Mass often refers to the entire church service in general, but is specifically the sacrament of the Eucharist. The term mass is called in the Catholic Church, Western Rite Orthodox churches and many Old Catholic, Anglican, as well as some Lutheran churches. Some Protestants employ terms such as Divine Service or service of worship, the English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse, and was sometimes glossed as sendnes, the Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century. It is most likely derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est, however, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i. e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Already Du Cange reports various opinions on the origin of the noun missa mass, including the derivation from Hebrew matzah, here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology, medieval authorities did derive the noun missa from the verb mittere, but not in connection with the formula ite, missa est.
Thus, De divinis officiis explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo, the Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as the source and summit of the Christian life, to which the other sacraments are oriented. The Catholic Church believes that the Mass is exactly the same sacrifice that Jesus Christ offered on the Cross at Calvary, after making the sign of the cross and greeting the people liturgically, he begins the Act of Penitence. This concludes with the prayer of absolution, however. The Kyrie, eleison, is sung or said, followed by the Gloria in excelsis Deo, the Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer. On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given, on other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament, or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide, the first reading is followed by a psalm, either sung responsorially or recited. The second reading is from the New Testament, typically one of the Pauline epistles.
A Gospel Acclamation is sung as the Book of the Gospels is processed, sometimes with incense and candles, the final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel by the deacon or priest. At least on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, a homily, the Creed is professed on Sundays and solemnities, and it is desirable that in Masses celebrated with the people the Universal Prayer or Prayer of the Faithful should usually follow. The congregation responds, May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of his name, for our good, the priest pronounces the variable prayer over the gifts. The Eucharistic Prayer, the centre and high point of the entire celebration, the priest continues with one of many Eucharistic Prayer thanksgiving prefaces, which lead to the reciting of the Sanctus acclamation
The cope is a liturgical vestment, more precisely a long mantle or cloak, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp. It may be of any liturgical colour, a cope may be worn by any rank of the clergy, and by lay ministers in certain circumstances. If worn by a bishop, it is accompanied by a mitre. The clasp, which is highly ornamented, is called a morse. In art, angels are shown wearing copes, especially in Early Netherlandish painting. There has been little change in the character of the vestment from the earliest ages. Then as now it was made of a piece of silk or other cloth of semicircular shape, both are similar in form and origin to the Orthodox phelonion. The only noticeable modification which the cope has undergone lies in the disappearance of the hood, the earliest mention of a cappa is by St. Gregory of Tours, and in the Miracula of St. Furseus where it seems to mean a cloak with a hood. Moreover, the word more than once in Alcuins correspondence. But in the case of a cappa or cope, this period of specialization seems to have been delayed until much and it may be that their use in choir was believed to add to the decorum and solemnity of the Divine Office, especially in the winter season.
In 831 one of the Saint-Riquier copes is specially mentioned as being of chestnut colour and this, no doubt, implies use by a dignitary, but it does not prove that it was as yet regarded as a sacred vestment. Still, a cope was even considered a vestment that might be used by any member of the clergy from the highest to the lowest. In this movement the Netherlands and Germany had taken the lead, the custom spread to the secular canons of such cathedrals as Rouen, and cantors nearly everywhere used copes of silk as their own peculiar adornment in the exercise of their functions. Meanwhile, the old cappa nigra, or cappa choralis, a cape of black material, open or partly open in front. Whereas the copes hood had long become a non-functional decorative item. On the other hand, it is worth a note that the cappa clausa, or close cope, was simply a cope or cape sewn up in front for common outdoor use. The wearing of this, says Bishop, instead of the cappa scissa, under all these different forms the cope has not substantially changed its character or shape.
The cope is a vestment for processions worn by all ranks of the clergy when assisting at a liturgical function, at a Pontifical High Mass the cope was worn by the assistant priest, a priest who assists the bishop who is the actual celebrant
The scapular is a Christian garment suspended from the shoulders. There are two types of scapular, the monastic and devotional scapular, although both forms may simply be referred to as scapular, as an object of popular piety, it serves to remind the wearer of their commitment to live a Christian life. The monastic scapular appeared first, perhaps as early as the 7th century in the Order of Saint Benedict and it is a somewhat large length of cloth suspended both front and back from the shoulders of the wearer, often reaching to the knees. It may vary in shape, color and style, monastic scapulars originated as aprons worn by medieval monks, and were extended to habits for members of religious organizations, orders or confraternities. Monastic scapulars now form part of the habit of monks and nuns in many Christian orders, the devotional scapular is a much smaller item and evolved from the monastic scapular. These may be worn by individuals who are not members of a monastic order, the Anglican Communion considers them sacramentals.
