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Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli FRS was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics fluid mechanics, for his pioneering work in probability and statistics, his name is commemorated in the Bernoulli's principle, a particular example of the conservation of energy, which describes the mathematics of the mechanism underlying the operation of two important technologies of the 20th century: the carburetor and the airplane wing. Daniel Bernoulli was born in Groningen, in the Netherlands, into a family of distinguished mathematicians; the Bernoulli family came from Antwerp, at that time in the Spanish Netherlands, but emigrated to escape the Spanish persecution of the Protestants. After a brief period in Frankfurt the family moved in Switzerland. Daniel was a nephew of Jacob Bernoulli, he had two brothers and Johann II. Daniel Bernoulli was described by W. W. Rouse Ball as "by far the ablest of the younger Bernoullis".

He is said to have had a bad relationship with his father. Upon both of them entering and tying for first place in a scientific contest at the University of Paris, unable to bear the "shame" of being compared Daniel's equal, banned Daniel from his house. Johann Bernoulli plagiarized some key ideas from Daniel's book Hydrodynamica in his own book Hydraulica which he backdated to before Hydrodynamica. Despite Daniel's attempts at reconciliation, his father carried the grudge until his death. Around schooling age, his father, Johann Bernoulli, encouraged him to study business, there being poor rewards awaiting a mathematician. However, Daniel refused, he gave in to his father's wish and studied business. His father asked him to study in medicine, Daniel agreed under the condition that his father would teach him mathematics which they continued for some time. Daniel studied medicine at Basel and Strasbourg, earned a PhD in anatomy and botany in 1721, he was a close friend of Leonhard Euler. He went to St. Petersburg in 1724 as professor of mathematics, but was unhappy there, a temporary illness in 1733 gave him an excuse for leaving St. Petersburg.

He returned to the University of Basel, where he successively held the chairs of medicine and natural philosophy until his death. In May, 1750 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, his earliest mathematical work was the Exercitationes, published in 1724 with the help of Goldbach. Two years he pointed out for the first time the frequent desirability of resolving a compound motion into motions of translation and motion of rotation, his chief work is Hydrodynamica, published in 1738. It resembles Joseph Louis Lagrange's Mécanique Analytique in being arranged so that all the results are consequences of a single principle, conservation of energy; this was followed by a memoir on the theory of the tides, to which, conjointly with the memoirs by Euler and Colin Maclaurin, a prize was awarded by the French Academy: these three memoirs contain all, done on this subject between the publication of Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica and the investigations of Pierre-Simon Laplace.

Bernoulli wrote a large number of papers on various mechanical questions on problems connected with vibrating strings, the solutions given by Brook Taylor and by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Together Bernoulli and Euler tried to discover more about the flow of fluids. In particular, they wanted to know about the relationship between the speed at which blood flows and its pressure. To investigate this, Daniel experimented by puncturing the wall of a pipe with a small open ended straw and noted that the height to which the fluid rose up the straw was related to fluid's pressure in the pipe. Soon physicians all over Europe were measuring patients' blood pressure by sticking point-ended glass tubes directly into their arteries, it was not until about 170 years in 1896 that an Italian doctor discovered a less painful method, still in use today. However, Bernoulli's method of measuring pressure is still used today in modern aircraft to measure the speed of the air passing the plane. Taking his discoveries further, Daniel Bernoulli now returned to his earlier work on Conservation of Energy.

It was known that a moving body exchanges its kinetic energy for potential energy when it gains height. Daniel realised that in a similar way, a moving fluid exchanges its specific kinetic energy for pressure, the former being the kinetic energy per unit volume. Mathematically this law is now written: 1 2 ρ u 2 + P = constant where P is pressure, ρ is the density of the fluid and u is its velocity. In his 1738 book Specimen theoriae novae de mensura sortis, Bernoulli offered a solution to the St. Petersburg paradox as the basis of the economic theory of risk aversion, risk premium, utility. Bernoulli noticed that when making decisions that involved some uncertainty, people did not always try to maximize their possible monetary gain, but rather tried to maximize "utility", an economic term encompassing their personal satisfaction and benefit. Bernoulli realized that for humans, there is a direct relationship between money gained and util

