of Aleppo at the Battle of Artah in 1105 allowed the Latin principality to recover some its territories east of the Orontes River. In 1108, Tancred refused to honour the Treaty of Devol, in which Bohemund swore an oath of fealty to Alexius, in 1110, he brought Krak des Chevaliers under his control, which would become an important castle in the County of Tripoli
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah, is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate. Historically, it has known as Lāŏdĭcḗa or Lāŏdĭcḗa ad Mắre. In addition to serving as a port, the city is a center for surrounding agricultural towns. According to the 2004 official census, the population of the city is 383,786 and it is the 5th-largest city in Syria after Aleppo, Damascus and Hama, and it borders Tartus to the south, Hama to the east, and Idlib to the north. Cape Apostolos Andreas, the tip of Cyprus, is about 68 miles away. Although the site has been inhabited since the 2nd millennium BCE, Latakia was subsequently ruled by the Romans, the Ummayads and Abbasids in the 8th–10th centuries CE. Under their rule, the Byzantines frequently attacked the city, periodically recapturing it before losing it again to the Arabs, Latakia was ruled successively by the Seljuk Turks, Ayyubids and the Ottomans. Following World War I, Latakia was assigned to the French mandate of Syria and this autonomous territory became the Alawite State in 1922, proclaiming its independence a number of times until reintegrating into Syria in 1944.
Like many Seleucid cities, Latakia was named after a member of the ruling dynasty, first named Laodikeia on the Coast by Seleucus I Nicator in honor of his mother, Laodice. In Latin, its name became Lāŏdĭcḗa ad Mắre, the original name survives in its Arabic form as al-Ladhiqiyyah, from which the French Lattaquié and English Latakia or Lattakia derive. To the Ottomans, it was known as Turkish, the location of Latakia, the Ras Ziyarah promontory, has a long history of occupation. The Phoenician city of Ramitha was located here, known to the Greeks as Leukê Aktê. The city was described in Strabos Geographica, It is a city most beautifully built, has a good harbour, and has territory which, besides its other good crops, abounds in wine. Now this city furnishes the most of the wine to the Alexandreians, and while the summits are at a considerable distance from Lāŏdĭcḗa, sloping up gently and gradually from it, they tower above Apameia, extending up to a perpendicular height. The city was an important colonia of the Roman empire in ancient Syria for seven centuries and it was called Laodicea in Syria or Lāŏdĭcḗa ad mắre and was the capital of the Eastern Roman province of Theodorias from 528 AD until 637 AD.
A sizable Jewish population lived in Lāŏdĭcḗa during the first century, the heretic Apollinarius was bishop of Lāŏdĭcḗa in the 4th century. The city minted coins from an early date, following the defeat of Antiochene forces at the Battle of Harran in 1104 the city was reoccupied by the Byzantines however they would again lose the city. Despite a treaty in 1108 with Bohemond promising to return Latakia to the Empire by 1110 it was firmly under the control of the Principality of Antioch
Apulia is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southernmost portion, known as the Salento peninsula, forms a stiletto on the boot of Italy, the region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, and its population is about 4 million. It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, The Apulia region extends as far north as Monte Gargano. Puglias coastline is longer than any other mainland Italian region, in the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic, while in the south, the flat and dry Salento peninsula forms the heel of Italys boot. It is home to the Alta Murgia and Gargano National Parks, see also, History of Apulia Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks, a number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the Crown of Apulia.
After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, as a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves, in 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin, the regions contribution to Italys gross value added was around 4. 6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average, in comparison with the country as a whole, the economy of Apulia is characterised by a greater emphasis on agriculture and services and a smaller part played by industry. In the last 20 years the base of the regions economy has changed radically. The majority of firms are financed by local capital.
In certain of these sectors – especially textiles, footwear, the region has a good network of roads but the railway network is somewhat inadequate, particularly in the south. Apulias 800 kilometers of coastline is studded with ports, which make this region an important terminal for transport and tourism to Greece, between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy. Such growth, over decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Emigration from the depressed areas to northern Italy and the rest of Europe was very intense in the years between 1956 and 1971. Subsequently, the trend declined as economic conditions improved, to the point where there was net immigration in the years between 1982 and 1985, since 1986 the stagnation in employment has led to a new inversion of the trend, caused by a decrease in immigration. Since 1 June 2015, former judge and mayor of Bari Michele Emiliano of the Democratic Party has served as President, Apulia is divided into five administrative provinces and one metropolitan city, Cuisine plays an important role throughout Apulia
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon was a Frankish knight, and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076, after the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Christ and he is known as the Baron of the Holy Sepulchre and the Crusader King. Godfrey of Bouillon was born around 1060 as the son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne. His birthplace was probably Boulogne-sur-Mer, although one 13th-century chronicler cites Baisy, as second son, he had fewer opportunities than his older brother and seemed destined to become just one more minor knight in service to a rich landed nobleman. However his maternal uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, died childless and named his nephew, Godfrey of Bouillon, as his heir and this duchy was an important one at the time, serving as a buffer between the kingdom of France and the German lands.
Godfrey served Henry IV loyally, supporting him even when Pope Gregory VII was battling the German king in the Investiture Controversy. Godfrey fought alongside Henry and his forces against the forces of Rudolf of Swabia. A major test of Godfrey’s leadership skills was shown in his battles to defend his inheritance against a significant array of enemies, claims were raised by his uncles estranged wife, Mathilda of Tuscany, Albert III, Count of Namur, and Theoderic Flamens, Count of Veluwe. This coalition was joined by Theoderic, Bishop of Verdun, and two minor counts attempting to share in the spoils, Count of Arlon and Limburg, and Arnold I, Count of Chiny. As these enemies outside the family tried to take portions of his land, Godfreys brothers and Baldwin. Following these long struggles and proving that he was a subject to Henry IV. Still, Godfreys influence in the German kingdom would have been if it had not been for his major role in the First Crusade. In 1095 Urban II, the new Pope, called for a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces, Godfrey took out loans on most of his lands, or sold them, to the bishop of Liège and the bishop of Verdun.
With this money he gathered thousands of knights to fight in the Holy Land as the Crusader Army of Godfrey of Bouillon, in this he was joined by his older brother and his younger brother, who had no lands in Europe. He was not the only major nobleman to gather such an army, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, known as Raymond of Saint-Gilles, created the largest army. At age 55, Raymond was the oldest and perhaps the best known of the Crusader nobles, because of his age and fame, Raymond expected to be the leader of the entire First Crusade. Adhemar, the legate and bishop of Le Puy, travelled with him
Baldwin I of Jerusalem
Baldwin I of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin I of Edessa, born Baldwin of Boulogne,1058. –2 April 1118, was one of the leaders of the First Crusade and he was the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, who was the first ruler of the crusader state of Jerusalem, although Godfrey refused the title of king which Baldwin accepted. Baldwin was a son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Ida of Lorraine, and he became a cleric, it is said, because of his illustrious lineage, held benefices commonly called prebends in the churches of Reims, and Liège. Afterwards he lived in Normandy, where he married Godehilde de Toeni and he returned to Lower Lorraine in order to take control of the county of Verdun. In 1096 he joined the First Crusade with his brothers Godfrey and Eustace III of Boulogne and his wife Godehilde accompanied him. When Godfrey passed through Hungary, King Coloman demanded a hostage to ensure their good conduct, after entering Byzantine territory, there were a few skirmishes with the Greeks, who had suffered from the Peoples Crusade.
Baldwin commanded a detachment of troops captured a bridge in the vicinity of Constantinople. The hostage, his son the future emperor John II Comnenus, was entrusted to the care of Baldwin, according to Anna Comnena, Baldwin reprimanded one of his soldiers who dared to sit on Alexius throne in Constantinople. Baldwin accompanied his brothers as far as Heraclea in Asia Minor, Tancred was surely seeking to capture some land and establish himself as a petty ruler in the east, and Baldwin may have had the same goal. During his absence his wife fell ill and died at Marash, some historians have suggested that his entire strategy changed from that point, others believe that the change happened earlier. In September 1097 he took Tarsus from Tancred, and installed his own garrison in the city and Baldwins armies skirmished briefly at Mamistra, but the two never came to open warfare and Tancred marched on towards Antioch. After rejoining the army at Marash, Baldwin received an invitation from an Armenian named Bagrat, and moved eastwards towards the Euphrates.
