The Daily Express is a daily national middle-market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom. It is the flagship of a subsidiary of Northern & Shell, it was first published as a broadsheet in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson. Its sister paper, the Sunday Express, was launched in 1918. In February 2019, it had an average daily circulation of 315,142; the paper was acquired by Richard Desmond in 2000. Hugh Whittow was the editor from February 2011 until he retired in March 2018. Gary Jones took over as editor-in-chief in March 2018; the paper's editorial stances have been seen as aligned to the UK Independence Party and other right-wing factions including the right-wing of the Conservative Party. On 9 February 2018, Trinity Mirror said it would acquire the Daily Express' parent company and Shell Media, in a deal worth £126.7m. In addition to its sister paper, Express Newspapers publishes the red top newspapers the Daily Star and Daily Star Sunday; the Daily Express was founded in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson, with the first issue appearing on 24 April 1900.
Pearson, who had lost his sight to glaucoma in 1913, sold the title to the future Lord Beaverbrook in 1916. It was one of the first papers to place news instead of advertisements on its front page, carried gossip and women's features, it was the first in Britain to have a crossword puzzle. The Express began printing in Manchester in 1927. In 1931 it moved to 120 a specially commissioned art deco building. Under Beaverbrook, the paper set, its success was due to aggressive marketing campaign and a circulation war with other populist newspapers. Arthur Christiansen became editor in October 1933. Under his direction sales climbed from two million in 1936 to four million in 1949, he retired in 1957. The paper featured Alfred Bestall's Rupert Bear cartoon and satirical cartoons by Carl Giles which it began publishing in the 1940s. On 24 March 1933, "Judea Declares War on Germany", was published. During the late 1930s, the paper advocated the appeasement policies of the Chamberlain government, due to the influence of Lord Beaverbrook.
The ruralist author Henry Williamson wrote for the paper on many occasions for half a century the whole of his career. He wrote for the Sunday Express at the beginning of his career. In 1938, the publication moved to the Daily Express Building, Manchester designed by Owen Williams on the same site in Great Ancoats Street, it opened a similar building in Glasgow in 1936 in Albion Street. Glasgow printing ended in Manchester in 1989 on the company's own presses. Johnston Press has a five-year deal, begun in March 2015, to print the northern editions of the Daily Express, Daily Star, Sunday Express and the Daily Star Sunday at its Dinnington site in Sheffield; the Scottish edition is printed by facsimile in Glasgow by contract printers, the London editions at Westferry Printers. In March 1962, Beaverbrook was attacked in the House of Commons for running "a sustained vendetta" against the British Royal Family in the Express titles. In the same month, the Duke of Edinburgh described the Express as "a bloody awful newspaper.
It is full of lies and imagination. It is a vicious paper." At the height of Beaverbrook's control, in 1948, he told a Royal Commission on the press that he ran his papers "purely for the purpose of making propaganda". The arrival of television, the public's changing interests, took their toll on circulation, following Beaverbrook's death in 1964, the paper's circulation declined for several years. During this period, the Express alone among mainstream newspapers, was vehemently opposed to entry into what became the European Economic Community; as a result of the rejuvenation of the Daily Mail under David English and the emergence of The Sun under Rupert Murdoch and editorship of Larry Lamb, average daily sales of the Express dropped below four million in 1967, below three million in 1975, below two million in 1984. The Daily Express switched from broadsheet to tabloid in 1977, was bought by the construction company Trafalgar House in the same year, its publishing company, Beaverbrook Newspapers, was renamed Express Newspapers.
