Dangerous goods

Dangerous goods, abbreviated DG, are substances that when transported are a risk to health, property or the environment. Certain dangerous goods that pose risks when not being transported are known as hazardous materials. Hazardous materials are subject to chemical regulations. Hazmat teams are personnel specially trained to handle dangerous goods, which include materials that are radioactive, explosive, oxidizing, biohazardous, pathogenic, or allergenic. Included are physical conditions such as compressed gases and liquids or hot materials, including all goods containing such materials or chemicals, or may have other characteristics that render them hazardous in specific circumstances. In the United States, dangerous goods are indicated by diamond-shaped signage on the item, its container, or the building where it is stored; the color of each diamond indicates its hazard, e.g. flammable is indicated with red, because fire and heat are of red color, explosive is indicated with orange, because mixing red with yellow creates orange.

A nonflammable and nontoxic gas is indicated with green, because all compressed air vessels are this color in France after World War II, France was where the diamond system of hazmat identification originated. Mitigating the risks associated with hazardous materials may require the application of safety precautions during their transport, use and disposal. Most countries regulate hazardous materials by law, they are subject to several international treaties as well. So, different countries may use different class diamonds for the same product. For example, in Australia, anhydrous ammonia UN 1005 is classified as 2.3 with subsidiary hazard 8, whereas in the U. S. it is only classified as 2.2. People who handle dangerous goods will wear protective equipment, metropolitan fire departments have a response team trained to deal with accidents and spills. Persons who may come into contact with dangerous goods as part of their work are often subject to monitoring or health surveillance to ensure that their exposure does not exceed occupational exposure limits.

Laws and regulations on the use and handling of hazardous materials may differ depending on the activity and status of the material. For example, one set of requirements may apply to their use in the workplace while a different set of requirements may apply to spill response, sale for consumer use, or transportation. Most countries regulate some aspect of hazardous materials; the most applied regulatory scheme is that for the transportation of dangerous goods. The United Nations Economic and Social Council issues the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, which form the basis for most regional and international regulatory schemes. For instance, the International Civil Aviation Organization has developed dangerous goods regulations for air transport of hazardous materials that are based upon the UN model but modified to accommodate unique aspects of air transport. Individual airline and governmental requirements are incorporated with this by the International Air Transport Association to produce the used IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations.

The International Maritime Organization has developed the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code for transportation of dangerous goods by sea. IMO member countries have developed the HNS Convention to provide compensation in case of dangerous goods spills in the sea; the Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail has developed the regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail. Many individual nations have structured their dangerous goods transportation regulations to harmonize with the UN model in organization as well as in specific requirements; the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals is an internationally agreed upon system set to replace the various classification and labeling standards used in different countries. The GHS uses consistent criteria for labeling on a global level. Dangerous goods are divided into nine classes on the basis of the specific chemical characteristics producing the risk.

Note: The graphics and text in this article representing the dangerous goods safety marks are derived from the United Nations-based system of identifying dangerous goods. Not all countries use the same graphics in their national regulations; some use graphic symbols, but without English wording or with similar wording in their national language. Refer to the dangerous goods transportation regulations of the country of interest. For example, see the TDG Bulletin: Dangerous Goods Safety Marks based on the Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations; the statement above applies to all the dangerous goods classes discussed in this article. The Australian Dangerous Goods Code, seventh edition complies with international standards of importation and exportation of dangerous goods in line with the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Australia uses the standard international UN numbers with a few different signs on the back and sides of vehicles carrying hazardous substances.

The country uses the same "Hazchem" code system as the UK to provide advisory information to emergency services personnel in the event of an emergency. New Zealand's L

List of historic properties in Patagonia, Arizona

This is a list which includes a photographic gallery, of some of the structures of historic significance in Patagonia, Arizona. Patagonia is a town in Santa Cruz County, Arizona which lies in a narrow valley between the Santa Rita Mountains to the north and the Patagonia Mountains to the south. Patagonia was an important supply center for nearby mines and ranches; the area where Patagonia is located provided the Anasazi, an early Native-American tribe, with plentiful hunting and fishing opportunities. Ruins of the ancient settlements and petroglyphs of the Anasazi have been found archaeologists; the area was known as seasonal village, called Sonoitac. In 1539, Spanish explorer Fray Marcos de Niza entered the area near Lochiel on the Mexican border.. He continued on his journey to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico known as the Seven Cities of Cibola. Marcos de Niza is credited with being the first European in; the main Native-American tribes in the area at that time were the Papago tribes. In 1692, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino came to the area as a missionary.

His main objective was to convert the natives to Catholicism. The area became part of his "La Mission en Guevavi". By 1698, Father Kino encouraged his group to make their way up to the Sonoita Creek; when they arrived in Sonoita Creek they encountered groups of indigenous people living along the area in which the creek was located. In the future that area would become known as Patagonia. According to Gilbert Quiroga, president of the Patagonia Museum, Welsh miners that had come from Patagonia in South America came to this region. Patagonia in South America is a region encompassing the vast southernmost tip of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile, with the Andes Mountains as its dividing line; the mountains in the area of Arizona, which the Native-Americans called Chihuahuillas, reminded them of those mountains in Patagonia, South America and as such they began calling them the Patagonia Mountains. The mission period was ended in 1768 by a decree of Charles III of Spain. In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence between Mexico and Spain came to an end and the territory of New Spain, which included Arizona, was ceded to Mexico.