George Dickey

George Willard Dickey was a backup catcher in Major League Baseball who played for two different teams between 1935 and 1947. Listed at 6 ft 2 in, 180 lb. Dickey was a switch-hitter and threw right-handed, he was the younger brother of Hall of Famer Bill Dickey. A native of Kensett, Dickey entered the majors in 1935 with the Boston Red Sox, playing for them until 1936 before joining the Chicago White Sox, he was one of many major leaguers who saw his baseball career interrupted when he joined the US Navy during World War II. His most productive season came with the 1947 White Sox, when he appeared in a career-high 83 games while hitting.223 with one home run, six doubles, 27 runs batted in. In a six-season career, Dickey was a.204 hitter with four home runs and 54 RBI in 226 games, including 36 runs, 12 doubles, four stolen bases. Dickey died in DeWitt, Arkansas, at the age of 60. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference BR Bullpen Retrosheet Baseball in Wartime

Trolleybuses in Johannesburg

The Johannesburg trolleybus system was part of the public transport network in Johannesburg, South Africa, for nearly 50 years in the mid-twentieth century. Opened on 26 August 1936, the system supplemented the Johannesburg tramway network; the system partially replaced the tramway network, which lasted for several more decades until its closure on 2 August 1961. However, the system itself has since been closed, on 10 January 1986. James Hall Transport Museum History of Johannesburg List of trolleybus systems Beeton, Frank. "The time of the trolleybus". FOCUS On Logistics. FOCUS On Logistics. Retrieved 2 March 2012. Broken link Pabst, Martin. Tram & Trolley in Africa. Krefeld: Röhr Verlag. ISBN 3-88490-152-4. Patton, Brian. Double-Deck Trolleybuses of the World: Beyond the British Isles. Brora, Sutherland: Adam Gordon. ISBN 978-1-874422-50-1. Media related to Trolleybuses in South Africa at Wikimedia Commons Flickr image of a Johannesburg trolleybus, 1968 Flickr image of a Johannesburg trolleybus, 1984

Fred D. Fagg Jr.

Fred Dow Fagg Jr. was president of the University of Southern California between 1947 and 1957. Fagg attended the University of Redlands. During World War I Fagg became a pursuit pilot in the U. S. Air Service based in England with the 92d Aero Squadron. Fagg received a law degree in 1927 from Northwestern University and taught there. Fagg was the fourth dean of Kellogg School of Management, from 1937 to 1939. Fagg was the second of three directors of the short-lived Bureau of Air Commerce in the United States Department of Commerce, from March 1937 to April 1938. Fagg's son, Fred D. Fagg III was dean of the Northwestern School of Law at Lewis & Clark History of USC Kellogg School of Management: History Northwestern University Fred D. Fagg, Jr. Papers, Northwestern University Archives, Illinois L&C Chronicle - Our Condolences Fred Dow Fagg, Jr. Papers, Northwestern University Archives, Illinois

Scottish diaspora

The Scottish diaspora consists of Scottish people who emigrated from Scotland and their descendants. The diaspora is concentrated in countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and to a lesser extent Argentina and Brazil. A Scottish Argentine population has existed at least since 1825. There are an estimated 100,000 Argentines of Scottish ancestry, the most of any country outside the English-speaking world. Scottish Argentines have been incorrectly referred to as English. Scottish people have a long history in Canada. Many towns and mountains have been named in honour of Scottish explorers and traders such as Mackenzie Bay and Calgary is named after a Scottish beach. Most notably, the Atlantic province of Nova Scotia is Latin for New Scotland. Once Scots formed the vanguard of the movement of Europeans across the continent. In more modern times, emigrants from Scotland have played a leading role in the social and economic history of Canada, being prominent in banking, labour unions, politics.

The first documented Scottish settlement in the Americas was of Nova Scotia in 1629. On 29 September 1621, the charter for the foundation of a colony was granted by James VI of Scotland to Sir William Alexander. Between 1622 and 1628, Sir William launched four attempts to send colonists to Nova Scotia. A successful occupation of Nova Scotia was achieved in 1629; the colony's charter, in law, made Nova Scotia a part of mainland Scotland. The Scots have influenced the cultural mix of Nova Scotia for centuries and constitute the largest ethnic group in the province, at 29.3% of its population. Many Scottish immigrants were monoglot Scottish Gaelic speakers from the Gàidhealtachd. Canadian Gaelic was spoken as the first language in much of "Anglophone" Canada, such as Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Glengarry County in Ontario. Gaelic was the third most spoken language in Canada; as the third-largest ethnic group in Canada and amongst the first Europeans to settle in the country, Scottish people have made a large impact on Canadian culture since colonial times.