The devotional scapular typically consists of two pieces of cloth, wood or laminated paper, a few inches in size. These are joined by two bands of cloth and the places one square on the chest, rests the bands one on each shoulder. In many cases, both forms of the scapular come with a set of promises for the faithful who wear them, some of the promises are rooted in tradition, and others have been formally approved by religious leaders. For Roman Catholics, for instance, over the centuries several popes have approved specific indulgences for scapulars, the scapular may have emerged from an apron-like piece of cloth worn by monks. Item 55 of the Rule of Saint Benedict, dating to the 7th century refers to the use of the scapular, in the Western Church the key elements of a monks habit eventually became the tunic, the cincture, the scapular and the hood. A nuns costume included the tunic, the scapular and the head veil, the monastic scapular is part of the garb, the habit, of many Christian religious orders, of both monks and nuns.
It is an outer garment about the width of the chest and it hangs down in the front and back almost to the feet, but is open on the sides. It is related to the worn in the Eastern tradition. Historically, the scapular was at times referred to as scutum, as it was laid over the head. A specific aspect of the use of the monastic scapular from its earliest days was obedience, the term yoke of Christ signified obedience and removing a scapular was like removing the yoke of Christ, i. e. rebelling against authority. For instance, the Carmelite constitution of 1281 prescribed that the Scapular should be worn to bed under penalty of serious fault, and the constitution of 1369 included automatic excommunication for a Carmelite saying mass without a scapular. In some cases the monastic scapular was used to distinguish the rank or level of the wearer within a religious order, in these cases, the great habit was simply distinguished from the little habit by the addition of a scapular decorated with the instruments of the Passion
Liturgical colours are those specific colours used for vestments and hangings within the context of Christian liturgy. The symbolism of violet, green, gold, rose, there is a distinction between the colour of the vestments worn by the clergy and their choir dress, which with a few exceptions does not change with the liturgical seasons. In the Roman Rite, as reformed by Pope Paul VI, on more solemn days, i. e. festive, more precious, sacred vestments may be used, even if not of the colour of the day. Such vestments may, for instance, be made from cloth of gold or cloth of silver, the Conference of Bishops may determine and propose to the Apostolic See adaptations suited to the needs and culture of peoples. Ritual Masses are celebrated in their colour, in white. Masses for Various Needs, on the hand, are celebrated in the colour proper to the day or the season or in violet if they bear a penitential character. Votive Masses are celebrated in the colour suited to the Mass itself or even in the proper to the day or the season.
In the Philippines, it is authorised for all feasts of the Virgin Mary, there have been uses of blue in place of violet for the season of Advent despite the fact that this practice is prohibited under liturgical law. White is used for East Asian Masses for the dead, furthermore, if not enough vestments of the proper colour are available, white may be used for all concelebrants. Violet or black are often permitted on national holidays honoring military dead, for example in Canada, they are used on Remembrance Day. Gold or silver may be worn on more occasions in the Dioceses of the United States. The Roman Missal, as revised by Pope John XXIII in 1962, was authorised for use as a form of the Roman Rite by Pope Benedict XVI by the 2007 motu proprio entitled Summorum Pontificum. Pope John XXIIIs revision of the Missal incorporated changes that he had made with his motu proprio Rubricarum instructum of 29 July 1960, the scheme of colours in his Missal reflected usage that had become fixed in Rome by the twelfth century.
