Salvador Dalí

Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol was a Spanish surrealist artist. Born in Figueres, Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his work, his painterly skills are attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931, is one of the most recognisable Surrealist paintings. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film and photography, at times in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí was imaginative, enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. To the dismay of those who held his work in high regard, to the irritation of his critics, his eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork. Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20 in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain.

Dalí's older brother, named Salvador, had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903. His father, Salvador Rafael Aniceto Dalí Cusí was a middle-class lawyer and notary, an anti-clerical atheist and Catalan federalist, whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domènech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors. In the summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24. Dalí attributed his "love of everything, gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descendants of the Moors; as a child, Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, " resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute". Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother.

Dalí had a sister, Anna Maria, three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, his childhood friends included Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together. Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris; the next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1918, a site he would return to decades later. On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterine cancer. Dalí was 16 years old. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had great respect for his aunt.

In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. A lean 1.72 metres tall, Dalí drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century. At the Residencia, he became close friends with Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca; the friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances. It was his paintings in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. Since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time, his knowledge of Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot. Dalí, still unknown to the public, illustrated a book for the first time in 1924, it was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life.

Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925. At the time Dalí was not yet immersed in the Surrealist style for which he would become famous; the exhibition was well received by critics. The following year he exhibited again at Galeries Dalmau, from 31 December 1926 to 14 January 1927, with the support of the art critic Sebastià Gasch. Dalí left the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams, his mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends; as he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works influenced by Picasso and Miró. Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were evident in the 1920s. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde.

His classical influences included Rapha


Kidambi is an Indian surname. The other variants are Cidambi or Kadambi; the most common of the variants is Kidambi – this is the closest to Kilambi, the Tamil word. People holding this surname are Brahmins belonging to ‘Atreya Gotra’ and the Apastamba sutra, Taittiriya Shakha of the Krishna Yajurveda; the modern common variant ‘Kidambi’ should have come from Keezh-Ambi, a village that exists to this day between Kooram and Thiruputkuzhi in present-day Kanchipuram district. This village, adjacent to the Musaravakkam village, is populated by Brahmins belonging to the Atreya Gotra and Apastamba Sutra; this village is proximate to the divya desam of Thiruputkuzhi. Considering the Kidambis were a migrant group among Srivaishnavites, the name'Kilambi' could have morphed itself into its modern variant ‘Kidambi’ with the passage of time. Another version of history attributes Kidambis to a group of Brahmins who performed services of carrying water from the Vegavathi River to the Tiruvekkaa temple regularly.

This group earned i.e. water suppliers. Ghatambi due to linguistic evolution, could have morphed into Kidambi, when descendants of this family started migrating, Kidambi became Kadambi/Cadambi in Karnataka due to influence of Kannada, which refers to the pitcher as ‘koda’ or ‘cada’, hence the ‘Ghatambis’ came to be called the Kadambis/Cadambis. In the Andhra Region, they could have come to be called as Kidambis. However, considering that'Kadambi' is a derived name and not the original, this version does not appear all that plausible. While it seems reasonable to assume that people with this surname are Srivaishnvas, it can be quite a misleading assumption; the distinguished historian and archaeologist, C Minakshi, who belonged to a Smartha family, carried this family name, spelt as Cadambi. While the Srivaishnava traditional history and commentaries reveal several preceptors with the surname ‘Kidambi’, the earliest among them being Kidambi Aacchan little is known about the background and history of this lineage of Brahmins.

Of the little we know about them, it appears that the Kidambis hailed from a place near Kanchipuram, are associated with the people of Kooram, have been, at some point of time, associated with the divya desam of Thirupputkuzhi. This group of people, to this day, continue to be predominantly associated with the Thenkalai sect of Srivaishnavism and are svayamacharya purushas. However, a section of the Kidambis today represent the Vadakalai sect, owing affiliation to Ahobila Mutt among other institutions. Kidambi Aachaan, one of the eminent descendants of the Kidambi lineage, lived between 1057 and 1157 A. D. and is said to have hailed from this place. He was a great scholar in Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. Ramanuja honoured his scholarship by conferring on him the title of Vedantodayana, he is believed to have lived 20 more years after the ascent of Ramanuja to the divine abode Vaikuntha. Vedanta Desika, a follower of Ramanuja's tradition, refers to Kidambi Aachaan in Chapter 32 of his work'Srimad Rahasya Traya Saram'.

His son, Kumara Varadachar refers to him in his Adhikarana Chinthamani, a commentary on his father's Adhikarana Saravali. Kidambi Aacchan is the nephew of the wife of Thirumalai Nambi, he was at Thirumalai at his brother-in-law's house, when Pillan was born to the Tirumalai Nambi couple. After Pillan's Upanayana, Thirumalai Nambi entrusted his son to Kidambi Aacchan and asked him to become a disciple of Ramanuja. Ramanuja instructed him on the scriptures. Kidambi Aachaan took great interest in serving the feet of his preceptor. There was a time; the attempt failed due to the divine intervention of Lord Ranganatha. Periya Nambi and Tirukkottiyur Nambi were alarmed when they heard about this incident and rushed to Srirangam. On hearing that his preceptors were on their way to meet him, Ramanuja rushed to meet His Gurus and as they crossed the sands of Cauvery river, Ramanuja fell at their feet in the mid-day heat and continued offering his prostrations. Kidambi Aacchan was standing next to the prostrating Ramanuja and could not stand the suffering undergone by his preceptor.

He criticized Periya Nambi and Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi for allowing Ramanuja to offer repeated prostrations in the scalding heat and embraced Ramanuja in a bid to protect him. Noticing this behaviour of Aacchan, Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi said to Aacchan: "My dear Kidambi Aacchan! We waited on Ramanuja a little longer to find out if there is anyone, dear to him. Now we have found out. We entrust you with the responsibility to protect Ramanuja from any further danger.” Kidambi Aacchan accepted the command of his pracharyas and continued to perform cooking service to Ramanuja since then. The followers in the lineage of Kidambi Aacchan are thus known to belong to the "Madapalli Vazhi Vantha Sampradhayam." Around the 13th-14th century, a group of Srivaishnavas, hailing from the villages of Kooram and Kidambi near Kanchipuram, embarked on a trip to Thiruppullani to worship Lord Jagannatha and have a holy dip in the Setu ocean. On their return journey, they were asked to settle down in a village called Karappankadu near Mannargudi by Divine Command.

These settlers duly consecrated a temple for Lord Varadaraja with His idol recovered from a termite mound near Vaduvur. With the passage of time, some of these people migrated to nearby villages, forming the ‘Pancha Gramams’ or ‘Five Villages’ around Mannargudi that we see today – Karappankadu, Nammankurichi and Puliyakkudi/Selperi; some of these Srivaishnavas appear to have settled down in Srirangam

George Ashburnham, Viscount St Asaph

George Ashburnham, Viscount St Asaph, styled The Honourable George Ashburnham until 1812, was a British politician. Ashburnham was the eldest son of George Ashburnham, 3rd Earl of Ashburnham, Sophia, daughter of Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, he gained the courtesy title Viscount St Asaph when his father succeeded in the earldom in 1812. He was educated at Trinity College, graduating MA in 1805. Ashburnham was returned to Parliament for New Romney in 1807, a seat he held until 1812, represented Weobley until his death in 1813. Lord St Asaph died unmarried at Dover Street, London, in June 1813, aged only 27, his half-brother Bertram Ashburnham succeeded in the earldom. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by George Ashburnhamh