According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the number of Canadians claiming full or partial Scottish descent is 4,714,970, or 15.10% of the nation's total population. A large proportion of Scottish Chileans are sheep farmers in the Magallanes region of the far south of the country, the city of Punta Arenas has a large Scottish foundation dating back to the 18th century. A famous Scot, Lord Cochrane formed the Chilean Navy to help liberate Chile from Spain in the independence period. Chile developed a strong diplomatic relationship with Great Britain and invited more British settlers to the country in the 19th century; the Chilean government land deals invited settlement from Scotland and Wales in its southern provinces in the 1840s and 1850s. The number of Scottish Chileans is still higher in Magallanes regions; the Mackay School, in Viña del Mar is an example of a school set up by Scottish Chileans. The Scottish and other British Chileans are found in higher education as well in economic management and the country's cultural life.

In the 2013 American Community Survey 5,310,285 identified as Scottish & 2,976,878 Scots-Irish descent. Large scale emigration from Scotland to America began in the 1700s after the Battle of Culloden where the Clan structures were broken up. Anti-Catholic persecution and the Highland Clearances obliged many Scottish Gaels to emigrate; the Scots went in search of a better life and settled in the thirteen colonies around South Carolina and Virginia. The number of Americans of Scottish descent today is estimated to be 20 to 25 million, Scotch-Irish, 27 to 30 million, the subgroups overlapping and not always distinguishable because of their shared ancestral surnames; the majority of Scotch-Irish came from Lowland Scotland and the Scottish Borders before migrating to the province of Ulster in Ireland and thence, beginning about five generations to North America in large numbers during the eighteenth century. The table shows the ethnic Scottish population in the United States from 1700 to 2013. In 1700 the total population of the American colonies was 250,888 of which 223,071 were white and 3.0% were ethnically Scottish.

In the 2000 census, 4.8 million Americans self-reported Scottish ancestry, 1.7% of the total US population. Another 4.3 million self-reported Scotch-Irish ancestry, for a total of 9.2 million Americans self-reporting some kind of Scottish descent. Self-reported numbers are regarded by demographers as massive under-counts, because Scottish ancestry is known to be disproportionately under-reported among the majority of mixed ancestry, because areas where people reported "American" ancestry were the places where Scottish and Scotch-Irish Protestants settled in America. Scottish Americans descended from nineteenth-century Scottish immigrants tend to be concentrated in the West, while others in New England are the descendants of immigrants from the Maritime Provinces of Canada in the 1920s. Americans of Scottish descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or 88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001 Census. There are many clan societies and other heritage organizations, such as An Comunn Gàidhealach America and Slighe nan Gàidheal.

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Pyroteuthis margaritifera

Pyroteuthis margaritifera, the jewel enope squid, is a species of squid in the family Pyroteuthidae. This species has three large, double photophores on the tentacles, the nearest ellipsoidal photophore to the tip is near the carpal cluster and is separated from the two smaller spherical photophores at the base of the tentacle, but nearer to the other two ellipsoidal photophores. Another spherical photophore is located at the base of the tentacular club; the fourth right arm is hectocotylised and has 13-19 basal hooks, each of these hooks is large and has a primary cusp with a smooth inner edge and a large, rounded secondary cusp. Betong these basal hooks there is a fleshy, elongated pad, this is a flap in other species of Pyroteuthis, with three hooks opposite it and between zero and thirteen suckers at its tip. P. Margaritifera has been collected off Bermuda from depths of 375-500 m in the day and between 75 and 175 m during the night, it is a distributed species which occurs throughout the tropical and temperate Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans but has not been recorded from the eastern Pacific.

It was described by the German naturalist Eduard Rüppell in 1844 as Enoploteuthis margaritifera from specimens taken in the Mediterranean. It shows some geographic variation