Dakota people

The Dakota are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government in North America. They compose two of the three main subcultures of the Sioux people, are divided into the Eastern Dakota and the Western Dakota; the Eastern Dakota are the Santee, who reside in the eastern Dakotas, central Minnesota and northern Iowa. They have federally recognized tribes established in several places; the Western Dakota are the Yankton, the Yanktonai, who reside in the Upper Missouri River area. The Yankton-Yanktonai are collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, they have distinct federally recognized tribes. In the past the Western Dakota have been erroneously classified as Nakota, a branch of the Sioux who moved further west; the latter are now located in Montana and across the border in Canada, where they are known as Stoney. The word Dakota means "ally" in the Dakota language, their autonyms include Ikčé Wičhášta and Dakhóta Oyáte; the Eastern and Western Dakota are two of the three groupings belonging to the Sioux nation, the third being the Lakota.

The three groupings speak dialects that are still mutually intelligible. This is referred to Dakota-Lakota, or Sioux; the other two languages of the Dakotan dialect continuum and Stoney, have grown or unintelligible to Dakota and Lakota speakers. The Dakota include the following bands: Santee division Mdewakanton notable persons: Taoyateduta Sisseton Wahpekute notable persons: Inkpaduta Wahpeton Yankton-Yanktonai division Yankton Yanktonai Upper Yanktonai Húŋkpathina or Lower Yanktonai In the 21st century, the majority of the Santee live on reservations and communities in Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Canada; some have moved to cities for more work opportunities. After the Dakota War of 1862, the federal government expelled the Santee from Minnesota. Many were sent to Crow Creek Indian Reservation. In 1864 some from the Crow Creek Reservation were sent to St. Louis and by boat up the Missouri River to the Santee Sioux Reservation; the Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ live predominantly at the Prairie Shakopee reservations in Minnesota.

Most of the Yankton live on the Yankton Indian Reservation in southeastern South Dakota. Some Yankton live on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation and Crow Creek Reservation, occupied by the Lower Yanktonai; the Upper Yanktonai live in the northern part of Standing Rock Reservation, on the Spirit Lake Reservation in central North Dakota. Others live in the eastern half of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. In addition, they reside at several Canadian reserves, including Birdtail, Oak Lake, Whitecap, it is difficult to determine where the Dakota people came from before the recorded era. The most similar people to them linguistically were Great Lakes–region speakers of Chiwere, a linguistically conservative Siouan language. However, the Dakota language, Dakhótiyapi/Dakȟótiyapi, is very related to that of the Dhegihan and Hokan Siouan peoples — both of whom have oral histories explaining that they came west from present-day Ohio in migrations ending around the 13th century. A single line of older history seems to have survived from the Dakotas — that they had come to live with the Winnebago, but the Winnebago soon became angry and ordered them to leave.

Combining this with the histories of the Dhegihans, it is possible to surmise that the ancestors of the Dakota people may have been refugees from further east who started taking refuge with other Siouan allies — even predating the move of the Dhegihan Sioux peoples. The Winnebago may have been forced to send the Dakota off to find a new homeland because of overcrowding or because the Dhegihans' arrival on the Plains disrupted commerce and trading along the Mississippi River. Either explanation, can only be an educated guess; the Dakota Oyate lived in Minnesota prior to the 18th century. Most of their early history was recorded by a white man named James Walker close to the end of the 19th century, as he offered aid among the Lakota/Dakota people, he recorded much of what he knew in three books: Lakota Myth, Lakota Belief and Ritual, Lakota Society. According to Walker, the group was one people with one chief, which grew and developed four sub-factions over time, each with their own equal chiefs.

In these two groups there evolved two distinct dialects of the original language and Dakota. Their capitol was situated at a place known as Ble Wakan, identified as Mille Lacs Lake, a large but shallow lake 100 miles north of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants; the French were trying to gain an advantage in the struggle for the North American fur trade against the English, who had established the Hudson's Bay Company. The name "Sioux" origina

Premiership of Thaksin Shinawatra

Thaksin Shinawatra was the 23rd prime minister of Thailand. As prime minister, Thaksin Shinawatra initiated many policies affecting the economy, public health, energy and international relations, he gained two landslide re-election victories. Thaksin's policies were effective at reducing rural poverty and at providing affordable health coverage to the people; because of this, his main support base has been the rural poor. His cabinet was packed with academics, former student leaders, former leaders of the Palang Dharma Party, including Prommin Lertsuridej, Chaturon Chaisang, Prapat Panyachatraksa, Surapong Suebwonglee, Somkid Jatusripitak, Surakiart Sathirathai, Sudarat Keyuraphan. Traditional leaders of regional coalitions became members of his cabinet, his government has been charged with dictatorship, corruption, conflicts of interest, human rights offences, acting undiplomatically, using legal loopholes, hostility towards a free press. A controversial leader, he has been the target of numerous allegations of lèse majesté, usurping religious and royal authority, selling assets to international investors, religious desecration, "siding with the forces of darkness".