In the Greek tradition, maroon or burgundy are common for solemn feast days, and a variety of colours are used at other times. Slavic-use churches and others influenced by Western traditions have adopted a cycle of liturgical colours, the particulars may change from place to place, but generally, The colours would be changed before Vespers on the eve of the day being commemorated. During Great Feasts, the colour is changed before the service that begins the first day of a forefeast. According to the Russian Orthodox Churchs Nastolnaya Kniga Sviashchenno-sluzhitelia, up to eight different liturgical colours may be used throughout the year, exact usage of these colours varies, but the following are the most common uses. The Coptic tradition, followed by the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Coptic Catholic Church, only uses white vestments, with gold, the only exception is during Passion Week when black is used
Antinopolis was a little to the south of the Egyptian village of Besa, named after the goddess and oracle of Besa, which was consulted occasionally even as late as the age of Constantine I. Antinopolis was built at the foot of the hill upon which Besa was seated, the city is located nearly opposite of Hermopolis Magna, and was connected to Berenice Troglodytica by the Via Hadriana. During the New Kingdom, the city was the location of Ramesses IIs great temple, dedicated to the gods of Khmun, the city of Antinopolis exhibited the Graeco-Roman architecture of Hadrians age in immediate contrast with the Egyptian style. The city was the center of the cult of Antinous. It first belonged to the Heptanomis, but under Diocletian Antinopolis became the capital of the nome of the Thebaid, according to the Greek Menaea, it was at Antinoe that Saint Julian underwent martyrdom during the Persecutions of Diocletian. As a cultural center, it was the city of the 4th-century mathematician Serenus of Antinopolis.
Antinopolis was still a most illustrious city in a divorce decree of 569 AD. No longer a residential bishopric, Antinoë is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see, the city was abandoned around the 10th century. It continued to host a massive Greco-Roman temple until the 19th century, the city of Antinopolis was governed by its own senate and prytaneus or president. Divine honours were paid in the Antinoeion to Antinous as a local deity, the earliest finds at the site date to the New Kingdom, when Bes and Hathor were important deities. A grotto, once inhabited by Christian anchorites, probably marks the seat of the shrine and oracle, the ruins of Antinopolis attest, by the area which they fill, the ancient grandeur of the city. The direction of the streets may still be traced. One at least of them, which ran north to south, had on either side of it a corridor supported by columns for the convenience of foot-passengers. The walls of the theatre near the gate, and those of the hippodrome without the walls to the east, are still extant.
As far as can be ascertained from the space covered with mounds of masonry, Antinopolis was about a mile and a half in length, and nearly half a mile broad. Albert Gayet was known as the “archaeologist of Antinopolis” and, without his research and documentation of the site. Though there is data of Antinopolis recorded from the Napoleon Commission. As Christianity began to spread through the Roman Empire, Antinopolis became a place of worship, centuries after the city of Antinous was established by the Roman emperor, Christianity became the way of life
Egypt (Roman province)
The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula. Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West, the province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy. Aegyptus was by far the wealthiest Eastern Roman province, in Alexandria, its capital, it possessed the largest port, and the second largest city, of the Roman Empire. As a province, Egypt was ruled by a uniquely styled Augustal prefect, the prefect was a man of equestrian rank and was appointed by the Emperor. The second prefect, Aelius Gallus, made an expedition to conquer Arabia Petraea. The Red Sea coast of Aegyptus was not brought under Roman control until the reign of Claudius, the third prefect, Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture. Petronius even led a campaign into present-day central Sudan against the Kingdom of Kush at Meroe, failing to acquire permanent gains, in 22 BC he razed the city of Napata to the ground and retreated to the north.
From the reign of Nero onward, Aegyptus enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century, under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous, from his reign onward buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Antoninus Pius oppressive taxation led to a revolt in 139, of the native Egyptians and this Bucolic War, led by one Isidorus, caused great damage to the economy and marked the beginning of Egypts economic decline. Avidius Cassius, who led the Roman forces in the war, declared emperor in 175. On the approach of Marcus Aurelius, Cassius was deposed and killed, a similar revolt broke out in 193, when Pescennius Niger was proclaimed emperor on the death of Pertinax. The Emperor Septimius Severus gave a constitution to Alexandria and the capitals in 202.
