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Daniel Burnham

Daniel Hudson Burnham, was an American architect and urban designer. He was the Director of Works for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, colloquially referred to as "The White City". Burnham took a leading role in the creation of master plans for the development of a number of cities, including Chicago, Manila and downtown Washington, D. C, he designed several famous buildings, including the Flatiron Building of triangular shape in New York City, Union Station in Washington D. C. the Continental Trust Company Building tower skyscraper in Baltimore, a number of notable skyscrapers in Chicago. Although best known for his skyscrapers, city planning, for the White City one third of Burnham's total output – 14.7 million square feet – consisted of buildings for shopping. Burnham was born in Henderson, New York and raised in the teachings of the Swedenborgian called The New Church, which ingrained in him the strong belief that man should strive to be of service to others. At the age of eight Burnham moved to Chicago and his father established there a wholesale drug business, which became a success.

Burnham was not a good student. He went east at the age of 18 to be taught by private tutors in order to pass the admissions examinations for Harvard and Yale, failing both because of a bad case of test anxiety. In 1867, when he was 21, he returned to Chicago and took an apprenticeship as a draftsman under William LeBaron Jenney of the architectural firm Loring & Jenney. Architecture seemed to be the calling he was looking for, he told his parents that he wanted to become "the greatest architect in the city or country"; the young Burnham still had a streak of wanderlust in him, in 1869 he left his apprenticeship to go to Nevada with friends to try mining gold, at which he failed. He ran for the Nevada state legislature and failed to be elected. Broke, he took a position with the architect L. G. Laurean; when the Great Chicago Fire hit the city in October 1871, it seemed as if there would be endless work for architects, but Burnham chose to strike out again, becoming first a salesman of plate glass windows a druggist.

He quit the second. He remarked on "a family tendency to get tired of doing the same thing for long". At age 26, Burnham moved on to the Chicago offices of Carter and Wight, where he met future business partner John Wellborn Root, 21, four years younger than Burnham; the two became friends and opened an architectural office together in 1873. Unlike his previous ventures, Burnham stuck to this one. Burnham and Root went on to become a successful firm, their first major commission came from John B. Sherman, the superintendent of the massive Union Stock Yards in Chicago, which provided the liveliehood – directly or indirectly – for one-fifth of the city's population. Sherman hired the firm to build for him a mansion on Prairie Avenue at Twenty-first Street among the mansions of Chicago's other merchant barons. Root made the initial design. Burnham supervised the construction, it was on the construction site that he met Sherman's daughter, whom Burnham would marry in 1876 after a short courtship. Sherman would commission other projects from Burnham and Root, including the Stone Gate, an entry portal to the stockyards, which became a Chicago landmark.

In 1881, the firm was commissioned to build the Montauk Building, which would be the tallest building in Chicago at the time. To solve the problem of the city's water-saturated sandy soil and bedrock 125 feet below the surface, Root came up with a plan to dig down to a "hardpan" layer of clay on, laid a 2-foot thick pad of concrete overlaid with steel rails placed at right-angles to form a lattice "grill", filled with Portland cement; this "floating foundation" was, in effect, artificially-created bedrock on which the building could be constructed. The completed building was so tall compared to existing buildings that it defied easy description, the name "skyscraper" was coined to describe it. Thomas Talmadge, an architect and architectural critic, said of the building, "What Chartres was to the Gothic cathedral, the Montauk Block was to the high commercial building." Burnham and Root went on to build more of the first American skyscrapers, such as the Masonic Temple Building in Chicago. Measuring 21 stories and 302 feet, the temple held claims as the tallest building of its time, but was torn down in 1939.

The talents of the two partners were complementary. Both men were artists and gifted architects, but Root had a knack for conceiving elegant designs and was able to see at once the totality of the necessary structure. Burnham, on the other hand, excelled at bringing in clients and supervising the building of Root's designs, they each appreciated the value of the other to the firm. Burnham took steps to ensure their employees were happy: he installed a gym in the office, gave fencing lessons and let employees play handball at lunch time. Root, a pianist and organist, gave piano recitals in the office on a rented piano. Paul Starrett, who joined the office in 1888, said "The office was full of a rush of work, but the spirit of the place was delightfully free and easy and human in comparison to other offices I had worked in."Although the firm was successful, there were several notable setbacks. One of their designs, the Grannis Block, in which their office was located, burned down in 1885, necessitating a move to the top floor of The Rookery, another of their designs.

In 1888, a Kansas City, hotel they had designed collapsed during constru

Eliza Berkeley

Eliza Berkeley was an English author. She was connected to the Blue Stockings Society, after bereavements in the 1790s began to edit family papers, write on her own account, she was born in 1734 at the vicarage of White Waltham in Windsor Forest. Her father, the vicar, was the Rev. Henry Frinsham curate at Beaconsfield. Lord Bute rented Waltham Place to be near Henry Frinsham, he played cards at the vicarage. Here Eliza Berkeley passed her childhood, since her father would not accept preferment on condition of voting against his principles. A tomboy at six, Eliza at 11 wrote two sermons, she and her sister Anne were placed at Queen Square, London. For a year, until their father's death, she read Hickes's Preparatory Office for Death every Thursday, attended prayers at church every afternoon.'In 1754, Eliza being in her twentieth year, her mother died. She and her sister succeeded to her large fortune, they took a house in Windsor, she was a little creature, short-sighted. She was intimate with Catherine Talbot, she knew Elizabeth Carter, Elizabeth Montagu, George Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton, the rest of their set.