In 1982, Trafalgar House spun off its publishing interests to a new company, Fleet Holdings, under Lord Matthews, but this succumbed to a hostile takeover by United Newspapers in 1985. Under United, the Express titles moved from Fleet Street to Blackfriars Road in 1989. Express Newspapers was sold to publisher Richard Desmond in 2000, the names of the newspapers reverted to Daily Express and Sunday Express. In 2004, the newspaper moved to its present location on Lower Thames Street in the City of London. On 31 October 2005, UK Media Group Entertainment Rights secured majority interest from the Daily Express for Rupert Bear, they paid £6 million for a 66.6% control of the character. The Express retains minority interest of one-third plus the right to publish Rupert Bear stories in certain Express publications. In 2000, Express Newspapers was bought by Richard Desmond, publisher of celebrity magazine OK!, for £125 million. Controversy surrounded the deal since Desmond owned softcore pornography magazines.
As a result, many staff left, including columnist Peter Hitchens. Hitchens moved to The Mail on Sunday, saying working for the new owner was a moral conflict of interest since he had always attacked the pornographic magazines that Desmond published. Despite their divergent politics, Desmond respected Hitchens. In 2007, Express Newspape
Star is an American celebrity tabloid magazine founded in 1974. The magazine is owned by American Media Inc. and overseen by AMI's Chief Content Officer, Dylan Howard. Star was founded by Rupert Murdoch in 1974 as competition to the tabloid National Enquirer with its headquarters in New York City. In the late 1980s it moved its offices to Tarrytown, NY and in 1990 Murdoch sold the magazine to the Enquirer's parent company American Media, Inc. An unstapled, supermarket tabloid printed on newsprint, Star was hugely successful but remained in the shadow of its longer-established stablemate. Along with the Enquirer its circulation declined with the advent of celebrity-driven television shows such as Entertainment Tonight and Hard Copy. In 1999, AMI was bought by investors fronted by David Pecker, who pledged that Star would never relocate to Florida, the home state of all the country's other tabloids. However, it took Pecker less than a year to renege on his promise and Star was moved into AMI's headquarters in Boca Raton, sharing the building with the Enquirer and AMI's other acquired titles The Globe, National Examiner, Sun.
Editor Phil Bunton was replaced before the move when he angered Pecker by telling the New York Post: "It's going to be open warfare. How we're going to all work together I don't know. It's like having the Bosnians, the Jews and Arabs all together in the same area." All Star's staff of experienced tabloid journalists refused to make the move south. Four years Pecker appointed former Us Weekly editor Bonnie Fuller to oversee the paper and, at her demand, he moved it back to New York in the summer of 2003. At the beginning of 2004, Star gained new life by switching to a more traditional magazine format, with a higher grade of paper and, denying its tabloid roots, put itself into competition with a new breed of entertainment magazine typified by Time Inc.'s People, Fuller's former publication, Wenner Media's Us Weekly, the German-owned magazine publisher Bauer's In Touch Weekly. However, its page layout remains tabloid-derived, with sections including "Worst of the Week", which points out the most amusing celebrity fashion disasters of the previous week, "Stars Without Makeup" section which compares photos of stars with and without makeup, "Knifestyles of the Rich and Famous" section, which illustrates suspected incidences of plastic surgery with before-and-after photos.
As of 2015, Star sells for US$4.99 per issue with reduced rate subscriptions varying from 26 to 52 issues. Star received attention in 1991 for running a story about KISS drummer Peter Criss, claiming that he had become homeless and was a habitual drunkard and was living on the streets of Santa Monica, California. In fact, Criss was healthy and married at the time. Star had instead interviewed and photographed a homeless man who had passed himself as Criss for years; the real Peter Criss was mourning his mother at the time and was distressed to learn that his friends and associates believed he had fallen on hard times. In 2011 the actress Katie Holmes sued Star magazine for libel after the tabloid published a story about her that suggested she abused drugs; the original lawsuit was for $50 million, but the case was settled before going into court for an undisclosed amount of money. The publisher took matters into print again publicly apologizing to Holmes and disclosing that a substantial donation was going to be done under her name to a charity of her choice.