There was a series of revolts, both military and civilian, through the 3rd century, under Decius, in 250, the Christians again suffered from persecution, but their religion continued to spread. This warrior queen claimed that Egypt was a home of hers through a familial tie to Cleopatra VII. She was well educated and familiar with the culture of Egypt, its religion, two generals based in Aegyptus and Domitius Domitianus, led successful revolts and made themselves emperors. Diocletian captured Alexandria from Domitius in 298 and reorganised the whole province and his edict of 303 against the Christians began a new era of persecution. This was the last serious attempt to stem the growth of Christianity in Egypt
It has been employed, although less frequently, in the Anglican Communion and Lutheran churches. Its development began during the century in Constantinople and it is now the second most-used rite in Christendom after the Roman Rite. Traditionally, the stands throughout the whole service, and an iconostasis separates the sanctuary from the nave of the church. The faithful are very active in their worship, making frequent bows and prostrations, traditionally, the major clergy and monks neither shave nor cut their hair or beards. Scripture plays a role in Byzantine worship, with not only daily readings. The entire psalter is read each week, and twice weekly during Great Lent, fasting is stricter than in the Roman rite. On fast days, the faithful give up not only meat, but dairy products, and on many fast days they give up fish, the rite observes four fasting seasons, Great Lent, Nativity Fast, Apostles Fast and Dormition Fast. In addition, most Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year are fast days, there are two ancient liturgical traditions from which all of the Eastern Rites developed, the Alexandrian rite in Egypt and the Antiochene Rite in Syria.
These two Rites developed directly from practices of the Early Church, of these two traditions, the Rite of Constantinople developed from the Antiochene Rite. Prior to the see of Constantinoples elevation to the dignity of patriarch by the Second Ecumenical Council in 381, with the councils elevation of Constantinople to primacy in the East, with the words The Bishop of Constantinople. Further developments continued to occur, centered mostly around Constantinople and Mount Athos, monasticism played an important role in the development of the rituals. In Constantinople, the work of the monastery of the Studion greatly enriched the liturgical traditions, iconography continued to develop and a canon of traditional patterns evolved which still influences Eastern religious art to this day. Historical events have influenced the development of the liturgy, the great Christological and Trinitarian controversies of Late Antiquity are reflected in the glorifications of the Trinity heard in the numerous ekphonies encountered during the services.
All liturgical rites change and develop over time, as new saints are canonized, new hymns are composed, as new needs arise, new prayers are written. The rite profits from the fact that the Christian East is not so centralized in ecclesiastical polity as the West and this allows for greater diversity, and as members of one church visit another, a natural cross-pollination occurs with resultant enrichment on all sides. In spite of its emphasis on tradition, the Byzantine Rite comprises a constantly growing and expanding ritual. The tradition of the Church of Constantinople ascribes the oldest of its two main Divine Liturgies to St. Basil the Great, Metropolitan of Cæsarea in Cappadocia and this tradition is confirmed by the witness of several ancient authors, some of whom were contemporaries. It is certain that St. St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea. Basil had as his goal the streamlining of the services to make them more cohesive and attractive to the faithful
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood, Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop in shepherding a flock, the earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In, we see a system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just. In, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia, in Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more clearly defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete to oversee the local church, Paul commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops and to exercise general oversight, telling him to rebuke with all authority.
Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches, eventually, as Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to each congregation. Around the end of the 1st century, the organization became clearer in historical documents. While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who dont recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city, plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6,1.
Your godly bishop — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2,1, therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7,1. Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13,2. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3,1. Follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles, and to the deacons pay respect, as to Gods commandment — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8,1. He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God, he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9,1
Deacon is a ministry in Christian Churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the diaconate, the term for an office, is a clerical office. The word deacon is derived from the Greek word diákonos, which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning servant, waiting-man, minister, or messenger. One commonly promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it literally means through the dust, female deacons are mentioned by Pliny the Younger in a letter to the emperor Trajan dated c. The title deaconess is not found in the Bible, however, a woman, Phoebe, is mentioned at Romans 16, 1–2 as a deacon of the church in Cenchreae. Nothing more specific is said about her duties or authority, the exact relationship between male and female deacons varies. A biblical description of the qualities required of a deacon, and of his household, can be found in 1 Timothy 3, prominent historical figures who played major roles as deacons and went on to higher office include Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Thomas Becket and Reginald Pole.