Thaksin's government designed its policies to appeal to the rural majority of voters, initiating programs such as village-managed microcredit development funds, low-interest agricultural loans, direct injections of cash into village development funds, infrastructure development, the One Tambon One Product, rural small and medium enterprise development program. Thaksinomics, Thaksin's economic policies helped to accelerate Thailand's economic recovery from the 1997 Asian financial crisis and reduced poverty; the GDP grew from THB4.9 trillion at the end of 2001 to THB7.1 trillion at the end of 2006. Thailand repaid its debts to the International Monetary Fund two years ahead of schedule. Between 2000 and 2004, income in the poorest part of the country, the northeast, rose 40% while nationwide poverty fell from 21.3% to 11.3%. The Stock Exchange of Thailand outperformed other markets in the region. After facing fiscal deficits in 2001 and 2002, Thaksin balanced the national budget, producing comfortable fiscal surpluses for 2003 to 2005.

Despite a massive program of infrastructure investments, a balanced budget was projected for 2007. Public sector debt fell from 57% of GDP in January 2001 to 41% in September 2006. Foreign exchange reserves doubled from US$30 billion in 2001 to US$64 billion in 2006. However, critics charge that Thaksinomics was little more than a Keynesian-style economic stimulus policy re-branded as something new and revolutionary. Economists from the Thailand Development Research Institute argue that other factors, such as a revival in export demand, were the primary causes behind the economy's recovery. Others charge that the policies got the rural poor "hooked on Thaksin's hand-outs."Thaksin helped bring part of Thailand's massive underground lottery system into the legal fold by operating a successful numbers game run by the Government Lottery Office. Lottery sales of 70 billion baht are used for social projects, including the "One District, One Scholarship" program which provided one student from a low-income family in each district with a scholarship to study overseas.

Soon after Thaksin was deposed, the junta banned the lottery. This lured the poor away from work into gambling addiction. In addition, the supreme court ruled that the cabinet did not have the right to introduce the lottery without due process; the scholarship program was stopped. The military junta claimed that Thaksin's government "mischievously spent the proceeds in any way it saw fit"; the Thaksin government reduced the state's control of the media by privatizing MCOT, a large television and radio broadcaster. After the 2006 coup, some of Thaksin's economic policies were ended; the OTOP program was rebranded, the Government Lottery Office program was deemed illegal. The government nationalized several media outlets and energy companies. Thaksin initiated two key healthcare policies: subsidized universal health care and low-cost universal access to anti-retroviral HIV medication. Thaksin's 30-baht/visit universal healthcare program won the applause of the general public, but was criticized by many doctors and officials.

Prior to the program's introduction, a large portion of the population had no health insurance and limited access to healthcare. The program helped increase access to healthcare from 76% of the population to 96% of the population; the program increased workloads for healthcare employees and caused many doctors to switch to higher paying careers. It has been criticized for being underfunded; the financial losses caused by the program led some hospitals to seek alternative sources of income, leading to a boom in the medical tourism industry, with 1.3 million foreign patients earning Thailand 33 billion THB in 2005. Post-coup Public Health Minister Mongkol Na Songkhla called the 30-baht program a "marketing gimmick" and claimed that the government would stop charging any fees for visits to state hospitals. During the Thaksin government, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS as well as the overall prevalence rate noticeably declined, as fewer were being infected. Although successful in expanding access to HIV medication, there are concerns that a free trade agreement with the US could endanger Thailand's ability to produce generic HIV treatments.

Thaksin allowed an estimated 2.3 million foreign workers in Thailand to register and seek health coverage under the Thai national healthcare system. They were eligible for work permits at the end of the registration period, entitl

Pannaway Plantation

Pannaway Plantation was the first European settlement in what is now the state of New Hampshire. By 1630, the plantation was abandoned, the settlers moved to Strawbery Banke in what is now Portsmouth. Pannaway Plantation was settled on land, now in Odiorne Point State Park in the town of Rye. Pannaway is an Abenaki word to mean "place where the water spreads out"; when John Mason was granted a colony to start in British America, he was granted the land from south on up to where the Piscataqua River flows into the Atlantic Ocean, while Ferdinando Gorges claimed the land north of the river, in what is now Maine. The first settler to go into Pannaway Plantation was David Thompson, he had his family come to the plantation. He was granted 6,000 acres of land in the New World. Ten other men went with him to settle the land. Thompson gave the name "Pannaway" to the plantation after hearing it from an Indian. In his first year here, he was greeted by Captain Myles Standish of the Plymouth Colony, looking for aid at the time.

Christopher Levett in his 1623 Voyage to New England states. In July 1623, Thomas Weston of the Weymouth Colony was shipwrecked off today's North Hampton, a few miles south of Pannaway, he was tortured by the Natives, who stripped him of his clothing, he ran away escaping death. He ended up making it to Pannaway to shelter. In 1626, Thompson for an island in Boston Harbor. Thompson died within the next couple years, his wife married Samuel Maverick, one of the first slave traders in the colony. By 1630, Strawbery Banke was proven to be more secure of a location from the Indians, the settler Walter Neale invited them to come in. Pannaway Plantation was abandoned. Today the location of the plantation is in Odiorne Point State Park