It was said by Star magazine's chief editor that brand loyalty is the most important focus for their industry. This being said, people are only intrigued by the "juiciest dirt", leaving the cover page to be where the most gossip and biggest celebrity news is to be shown, leaving the audience wanting more. Star has been accused of publicizing any news, presented to them, regardless of whether or not it is true; this left Jennifer Aniston stating that "if you cooperate with one of the magazines, their competitors become vengeful and attack clients. There is no upside to working with them…, their tactic is to make up stories that are so damaging", why she no longer holds interest in talking to reporters from Star magazine. StarMagazine.com
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Henry Alfred Kissinger is an American elder statesman, political scientist and geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. A Jewish refugee who fled Nazi Germany with his family in 1938, he became National Security Advisor in 1969 and U. S. Secretary of State in 1973. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam, Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances, with two members of the committee resigning in protest. Kissinger sought, unsuccessfully, to return the prize after the ceasefire failed. A practitioner of Realpolitik, Kissinger played a prominent role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. During this period, he pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, orchestrated the opening of relations with the People's Republic of China, engaged in what became known as shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East to end the Yom Kippur War, negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, ending American involvement in the Vietnam War.
Kissinger has been associated with such controversial policies as U. S. involvement in the 1973 Chilean military coup, a "green light" to Argentina's military junta for their Dirty War, U. S. support for Pakistan during the Bangladesh War despite the genocide being perpetrated by his allies. After leaving government, he formed Kissinger Associates, an international geopolitical consulting firm. Kissinger has written over one dozen books on international relations. Kissinger remains regarded as a controversial figure in American politics, has been condemned as a war criminal by journalists, political activists, human rights lawyers. According to a 2014 survey by Foreign Policy magazine 32.21% of "America's top International Relations scholars" considered Henry Kissinger the most effective U. S. Secretary of State since 1965. Kissinger was born Heinz Alfred Kissinger in Fürth, Germany in 1923 to a family of German Jews, his father, Louis Kissinger, was a schoolteacher. His mother, Paula Kissinger, from Leutershausen, was a homemaker.
Kissinger has Walter Kissinger. The surname Kissinger was adopted in 1817 by his great-great-grandfather Meyer Löb, after the Bavarian spa town of Bad Kissingen. In youth, Kissinger enjoyed playing soccer, played for the youth wing of his favorite club, SpVgg Fürth, one of the nation's best clubs at the time. In 1938, when Kissinger was 15 years old, fleeing Nazi persecution, his family emigrated to London, before arriving in New York on September 5. Kissinger spent his high school years in the Washington Heights section of Upper Manhattan as part of the German Jewish immigrant community that resided there at the time. Although Kissinger assimilated into American culture, he never lost his pronounced German accent, due to childhood shyness that made him hesitant to speak. Following his first year at George Washington High School, he began attending school at night and worked in a shaving brush factory during the day. Following high school, Kissinger enrolled in the City College of New York, he excelled academically as a part-time student.
His studies were interrupted in early 1943, when he was drafted into the U. S. Army. Kissinger underwent basic training at Camp Croft in South Carolina. On June 19, 1943, while stationed in South Carolina, at the age of 20 years, he became a naturalized U. S. citizen. The army sent him to study engineering at Lafayette College, but the program was canceled, Kissinger was reassigned to the 84th Infantry Division. There, he made the acquaintance of Fritz Kraemer, a fellow Jewish immigrant from Germany who noted Kissinger's fluency in German and his intellect, arranged for him to be assigned to the military intelligence section of the division. Kissinger saw combat with the division, volunteered for hazardous intelligence duties during the Battle of the Bulge. During the American advance into Germany, only a private, was put in charge of the administration of the city of Krefeld, owing to a lack of German speakers on the division's intelligence staff. Within eight days he had established a civilian administration.