On June 8, A. D.536 a serving Roman deacon was raised to Pope and his father, Pope Agapetus, had died and the office had been vacant for over a month. The title is used for the president, chairperson, or head of a trades guild in Scotland. The diaconate is one of the orders in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox. The other major orders are those of bishop and presbyter, the diaconate continued in a vestigial form as a temporary, final step along the course toward ordination to priesthood. In Catholic and Anglican churches, deacons assist priests in their pastoral and administrative duties and they have a distinctive role in the liturgy of the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church, deacons have a profound presence in the Divine Liturgy. In the Western Church, Pope St. Today, deacons are granted permission to preach, beginning around the fifth century, there was a gradual decline in the permanent diaconate in the Latin church. It has however remained a part of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
These men are known as permanent deacons in contrast to those continuing their formation, there is no sacramental or canonical difference between the two, however, as there is only one order of deacons. The permanent diaconate formation period in the Roman Catholic Church varies from diocese to diocese as it is determined by the local ordinary, although they are assigned to work in a parish by the diocesan bishop, once assigned, deacons are under the supervision of the parish pastor. Unlike most clerics, permanent deacons who have a profession have no right to receive a salary for their ministry
Our Lady of Manaoag
Our Lady of Manaoag is a Roman Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated in Manaoag, the Philippines. The ivory image which bears its title dates from the 16th century and is enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary of Manaoag. The shrine is a pilgrimage site in the country and is administered by the Order of Preachers within the Archdiocese of Lingayen-Dagupan. Pope Pius XI granted a Canonical Coronation to the image on 21 April 1926, tradition holds the town of Manaoag was derived from the Pangasinense verb mantaoag, which means to call. The statue of Our Lady of Manaoag is a 17th-century ivory image of the Virgin Mary with the Child Jesus enshrined at the altar of the Basilica. It was brought to the Philippines from Spain via the Manila galleon from Acapulco, Viceroyalty of New Mexico, documents dating back to 1610 attest that a middle-aged farmer walking home heard a mysterious female voice. He looked around and saw on a cloud-veiled treetop an apparition of the Virgin Mary, holding a rosary in her hand and The Child Jesus in her left arm.
Mary told the farmer where she wanted her church to be built, and our Lady of the Rosary is depicted in other countries with similar attributes, with the accoutrements and style of the vestments varying across cultures. The Manaoag image is distinct from other statues in its sculpture and regalia, a pilgrim replica of the image exists and is toured around parishes in the Philippines for veneration. The image of Our Lady of Manaoag and her bejewelled crown are considered priceless, there have been several attempts to burglarise the Manaoag Shrine of the jewels sewn into the icons dress and set into its regalia which include crowns, rosary and marshals baton. Several of her golden crowns and haloes are deposited at the shrines museum, an expensive collection of liturgical vestments that have been used by the image and the Dominican priests are on display, as are an array of perfumes used to anoint the image. These are ex-votos given by devotees and pilgrims from around the world, the image of Our Lady of Manaoag is fully secured within a bulletproof glass enclosure above the new high altar, which has additional wood carvings, an elevated pedestal, and four golden candelabras.
The coat-of-arms of the Dominicans is embedded above the window as a demonstration of the Orders devotion to her. The bas-relief, made of narra carvings beneath her throne that beautifully depicts the events in the devotion to Our Lady, has been refurbished. The archdiocese, in line with the Filipino custom of venerating an image by touching its body or clothing, the room has pews in front of the alcove behind the images shrine. Supplicants kneel before the small window behind the images base to pray and touch the hem of the images mantle. After venerating the image, devotees pass through the religious goods shop on their way out, some of the earliest miracles attributed to Our Lady of Manaoag, including the original apparition, are depicted in the murals in the church. In the early days of the Spanish era, animist mountain tribes burnt down newly-Christianised villages, the town of Manaoag was among the settlements that were burnt by the raiders, sending the locals fleeing to the thatch-roofed church
The mitre or miter, is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity. The Metropolitan of the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church wears a mitre during important ceremonies such as the Episcopal Consecration, the former two meanings have been etymologically connected with the word μίτος, mítos, but the connection is tenuous at best. The camelaucum, the headdress, that both the mitre and the Papal tiara stem from, was originally a cap used by officials of the Imperial Byzantine court, the tiara probably developed from the Phrygian cap, or frigium, a conical cap worn in the Graeco-Roman world. In the 10th century the tiara was pictured on papal coins, other sources claim the tiara developed the other way around, from the mitre. In the late Empire it developed into the type of Imperial crown used by Byzantine Emperors. Worn by a bishop, the mitre is depicted for the first time in two miniatures of the beginning of the eleventh century, the first written mention of it is found in a Bull of Pope Leo IX in the year 1049.
