SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Dalí Theatre and Museum

The Dalí Theatre and Museum, is a museum dedicated to the artist Salvador Dalí in his home town of Figueres, in Catalonia, Spain. Salvador Dalí is buried in a crypt below the stage; the museum received 1,368,755 visitors in 2016. I want my museum to be a labyrinth, a great surrealist object, it will be theatrical museum. The people who come to see it will leave with the sensation of having had a theatrical dream. Salvador Dalí, it was. The old theatre was remained in a state of ruin. In 1960, Dalí and the mayor of Figueres decided to rebuild it as a museum dedicated to the town's most famous son. In 1968, the city council approved the plan, construction began the following year; the architects were Alexandre Bonaterra. The museum opened on September 28, 1974, it expanded through the mid-1980s; the museum now includes courtyards adjacent to the old theatre. The museum displays the single largest and most diverse collection of works by Salvador Dalí, the core of, from the artist's personal collection.

In addition to Dalí paintings from all decades of his career, there are Dalí sculptures, three-dimensional collages, mechanical devices, other curiosities from Dalí's imagination. A highlight is a three-dimensional anamorphic living-room installation with custom furniture that looks like the face of Mae West when viewed from a certain spot; the museum houses a small selection of works by other artists collected by Dalí, ranging from El Greco and Bougereau to Marcel Duchamp and John de Andrea, In accordance with Dalí's specific request, a second-floor gallery is devoted to the work of his friend and fellow Catalan artist Antoni Pitxot, who became director of the museum after Dalí's death. A glass geodesic dome cupola crowns the stage of the old theatre, Dalí is buried in a crypt below the stage floor; the space occupied by the audience has been transformed into a courtyard open to the sky, with Dionysian nude figurines standing in the old balcony windows. A Dalí installation inside a full-sized automobile, inspired by Rainy Taxi, is parked near the centre of the space.

The Dalí Theatre and Museum holds the largest collection of major works by Dalí in a single location. Some of the most important exhibited works are Port Alguer, The Spectre of Sex-appeal, Soft self-portrait with grilled bacon, Poetry of America—the Cosmic Athletes, Basket of Bread, Leda Atomica, Galatea of the Spheres and Crist de la Tramuntana. There is a set of works created by the artist expressly for the Museum, including the Mae West room, the Palace of the Wind room, the Monument to Francesc Pujols, the Cadillac plujós. A collection of holographic art by Dalí, a collection of jewellery he designed are on display. Another room contains a bathtub and a side table with an open drawer and a lamp, all of which Dalí had installed upside-down on the ceiling. An extension to the museum building contains a room dedicated to optical illusions and anamorphic art created by Dalí; the artist's final works, including his last oil painting, The Swallow's Tail, are on display here. Castle of Púbol – in Púbol, Spain Dalí Universe – in London Espace Dalí – in Paris Salvador Dalí Museum – in St. Petersburg, Florida Catalan art Dalí Theatre Museum English language web page Dalí Theatre-Museum situation map in Figueres Dalí - Die Ausstellung am Potsdamer Platz - in Berlin, Germany

Clayton Knight Committee

The Clayton Knight Committee, was founded by Billy Bishop and Clayton Knight in 1940. Homer Smith and several German émigrés, who wanted America to join the war against the Axis powers, provided funding for the secret and unlawful commissioning agency, its mission was to bring Americans to Canada in order to prepare and battle for the Allies while the US was still neutral. By Canada allowing the training to take place on their soil, it is considered the most important contribution it made to the Allied air war; this was before the US declared war on Germany. The committee was forced to defend itself from opposing forces such as, "pacifists and isolationists, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, President Franklin D. Roosevelt." The Clayton Knight Committee was founded when Hitler was enforcing the expansionist policy on Europe. Britain, along with her Commonwealth countries recognized that in order to halt him, they had to establish a dominant air force. Canada, Australia and New Zealand created the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

It went by the'Empire Air Training Scheme'." Each country had responsibility for varying aspects of the overall plan, such as aircraft engines, cost of elementary trainers, etc. It had plans to instruct 150,000 potential airmen; the advancements of the BCATP would fall on the shoulders of well-known Canadian World War I ace Billy Bishop. His plan was to gain access to the advancing American aviation industry for BCATP. There was a major impasse: "American Neutrality"; this resulted in Bishop contacting his friend Clayton Knight. Knight had many connections in American aviation circles; the committee was responsible for 10,000+ American enlistments in the Royal Canadian Air Force before December 7, 1941, the date of the Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. The CKC was established in the spring of 1940; the committee used brochures and word of mouth advertising to attract candidates. The CKC's requirements for pilots were considered lenient by established RAF pilots; some American pilots exaggerated their flying hours to gain acceptance by the CKC.

However, the CKC rejected 86 % of the pilots. Bishop reached out to Canadian Homer Smith, an ex-pilot. A World War I veteran of the British Royal Naval Air Service, Smith was heir to an oil fortune. Bishop was able to attain support from him financially. Smith was a source of connections to airline presidents, flying school owners, Civil Aeronautics Authority officials, he was considered the committee's director. WWI flyer C. R. Fowler played a role in the committee. Knight and Bishop revealed to the Air Council in Ottawa that they acquired 36 pilot trainers for the whole BCATP, which had started recruitment in Manhattan. One of their biggest obstacles was the possibility of loss of American citizenship for those who pledged loyalty to the British monarch when entering the RCAF; the State Department was briefed by Canada on the issue and requested that an oath to obey superior officers be substituted for the oath of allegiance. This matter was abolished when the Canadian government enacted an Order in Council that put in place a momentary agreement to adhere to RCAF rules for the length of their time.