By the mid-1850's prospectors were mining the silver-rich mountains east of Sonoita. By the 1860s vast amounts of silver and lead were retrieved from the Patagonia Mountains each year. In 1854, the United States purchased the region from Mexico in what is known as the Gadsden Purchase. Americans of European descent from the East Coast of the United States began to arrive in the area, they were protected from the content attacks of the Apaches by the United States Military. However, The majority of the troops were withdrawn from the area upon the outbreak of the American Civil War. Fort Buchanan, a small garrison established in 1856 near Sonoita, was overrun by the Apaches. Thus, the miners and farmers in the region were without protection from the Apaches and many of them moved to other areas; the Civil War between the North and the South ended in 1865. In 1867, the United States Army established; the camp, renamed Fort Crittenden, was involved in a campaign against the Apache with the intention of protecting the American pioneers in the area.

The miners and farmers returned to the area once more. Rollin Rice Richardson, a veteran of the Civil War, made a fortune in mining. In 1896, Rollin hired J. C. Green, a surveyor from Tucson, to plot the settlement; as a result, he founded the town that same year and in 1899, he applied to open a post office. Richardson wanted the town to be named "Rollin" in his honor, however the residents of the area opposed, they petitioned the United States Post Master General to name the town Patagonia after the nearby mountain. Patagonia was recognized as the official name of the town in 1900 by the United States Postal Office Department in Washington, D. C; that same year, a two-story railroad depot was built and Patagonia became the commercial center of the mining district in the Santa Cruz County. The ranching and cattle industry played an important role in the economy of Patagonia; the arrival of the New Mexico and Arizona Railroad to Patagonia gave the ranchers and miners a new outlet for their products and access to manufactured goods.

By 1917, Patagonia had running water, an Opera House, three hotels, a schoolhouse, two parks and several stores and saloons. Richardson ruled the town until his death in 1923. Patagonia was formally incorporated in 1948; the Patagonia Museum, located in the 1914 Patagonia Grammar School on 100 School Street, is a nonprofit organization dedicated to collecting and preserving the culture and history of eastern Santa Cruz County. There are two properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places, they are: Cady Hall and The Little Outfit Schoolhouse; the Little Outfit Schoolhouse is a ranch school, built in 1940 on the Little Outfit Ranch in the San Rafael Valley. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in January 8, 2009, reference: #08001275; the following is a list of the structures. The Old Miners House - built in 1905 and located at 260 Naugle Ave, it now houses Grayce's Gift Shop. The Marshals Office - built in 1898 and located at 287 McKeown Ave; the Patagonia Lumber Company - built in 1915 and located at 295 McKeown Ave.

The building now houses a business called Pilates Patagonia. The Stage Stop Inn - built in 1960 and located at 303 McKeown Avenue The Rollin Rice Richardson House - built in 1890 and located 371 at McKeown Ave; the Mesquite Grove Gallery - built in 1900 and located at 375 McKeown Ave. The Patagonia Train Depot - built in 1900 a

Chalon people

The Chalon people are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone people of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. Chalon is the name of their spoken language, listed as one of the Ohlone languages of the Utian family. Recent work suggests that Chalon may be transitional between the northern and southern groups of Ohlone languages; the original Chalon homeland area is the subject of some local controversy. Initial studies in the early twentieth century placed them in the portion of the Salinas Valley that surrounds the modern town of Soledad, as well as in the adjacent lower Arroyo Seco area to the west and Chalon Creek are to the east. In contrast, a late twentieth century study gives the Spanish-contact period Chalon people the rugged Coast Range valleys centered farther to the east, including upper Chalon Creek, the San Benito River east of the Salinas Valley, the small creeks around San Benito Mountain; the latter study assigns most of that Salinas Valley area to the Eslenajan local tribe of Esselen speakers.

Specific Chalon material culture was never documented, but beyond doubt it was a hunter-gatherer culture based upon deer and acorn harvest, typical of the ethnographic California culture area. Chalon territory was bordered by the Mutsun to the east, Rumsen to the north, Esselen in the Salinas Valley to the west, Salinan to the south, Yokuts in the San Joaquin Valley to the east. During the era of Spanish missions in California, the Chalon people's lives changed with the founding of Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad in 1791. Most Chalon speakers were forced into the mission between 1795 and 1814, where they were baptized and educated to be Catholic neophytes known as Mission Indians. At Mission Soledad many Chalon married local Esselen speakers, while others married Yokuts who were brought into the mission between 1806 and 1834; the Soledad mission was discontinued by the Mexican Government in 1835 during the period of secularization, at which time the survivors scattered. Most went to work on the farms and ranches of west-central California, while many with Yokuts ancestry moved east into the San Joaquin Valley.

The term Chalon was documented by the Franciscan priests in their Mission Soledad ecclesiastical records. The term applied to a region, since individuals were baptized from specific villages such as "Ponojo del Chalon" and "Zusotica del Chalon." Anthropologist A. L. Kroeber, who first mapped the Chalon language area, presumed that it surrounded Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad on the Salinas River. A recent alternative analysis places the Eslenajan local tribe of Esselen language speakers as the inhabitants of the Soledad vicinity at the founding of the mission, places the Guachirron local tribe as Rumsen speakers farther north near Monterey Bay, places the villages of Chalon to the east of the Salinas Valley. Chalon language overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages