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Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903. It is owned by parent company Reach plc. From 1985 to 1987, from 1997 to 2002, the title on its masthead was The Mirror, it had an average daily print circulation of 716,923 in December 2016, dropping markedly to 587,803 the following year. Its Sunday sister paper is the Sunday Mirror. Unlike other major British tabloids such as The Sun and the Daily Mail, the Mirror has no separate Scottish edition. Pitched to the middle-class reader, it was converted into a working-class newspaper after 1934, in order to reach a larger audience; the Mirror has had a number of owners. It was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, who sold it to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913. In 1963 a restructuring of the media interests of the Harmsworth family led to the Mirror becoming a part of International Publishing Corporation. During the mid 1960s, daily sales exceeded 5 million copies, a feat never repeated by it or any other daily British newspaper since.

The Mirror was owned by Robert Maxwell between 1984 and 1991. The paper went through a protracted period of crisis after his death before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity in 1999 to form Trinity Mirror. During the 1930s the paper was editorially sympathetic to Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists; the paper has supported the Labour Party since the 1945 general election. The Daily Mirror was launched on 2 November 1903 by Alfred Harmsworth as a newspaper for women, run by women. Hence the name: he said, "I intend it to be a mirror of feminine life as well on its grave as on its lighter sides... to be entertaining without being frivolous, serious without being dull". It cost one penny, it was not an immediate success and in 1904 Harmsworth decided to turn it into a pictorial newspaper with a broader focus. Harmsworth appointed all of the paper's female journalists were fired; the masthead was changed to The Daily Illustrated Mirror, which ran from 26 January to 27 April 1904, when it reverted to The Daily Mirror.

The first issue of the relaunched paper did not have advertisements on the front page as but instead news text and engraved pictures, with the promise of photographs inside. Two days the price was dropped to one halfpenny and to the masthead was added: "A paper for men and women"; this combination was more successful: by issue 92, the guaranteed circulation was 120,000 copies and by issue 269, it had grown to 200,000: by the name had reverted and the front page was photographs. Circulation grew to 466,000 making it the second-largest morning newspaper. Alfred Harmsworth sold the newspaper to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913. In 1917, the price was increased to one penny. Circulation continued to grow: in 1919, some issues sold more than a million copies a day, making it the largest daily picture paper. In 1924 the newspaper sponsored the 1924 Women's Olympiad held at Stamford Bridge in London. Lord Rothermere was a friend of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, directed the Mirror's editorial stance towards them in the early 1930s.

On Monday, 22 January 1934 the Daily Mirror ran the headline "Give the Blackshirts a helping hand" urging readers to join Sir Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists, giving the address to which to send membership applications. By the mid-1930s, the Mirror was struggling – it and the Mail were the main casualties of the early 1930s circulation war that saw the Daily Herald and the Daily Express establish circulations of more than two million, Rothermere decided to sell his shares in it. In 1935 Rothermere sold the paper to H. G. Hugh Cudlipp. With Cecil King in charge of the paper's finances and Guy Bartholomew as editor, during the late 1930s the Mirror was transformed from a conservative, middle class newspaper into a left-wing paper for the working class. On the advice of the American advertising agency J. Walter Thompson, the Mirror became the first British paper to adopt the appearance of the New York tabloids; the headlines became bigger, the stories shorter and the illustrations more abundant.

By 1939, the publication was selling 1.4 million copies a day. In 1937, Hugh McClelland introduced his wild Western comic strip Beelzebub Jones in the Daily Mirror. After taking over as cartoon chief at the Mirror in 1945, he dropped Beelzebub Jones and moved on to a variety of new strips. During the Second World War the Mirror positioned itself as the paper of the ordinary soldier and civilian, was critical of the political leadership and the established parties. At one stage, the paper was threatened with closure following the publication of a Philip Zec cartoon, misinterpreted by Winston Churchill and Herbert Morrison. In the 1945 general election the paper supported the Labour Party in its eventual landslide victory. In doing so, the paper supported Herbert Morrison, who co-ordinated Labour's campaign, recruited his former antagonist Philip Zec to reproduce, on the front page, a popular VE Day cartoon on the morning of the election, suggesting that Labour were the only party who could maintain peace in post-war Britain.

By the late 1940s, it was selling 4.5 million copies a day. The Mirror was an influential mo

Somers, Victoria

Somers is a small town 90 km south-east of Melbourne, Australia, in the south-eastern corner of the Mornington Peninsula on Western Port. Its local government area is the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. Known as Balnarring East, the town was renamed for a popular former Governor of Victoria who set up the local Lord Somers Camp; the subdivision of Somers began in 1925, whilst the Boulevard Cafe & Post Office commenced business in 1927, the address still being Balnarring East. After much correspondence with the Education Dept. the Palm Beach School No. 4458 opened 1929. The renaming of the town occurred in 1930. Despite a few small land subdivisions for housing, Somers has not seen any major development since the 1920s and has retained much of its remnant bush land on the foreshore; as the land had been used for grazing, the estates were bare until local residents led by local store-keeper Ron Stone planted many trees throughout the area. Somers lies on an area of land on the south-eastern point of the Mornington Peninsula, where to the south, it borders Western Port.

The town of Cowes on Phillip Island can be seen from any beach in Somers in most weather conditions. There are two large sandbars between Somers and Phillip Island, between them is a deep shipping channel. At low tide both sandbars are visible. To the north, lies extensively cleared lands used for agriculture. Further north lie the suburbs of Bittern and Hastings which host many commercial services used by Somers residents. To the east is the suburb and military base, HMAS Cerberus, its compound bordering Somers is bushland and used for training exercises. Where the base meets Somers at its coastline, beaches are closed and the land consists of bushy coastal forests. To the west, separated from the Lord Somers Camp and the Coolart Wetlands, lies the locality of Balnarring. Somers' geography slopes down towards the water's edge, interrupting line of sight to Mt. Dandenong and as a result, television reception can be difficult when using a small antenna. Local knowledge is advisable for good reception.

Somers is best known for its yacht club and sailing facilities. The waters offshore from Somers, neighbouring Balnarring and Merricks Beaches and Shoreham, the body of water between the Mornington Peninsula and Philip Island are some of the most ideal and safest regions for sailing of all types in Australia. On most days many sailboats catamarans, can be seen in the waters of Western Port Bay participating in several races that are held during good sailing conditions on weekends; the tidal inlet of Merricks Creek at low tide is one of the best places around Melbourne and the Mornington Peninsula for skiffle boarding, while the South Beach is tucked away behind the belt of foreshore bushland, Somers Foreshore Reserve, is enjoyed by local residents, while the main beach, Somers Beach, is home to one of the major yacht clubs in Western Port, Somers Yacht Club. Walking is popular in Somers as good quality sealed and unsealed pathways exist along roadsides and in parklands, where walkers enjoy native bush land and views of Western Port.

The coastline of Somers has three distinguishable beaches, South Beach, Somers Beach and the tidal flats of Merricks Creek Inlet. At certain times of the year these beaches can be covered with dried seaweed from the extensive marine vegetation under the waters of Western Port, however when the seaweed is not in season, all of Somers beaches boast clean sand; the South Beach has an intricate system of rock pools, this is both of great interest to beachcombers, something of a curse, as the beach is a difficult place to swim. The Merricks Creek Inlet is a tidal creek. About 50 cm below the surface of the sandbed of the creek lies a darker sand that gives off a hydrogen sulphide smell when disturbed. Sand all these beaches is fine grain mixed with crushed sea shells. Small reefs exist in a few places and can be seen at low tide, but these are only rocky reefs incapable of supporting coral. At low tide these reefs can make navigation near the beach difficult for watercraft and are marked with buoys.

A succession of big storm tides came in on 24 March, 25 March, 22 April, 23 April and 15 June 2011 eroding the sand dunes east the Merricks Creek. In 2012, the wooden wall that had fixed that path of the Merricks Creek since 1974, was taken down, as it was deemed unsafe and not adequately performing its job anymore. Starting in July 2012 and finishing in September 2012, a new rock wall was built, to fix the creek on a path straight into Westernport. For the three and a half years the wall has been in place, a noticeable buildup of sand has occurred east of the wall, while considerable erosion has occurred west of the wall. In November 2015, the entrance to the Merricks Creek was filled in with a sand groyne, as a short term solution to the constant hydrogen sulphide odour caused by the breakdown of sea grasses within the creek; as of June 2016, the sand groyne is still in place, as such the surrounding beaches have benefitted with the buildup of sand. Somers has an interesting history revolving around its Main Beach.

Erosion of the beaches around Somers around the Yacht Club has been a major concern for foreshore communities and residents of Parklands Avenue and The Promenade over the last few decades. Several decades ago, Somers Yacht Club was situated next to the beach with a depression (where once the Merricks Creek flowed separating it from the sands of the beach of Westernport Bay. Yachts and sailboats were wheeled and carried over many sand dunes to reach the sandy beaches to launch them to sail, yet today

United States Congress Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress

The Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress is the name given to three separate temporary joint congressional committees established during the mid to late 20th century to study and make recommendations on measures to improve the structure of the U. S. Congress, including committees and other organizational matters; the committee existed in three different versions during the last 60 years, each with a set timetable and responsibilities. The committee was established by S. Con. Res. 23, 78th Congress. It held 39 public hearings between June 29, 1945, as well as four executive sessions. Over 100 witnesses testified, including 45 members of Congress, an additional 37 members submitted statements; the recommendations of the committee led to streamlining of congressional committees and adoption of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946. The committee was established on March 1965 by S. Con. Res. 2, 89th United States Congress. Its mission was to study the operation of Congress and recommend improvements "with a view toward strengthening the Congress, simplifying its operations, improving its relationship with other branches of the United States Government, enabling it better to meet its responsibilities under the Constitution."The committee held hearings over a period of 5 months, taking testimony from 199 witnesses, including 106 members of Congress.

The committee issued its final report on July 28, 1966. This work led to the passage of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970; the last and most recent version of this committee attempted further reforms, some of which were adopted by Congress when Republicans gained control of the House and Senate after the 1994 Congressional elections. Key among these was the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995, which applied provisions of 11 major labor laws to Congress and its employees for the first time. "Reorganization of the House of Representatives: Modern Reform Efforts", Congressional Research Service, October 20, 2003, retrieved January 10, 2017Reorganization of the Senate: Modern Reform Efforts, Congressional Research Service, October 15, 2003