Bishop spent a portion of 1940 in London. This meant; the original headquarters was founded in New York at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. It expanded to nine cities in America, such as San Francisco and Kansas City. There were offices in Canada as well, to assist those returning to the US after rejection or for those looking for accommodations. Committee expenses were funded through a rotating bank account, created in Smith's name. In May 1940, the committee discussed their plans with Major General Henry H. Arnold and Rear Admiral John Henry Towers; these American military leaders felt. Arnold offered to provide the committee with a list of failed candidates from American training efforts; the CKC had to maintain a low profile to evade possible obstruction by German agents and the hovering F. B. I, they had to find a way to obtain help from the President though his publicly stated goal was to prevent America from going to war. Because of the constant hiding, Clayton Knight had to cover up his covert occupation.

He used his art and journalistic contacts to work as a "special correspondent for the Associated Press," which posed as a guise from his family. Knight maintained his aviation artwork contributions to publications like The Saturday Evening Post; the CKC had to ensure that the American pilots crossing the border into Canada had all the proper documents. They had to fill in civilian instructor and staff pilot positions in the BCATP's Air Observer Schools and Elementary Flying Training Schools; those who ended up in contact with the CKC were offered positions in the RCAF or RAF or civilian jobs as elementary training instructors, staff pilots, or RAF ferry pilots. Many times during 1940, the American State Department and the F. B. I. blocked the committee's work. The committee was encouraged to keep as few records as possible and cease lending travel money to potential recruits; the Dominion Aeronautical Association was founded in January 1941 to create a buffer between the RCAF and the committee.

The committee would now seek personnel for civilian positions. The committee's charge was expanded, after consultations with American leaders in Washington, to find personnel for aircrews in 1941; the United States State Department alerted the Canada Department of External affairs to not shut the CKC down, as long as the committee obeyed American laws. The fina

Sasanian Iberia

Sasanian Iberia refers to the period the Kingdom of Iberia was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire. The period includes when it was ruled by Marzbans appointed by the Sasanid Iranian king, through the Principality of Iberia; the Georgian kingdoms were contested between the Sasanids and the neighboring rivalling Roman-Byzantine Empire since the 3rd century. Over the span of the next hundreds of years, both the Byzantines and the Sasanids managed to establish hegemony over these regions. At the few remaining times, the Georgian kings managed to retain their autonomy. Sasanian governance was established for the first time early on in the Sasanian era, during the reign of king Shapur I. In 284, the Sasanians secured the Iberian throne for an Iranian prince from the House of Mihran, subsequently known by his dynastic name Mirian III. Mirian III became thus the first head of this branch of the Mihranid family in the Kingdom of Iberia, known as the Chosroid dynasty, whose members would rule Iberia into the sixth century.

In 363, Sasanian suzerainty was restored by king Shapur II when he invaded Iberia and installed Aspacures II as his vassal on the Iberian throne. The continuing rivalry between Byzantium and Sasanian Persia for supremacy in the Caucasus, the unsuccessful insurrection of the Georgians under Gurgen had severe consequences for the country. Thereafter, the king of Iberia had only nominal power, while the country was ruled by the Persians. By the time of Vezhan Buzmihr's tenure as marzban of Iberia, the hagiographies of the period implied that the "kings" in Tbilisi had only the status of mamasakhlisi, which means "head of the house"; when Bakur III died in 580, the Sassanid government of Persia under Hormizd IV seized on the opportunity to abolish the Iberian monarchy. Iberia became a Persian province, administrated through its direct rule by appointed marzbans, which in fact was, as Prof. Donald Rayfield states; the Iberian nobles acquiesced to this change without resistance, while the heirs of the royal house withdrew to their highland fortresses – the main Chosroid line in Kakheti, the younger Guaramid branch in Klarjeti and Javakheti.

However, the direct Persian control brought about heavy taxation and an energetic promotion of Zoroastrianism in a Christian country. Therefore, when the Eastern Roman emperor Maurice embarked upon a military campaign against Persia in 582, the Iberian nobles requested that he helped restore the monarchy. Maurice did respond, and, in 588, sent his protégé, Guaram I of the Guaramids, as a new ruler to Iberia. However, Guaram was not crowned as king, but recognized as a presiding prince and bestowed with the Eastern Roman title of curopalates; the Byzantine-Sassanid treaty of 591 confirmed this new rearrangement, but left Iberia divided into Roman- and Sassanid-dominated parts at the town of Tbilisi. Mtskheta came to be under Byzantine control. Guaram's successor, the second presiding prince Stephen I, reoriented his politics towards Persia in a quest to reunite a divided Iberia, a goal he seems to have accomplished, but this cost him his life when the Byzantine emperor Heraclius attacked Tbilisi in 626, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, marking the definite Byzantine predominance in most of Georgia by 627-628 at the expense of the Sasanids until the Muslim conquest of Persia.

Piran Gushnasp Arvand Gushnasp Vezhan Buzmihr Atashgah of Tbilisi Roman Georgia Muslim conquest of Persia Principality of Iberia Arab rule in Georgia Brunner, Christopher. "Geographical and Administrative divisions: Settlements and Economy". The Cambridge History of Iran: The Seleucid and Sasanian periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 747–778. ISBN 978-0-521-24693-4. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-4146-6. Rapp, Stephen H.. Studies in Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts and Eurasian Contexts. Peeters. ISBN 978-2-87723-723-9. Rapp, Stephen H.. The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes: Caucasia and the Iranian Commonwealth in Late Antique Georgian Literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1472425522. Rayfield, Donald. Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1780230702. Suny, Ronald Grigor; the Making of the Georgian Nation. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20915-3. Yarshater, Ehsan, ed..

Encyclopaedia Iranica. 10. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-933273-56-6