Kissinger was reassigned to the Counter Intelligence Corps, where he became a CIC Special Agent holding the enlisted rank of sergeant. He was given charge of a team in Hanover assigned to tracking down Gestapo officers and other saboteurs, for which he was awarded the Bronze Star. In June 1945, Kissinger was made commandant of the Bensheim metro CIC detachment, Bergstrasse district of Hesse, with responsibility for de-Nazification of the district. Although he possessed absolute authority and powers of arrest, Kissinger took care to avoid abuses against the local population by his command. In 1946, Kissinger was reassigned to teach at the European Command Intelligence School at Camp King and, as a civilian employee following his separation from the army, continued to serve in this role. Henry Kissinger received his BA degree summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa in political science from Harvard College in 1950, where he lived in Adams House and studied under William Yandell Elliott, he received his PhD degrees at Harvard University in 1951 and 1954, respectively.
In 1952, while still a graduate student at Harvard, he served as a consultant to the director of the Psychological Strategy Board. His doctoral dissertation was titled "Peace and the Equilibrium". Kissinger remained at Harvard as a member of
The Leveson inquiry was a judicial public inquiry into the culture and ethics of the British press following the News International phone hacking scandal, chaired by Lord Justice Leveson, appointed in July 2011. A series of public hearings were held throughout 2011 and 2012; the Inquiry published the Leveson Report in November 2012, which reviewed the general culture and ethics of the British media, made recommendations for a new, body to replace the existing Press Complaints Commission, which would have to be recognised by the state through new laws. Prime Minister David Cameron, under whose direction the inquiry had been established, said that he welcomed many of the findings, but declined to enact the requisite legislation. Part 2 of the inquiry was to be delayed until after criminal prosecutions regarding events at the News of the World, but the Conservative Party's 2017 manifesto stated that the second part of the inquiry would be dropped and this was confirmed by Culture Secretary Matt Hancock in a statement to the House of Commons on 1 March 2018.
In 2007, News of the World royal editor Clive Goodman and private investigator Glenn Mulcaire were convicted of illegal interception of phone messages. According to the News of the World, this was an isolated incident, but The Guardian claimed that evidence existed that this practice extended beyond Goodman and Mulcaire. In 2011, after a civil settlement with Sienna Miller, the Metropolitan Police Service set up a new investigation, Operation Weeting. In July 2011, it was revealed that News of the World reporters had hacked the voicemail of murder victim Milly Dowler. Prime Minister David Cameron announced that a public inquiry under the Inquiries Act 2005 would be chaired by Lord Justice Leveson on 13 July 2011.14 September 2011 press release stated Part 1 of the Leveson Inquiry would be addressing: and Part 2: Part 2 would have been addressed because of ongoing investigations by law enforcement organisations in Operations Weeting and Tuleta. On 20 July 2011, Cameron announced in a speech to Parliament the final terms of reference of Leveson's inquiry, stating that it would extend beyond newspapers to include broadcasters and social media.
He announced a panel of six people who have been working with the judge on the inquiry: Sir David Bell, former chairman of the Financial Times Shami Chakrabarti, director of Liberty Lord Currie, former Ofcom director Elinor Goodman, former political editor of Channel 4 News George Jones, former political editor of the Daily Telegraph Sir Paul Scott-Lee QPM, former Chief Constable of West Midlands PoliceThe Inquiry was funded through two Government departments: the Department for Culture and Sport and the Home Office. Core participants were designated by Leveson as being: News International, the Metropolitan Police, victims and Shell Network Ltd, Guardian News and Media Ltd, Associated Newspapers Ltd, Trinity Mirror, Telegraph Media Group, the National Union of Journalists. In January 2012 Surrey Police were added to the list of Core Participants.14 September 2011 press release named 46 politicians, other public figures, members of the public who may have been victims of media intrusion and who have been granted "core participant" status in the inquiry.
As of November 2011 this number had increased to 51. It was reported in the media that Leveson had attended two parties in the prior 12 months at the London home of Matthew Freud, son-in-law of Rupert Murdoch and head of Freud Communications PR firm. According to The Independent, Freud had "agreed to do some free consultancy work for the Sentencing Council." The revelations led to a number of Labour MPs calling for Leveson to be removed from the Inquiry. These were two large evening events attended in Leveson's capacity as Chairman of the Sentencing Council, with the knowledge of the Lord Chief Justice. Oral evidence was taken at the Royal Courts of Justice, was streamed live over the Internet. Over three modules, 337 witnesses were called and about 300 other statements made. Hearings for the first module took place from November 2011 to February 2012, considered the relationship between the press and the public; this module included testimony from Sally Dowler and Gerry McCann, Chris Jefferies.
