The Sioux are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term is an exonym created from a French transcription of the Anishinaabe term "Nadouessioux", can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. Before the 17th century, the Santee Dakota lived around Lake Superior with territories in present-day northern Minnesota and Wisconsin, they gathered wild rice, used canoes to fish. Wars with the Ojibwe throughout the 1700s pushed the Dakota into southern Minnesota, where the Western Dakota and Teton were residing. In the 1800s, the Dakota signed treaties with the United States, ceding much of their land in Minnesota. Failure of the United States to make treaty payments on time, as well as low food supplies, led to the Dakota War of 1862, which resulted in the Dakota being exiled from Minnesota to numerous reservations in Nebraska and South Dakota and Canada.
After 1870, the Dakota people began to return to Minnesota, creating the present-day reservations in the state. The Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, resided in the Minnesota River area before ceding their land and moving to South Dakota in 1858. Despite ceding their lands, their treaty with the U. S. government allowed them to maintain their traditional role in the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ as the caretakers of the Pipestone Quarry, the cultural center of the Sioux people. They are considered to be the Western Dakota, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. With the arrival of the horse in the 1700s, the Lakota would become the most powerful tribe on the Plains by the 1850s, they fought the United States Army in the Sioux Wars including defeating the 7th Cavalry Regiment at the Battle of Little Big Horn.
The armed conflicts with the U. S. ended with the Wounded Knee Massacre. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the Dakota and Lakota would continue to fight for their treaty rights, including the Wounded Knee incident, Dakota Access Pipeline protests and the 1980 Supreme Court case, United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, in which the court ruled that tribal lands covered under the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 had been taken illegally by the US government, the tribe was owed compensation plus interest; as of 2018, this amounted to more than $1 billion. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Montana in the United States; the Sioux people refer to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ. Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. Today the seven nations that comprise the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ are the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute, Sisíthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna.
They are referred to as the Lakota or Dakota as based upon dialect differences. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker; the Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake. An alternative explanation is derivation from an exonym na·towe·ssiw, from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language"; the current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag, meaning "roasters". This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past. In recent times, some of the tribes have formally or informally reclaimed traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, the Oglala use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST.
The alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper. Within the Sioux tribes, there were defined gender roles; the men in the village were tasked as the hunters. The women within the village were in charge of making clothing and similar articles while taking care of, owning, the house; however with these roles, both men and women held power in decision-making tasks and sexual preferences were flexible and allowed. The terms winkte and berdache would refer to men who partook in traditional feminine duties while witkowin were given to women that rejected their roles as either mother or wife. Historical leadership organization The Seven Council Fires w
The Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy is a 144-page book written by Bishop Alma Bridwell White in 1925 and illustrated by Reverend Branford Clarke. In the book she uses scripture to rationalize that the Klan is sanctioned by God "through divine illumination and prophetic vision", she believed that the Apostles and the Good Samaritan were members of the Klan. The book was published by the Pillar of Fire Church, which she founded, at their press in Zarephath, New Jersey; the book sold over 45,000 copies. White was the founder of the Pillar of Fire Church, she herself could not be a member of the Klan. This book espouses White's deep fear and hatred of the Roman Catholic Church while promoting racism against African Americans, white supremacy, women's equality, it was published in 1925 by the Pillar of Fire Church. It is a compendium of essays and speeches by White, illustrations by Clarke, poems and racial, anti-Catholic, antisemitic slurs embedded in jokes and short stories. Most of this material was published between 1920 and 1924 in the pro-Ku Klux Klan political periodical The Good Citizen, one of numerous periodicals published by the Church.
It is the first of three books White published to promote her dogma of intolerance. The book includes an introduction by Arthur Hornbui Bell, Grand Dragon of the New Jersey Ku Klux Klan; the introduction reads as follows: This book brings out vividly the titanic struggle now taking place, not only in the United States, but over the entire world, while at the present time the battle raging has not reached the point where bullets and poison gas are the reasons used, the time will soon arrive when the Roman Catholic craving for world-power will, if not checked, cause a revival of a religious war that will be far more disastrous than the late World War. Bishop White deserves the highest praise for her work on this wonderful book of "light" and it is hoped that it may reach out into the minds of Protestants and Catholics alike and bring them to a sense of realization as to where this great un-American movement to make the world Catholic will end; the book includes essays with titles such as "Great Klan Victory in the Election of 1924," "Enemies of the Ku Klux Klan Stricken with Blindness," "Papal Contention for Rulership of the World," "Bow or Burn," and "The Ku Klux Klan and Women's Causes."She authored two more books on the Klan: Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty in 1926, Heroes of the Fiery Cross in 1928.
White republished the Klan books as a three-volume set in 1943, three years before her death and 21 years after her initial association with the Klan, under the title Guardians of Liberty. The set contained seven chapters from The Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy and one from the 1928 Heroes of the Fiery Cross. White, Alma. Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty. Pillar of Fire. Digital text of Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy at Google Books Political cartoons from The Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy at Flickr
James Ryan is a South African actor and director. Ryan garnered international attention early in his career, starring in the 1977 film, Kill or Be Killed. Ryan appeared as a martial arts fighter in the alternate world film, he reprised the role 5 years in Kill and Kill Again, starring alongside Miss World winner, Anneline Kriel. The sequel proved a major box office success for a low-budget South African feature, reaching no.2 on the American box office and grossing $802 900 after two weeks in American theatres. In 1984, he had the title role in Go for Gold which starred Tamara Franke and Cameron Mitchell, he played the part of a long distance runner called Johnny who lived at home with his mother and abusive stepfather. Two things that mean a lot to him are his running, he has a solid influence in his champion runner friend Victor. He comes to the attention of Phillip Pritchard, a business man, he risks losing the things that are dear to him, as Pritchard is forcing him to choose between them and fame and fortune.
In 1989, he starred in a South African science-fiction action film. A year he appeared alongside Susan Sarandon and Harvey Keitel in The January Man. In 1991, he starred in The Last Hero. In 1994 he landed a role as in Halifax f.p: Hard Corps, an Australian television drama that won two Australian Film Institute awards. A year he returned to the Martial Arts film genre, with a role in Kickboxer 5. In 1998, he appeared in the Australian television drama and sequel Halifax f.p: Afraid of the Dark, the acclaimed drama earned several Logie and Australian Film Institute nominations. The following year he appeared in the From Dusk Till Dawn sequel, From Dusk Till Dawn 2: Texas Blood Money. Since he has appeared in films such as Red Lipstick, Global Effect and Sterne über Madeira a German television 2-part drama alongside fellow South African, Moira Lister. James Ryan on IMDb