By 1150 the use had spread to throughout the West. In its modern form in Western Christianity, the mitre is a tall folding cap, two short lappets always hang down from the back. In the Catholic Church, the right to wear the mitre is confined by Canon law to bishops and to abbots, as it appears in the ceremony of consecration of a bishop and blessing of an abbot. Cardinals are now supposed to be bishops, but even cardinals who are not bishops. Other prelates have been granted the use of the mitre by special privilege, former distinctions between mitred abbots and non-mitred abbots have been abolished. Three types of mitres are worn by Roman Catholic clergy for different occasions, The simplex is made of undecorated white linen or silk and it is worn most notably at funerals, Lenten time, on Good Friday and by concelebrant bishops at a Mass. Cardinals in the presence of the Pope wear a mitre of white linen damask, the pretiosa is decorated with precious stones and gold and worn on the principal Mass on the most solemn Sundays and feast days.
This type of mitre is rarely decorated with precious stones today, the proper colour of a mitre is always white, although in liturgical usage white includes vestments made from gold and silver fabrics. The embroidered bands and other ornaments which adorn a mitre and the lappets may be of other colours, although coloured mitres are sometimes sold and worn at present, this is probably due to the maker’s or wearer’s lack of awareness of liturgical tradition. On all occasions, a server may wear a shawl-like veil, called a vimpa. The person wearing a vimpa is occasionally referred to as a vimpa. When a vimpa holds the crosier, he holds the crook facing inward, with his inauguration as pope, Benedict XVI broke with tradition and replaced the papal tiara even on his papal coat of arms with a papal mitre and pallium
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a mainline Protestant denomination, and a major part of Methodism. In the 19th century, its main predecessor—the Methodist Church—was a leader in Evangelicalism and it was founded in 1968 in Dallas, United States, by union of the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church. The UMC traces its roots back to the movement of John. As such, the theological orientation is decidedly Wesleyan. It embraces both liturgical and evangelical elements and it has a connectional polity, a typical feature of a number of Methodist denominations. The United Methodist Church, with at least 12 million members as of 2014, is the largest denomination within the wider Methodist movement of approximately 80 million people across the world. In the United States, the UMC ranks as the largest mainline Protestant denomination, the largest Protestant church after the Southern Baptist Convention, and the third largest Christian denomination. In 2014, its membership was distributed as follows,7.2 million in the United States.
It is a member of the World Council of Churches, the World Methodist Council, the movement which would become The United Methodist Church began in the mid-18th century within the Church of England. A small group of students, including John Wesley, Charles Wesley and George Whitefield and they focused on Bible study, methodical study of scripture and living a holy life. Other students mocked them, saying they were the Holy Club, the so-called Methodists started individual societies or classes for members of the Church of England who wanted to live a more religious life. In 1735, John and Charles Wesley went to America, hoping to teach the gospel to the American Indians in the colony of Georgia, John became vicar of the church in Savannah. His preaching was very legalistic and full of rules. After two years in America, he returned to England dejected and confused, Peter believed a person is saved solely through the grace of God and not by works, and John had many conversations with Peter about this topic.
On May 25,1738, after listening to a reading of Martin Luthers preface to Romans, John finally understood that his works could not save him. For the first time in his life, he felt complete peace, in less than two years, the Holy Club disbanded. John Wesley met with a group of clergy, the ministers retained their membership in the Church of England. Though not always emphasized or appreciated in the Anglican churches of their day, their teaching emphasized salvation by Gods grace, three teachings they saw as the foundation of Christian faith were, People are all by nature dead in sin and consequently, children of wrath