Another invitation came from Thoros of Edessa, where Baldwin was adopted as Thoros son, when Thoros was assassinated in March 1098, Baldwin became the first count of Edessa, although it is unknown if he played any role in the assassination. He ruled the county until 1100, marrying Arda, the daughter of Thoros of Marash, during these two years he captured Samosata and Suruç from the Muslims, and defeated a conspiracy by some of his Armenian subjects in 1098. During the Siege of Antioch he sent money and food to his fellow crusaders, the governor of Mosul, was marching to relieve Antioch but first stopped at Edessa, which he besieged for three weeks, to no avail. Kerbogha was defeated at Antioch and the established a principality there. Later that year Baldwin had consolidated his power enough that he was able to march out with his brother Godfrey, at the end of 1099 he visited Jerusalem along with Bohemund I of Antioch, but he returned to Edessa in January,1100. After returning to Edessa, Baldwin aided in relieving the siege of Melitene, the Armenian ruler of the city, recognized Baldwin as overlord of the city
Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. The way that such law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was originally a rule adopted by a council, these canons formed the foundation of canon law. Greek kanon / Ancient Greek, κανών, Arabic Qanun / قانون, Hebrew kaneh / קנה, straight, a rule, standard, or measure, the root meaning in all these languages is reed. In the Fourth century the First Council of Nicaea calls canons the disciplinary measures of the Church, the canon, κανὠν, means in Greek. There is an early distinction between the rules enacted by the Church and the legislative measures taken by the State called leges. The actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, west Syrian Rite which includes the Maronite Church, Syriac Catholic Church and the Syro-Malankara Church.
Armenian Rite Church which includes the Armenian Catholic Church, east Syrian Rite Churches which includes the Chaldean Church and Syro-Malabar Church. All of these groups are in full communion with the Supreme Pontiff and are subject to the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. The history of Latin canon law can be divided into four periods, the jus antiquum, the jus novum, the jus novissimum, in relation to the Code, history can be divided into the jus vetus and the jus novum. The academic degrees in law are the J. C. B. Because of its nature, advanced degrees in civil law or theology are normal prerequisites for the study of canon law. Much of the style was adapted from the Roman Law Code of Justinian. This is in contrast to the form of proceeding found in the common law system of English and U. S. law. The institutions and practices of canon law paralleled the development of much of Europe. Sampel explains that law has significant influence in contemporary society. Canonical jurisprudential theory generally follows the principles of Aristotelian-Thomistic legal philosophy, each had its own special law, in which custom still played an important part.
In 1929 Pius XI informed the Eastern Churches of his intention to work out a Code for the whole of the Eastern Church, the publication of these Codes for the Eastern Churches regarding the law of persons was made between 1949 through 1958 but finalized nearly 30 years later
Ehremar or Ebramar or Evremar was Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1102 to 1105 or 1107, and Archbishop of Caesarea. Ehremar was a priest from Thérouanne in France who in old age went east with the First Crusade, in 1102 Dagobert of Pisa was deposed as Patriarch by the papal legate, Robert Cardinal of Paris, on charges of misconduct brought by the King of Jerusalem, Baldwin I. When the legate asked for a candidate to be the new patriarch, the Palestinian bishops suggested Ehremar, Baldwin was happy to accept the appointment as he knew that Ehremar, unlike Dagobert, would not set the claims of the church against his power as king. Baldwin was furious and would have attacked the Genoese but Ehremar patched up a reconciliation, shortly afterwards, he came to assist with the conquest of Jaffa at Baldwins request with the True Cross to encourage the troops, and one hundred and fifty men he had recruited. In the same year Dagobert went to Rome to appeal against his deposition, when Ehremar heard about this, he went to Rome, but he arrived to find his rival had died.
Paschal was inclined to re-appoint Ehremar, but king Baldwin had become dissatisfied with him, Baldwin sent Arnulf of Chocques, who had himself been displaced as patriarch in favour of Dagobert in 1099, to oppose Ehremar. Paschal sent Ghibbelin of Arles, Archbishop of Arles, to Jerusalem as legate to decide the matter, Ghibbelin found that Ehremar was unfitted for the position and declared it vacant, and Baldwin proposed Ghibbelin himself as patriarch. He accepted and Ehremar was compensated with the Archbishopric of Caesarea, in 1119 he again blessed troops before battle with the True Cross. His date of death is not known, the Catholic Encyclopedia describes Ehremar as an anti-patriarch as his appointment was not ratified by the pope