The inquiry heard joint testimony from Anna van Heeswijk, Jacqui Hunt, Heather Harvey and Marai Larasi as well as the singer Charlotte Church regarding the image of women in tabloid journalism. It included the actors Hugh Grant and Steve Coogan, the author J. K. Rowling, figures from journalism and broadcasting: Nick Davies, Paul McMullan, Alastair Campbell, Piers Morgan, Kelvin MacKenzie, Richard Desmond, Ian Hislop, James Harding, Alan Rusbridger, Mark Thompson, Lord Patten, Michael Grade, Lord Hunt and Paul Dacre; the next module examined the relationship between the press and police, saw testimony from political and police figures, including Brian Paddick, Lord Prescott, Simon Hughes, John Yates, Andy Hayman, Sir Paul Stephenson, Elizabeth Filkin, Lord Condon, Lord Stevens, Lord Blair and Cressida Dick. The final module, on the relationship between press and politicians, saw testimony from a variety of senior politicians, including four Prime Ministers, along with press figures such as Aidan Barclay, Evgeny Lebedev, James Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch, Viscount Rothermere, Andy Coulson and Rebekah Brooks.
The 2,000-page final report was published on 29 November 2012, along with a 48-page executive summary. Leveson found that the existing Press Complaints Commission is not sufficient, recommends a new independent bod
Fake news or junk news or pseudo-news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. The false information is caused by reporters paying sources for stories, an unethical practice called checkbook journalism. Digital news increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism; the news is often reverberated as misinformation in social media but finds its way to the mainstream media as well. Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity; the relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue.
Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, the popularity of social media the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have been implicated in generating and propagating fake news during elections. Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories. An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U. S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets. Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel; the term is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint, a tactic known as the lying press.
During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself. In part as a result of Trump's use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes." Fake news is a neologism used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate. Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are false, have enormous traction in the culture, are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.
He did not include news, "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, by any definition, that's a lie."The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can be fake news; some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but the "character of online circulation and reception". Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news: satire or parody false connection misleading content false context impostor content manipulated content fabricated content In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.
In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons conducted a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news". Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news, negative of his presidency. In November 2017, Claire Wardle announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues, she now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems:'mis-information','dis-information', and'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm. Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody
Sun (supermarket tabloid)
Sun was a supermarket tabloid owned by American Media, Inc. It ceased publication after the issue bearing a July 2012, cover date, its contents came under question and regarded as "sensationalistic writing." Since a 1992 invasion of privacy case, a small-print disclaimer printed beneath the masthead warned readers to "suspend belief for the sake of enjoyment." The paper was founded by Mike Rosenbloom, then-publisher of Globe Magazine, in 1983 as a competitor to Weekly World News, its early contents reflected the same kind of imaginative journalism. When both papers were consolidated under American Media Inc. ownership in 1999, Sun's content came to specialize in recurring stories on Bible prophecy, global warming, the apocalypse and future war. Sun featured health articles dealing with miracle cures of diseases such as chronic pain and arthritis, as well as numerous "strange but true" articles from across the country — in fact, the strange but true stories made up the bulk of the paper's content, although they were never featured on the front page.
Following the 2007 discontinuation of Weekly World News as a separate publication, Sun began printing a small "pull-out" insert of Weekly World News stories and columns. Sun photo editor Robert Stevens became the first victim of the 2001 anthrax attacks, he died as a result of a letter sent to the offices of American Media, the parent company of Sun, The National Enquirer, other supermarket tabloids. The Sun Web site at weeklyworldnews.com