In 1771 Dr. Berkeley, her husband, became prebendary of Canterbury, they went to reside at The Oaks, the area at Canterbury Cathedral which had once been the monastery garden. Eliza, supported by her friend Susanna Duncombe, became a dominant figure in the group of wives of the chapter. After their son Monck had been to Eton College, the family went to live in Scotland during the time he passed at the University of St Andrews. From 1780 Monck's health caused anxiety, for ten years from this, Eliza Berkeley moved around England in a group with husband and her son. In January 1795 her husband died, in January 1797 her sister died, she became markedly eccentric. Eliza Berkeley dates from several places in the last three years of her life, Henley, Sackville Street. By her own desire her body, first to be taken to Oxford, was conveyed to Cheltenham and buried there in the same tomb with her son, she was charitable, with other benevolent works she paid an annuity up to her death to Richard Brenan, Jonathan Swift's servant at the end of his life.

Eliza Berkeley edited a volume of the poetical works of her son, sermons of her husband's. She was an opinionated contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine. In 1797, her edition of her sons Poems was published, by John Nichols; the Preface of 630 pages, ostensibly a memoir of the poet, was personal and discursive, at the time of publication was taken to be absurd. The poems cover 178 pages. In 1761 Eliza married the Rev. George Berkeley, son of Bishop George Berkeley, her husband's livings during the first ten years of her married life were Bray and Cookham. In 1763 at Bray, on 8 February, she gave birth to her son, George Monck Berkeley, having at this time ague, being exposed to the danger of smallpox, raging all round. In 1766 she gave birth to her second son, George Robert, after weaning him she was inoculated at Acton rectory by Mr. Sutton, devoted herself to the education of these two sons. On 15 April 1775 her second son, nearly nine years old, died. George Monck being the only child. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie, ed..

"Berkeley, Eliza". Dictionary of National Biography. 4. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Les VĂ©lins du Roi

Les Vélins du Roi is a compendium of 6984 plant and animal paintings started in 1631 to document specimens from the royal garden and animal collection. Foremost illustrators such as Nicolas Robert, Pancrace Bessa, Gerard van Spaendonck, Claude Aubriet and Madeleine Françoise Basseporte contributed to the codex through the reigns of Louis XIII, Louis XIV and Louis XV, the codex was entrusted in 1793 to the Museum Nationale d’Histoire Naturelle, where it remains. In 1645 Nicolas Robert was invited to the Chateau de Blois by Gaston, Duke of Orléans, brother of King Louis XIII. Gaston cultivated a wealth of rare plants; the director of the gardens, Scottish botanist Robert Morison, is believed to have inspired Robert to illustrate the resident plants. Following Gaston's death in 1660, the collection of vellums was left to his nephew, Louis XIV, who lodged them at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. Robert continued his plant illustrations; the collection was further enlarged during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with works by other renowned artists, such as Pierre-Joseph Redouté.

After the French Revolution of 1789, additions to the collection focused on wildlife. Claude Aubriet, followed Jean Joubert, Nicolas Robert's successor, as painter of the plants in the royal botanical garden. Aubriet's drawings are meticulously done. Aubriet was patronised by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a leading French botanist who commissioned him to illustrate his celebrated Elemens de Botanique, published in Paris in 1694. Two colleagues of de Tournefort, Sebastien Vaillant and Antoine de Jussieu made use of Aubriet's talents to illustrate their works. In 2016 the firm of Citadelles & Mazenod published a 624-page volume depicting 800 of the plates from the collection

Henry E. Prickett

Henry E. Prickett served as mayor of Boise, Idaho Territory, for two months in 1867 and 1868. For years Prickett was believed to have been the first elected Boise mayor, but recent research has revealed that a Dr. Ephraim Smith preceded him in the office. Prickett was declared mayor after the winner of the November 1867 mayoral election, L. B. Lindsay, was disqualified. A new mayoral election was held in January 1868, won by Thomas B. Hart. In 1871 Prickett ran for a full one-year term as Boise mayor as a Radical Republican, he was narrowly defeated by John Hailey. According to city records incumbent mayor Charles Himrod served the ensuing term. Mayors of Boise - Past and Present Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series, Corrected List of Mayors, 1867-1996

Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform

The Department for Business and Regulatory Reform was a United Kingdom government department. The department was created on 28 June 2007 on the disbanding of the Department of Trade and Industry, was itself disbanded on 6 June 2009 on the creation of the Department for Business and Skills. BERR had a wide range of responsibilities; the main areas covered were those covered by the DTI: company law, energy, business growth, employment law, regional economic development and consumer law. The principal machinery of government changes affecting the department on creation were the removal of the Office of Science and Innovation to the new Department for Innovation and Skills and the arrival of the Better Regulation Executive from the Cabinet Office. Subsequently, in October 2008, responsibility for energy policy was removed to the new Department of Energy and Climate Change, it merged with the Department for Innovation and Skills in the June 2009 reshuffle to become the Department for Business and Skills.

BERR was responsible for the implementation of the Companies Act 2006 and for promoting entrepreneurship in the UK. In this context, it supported initiatives such as: Make Your Mark, the UK's national campaign to give people the confidence and ambition to be more enterprising. Global Entrepreneurship Week, the world's first global celebration and promotion of the entrepreneurial spirit amongst young people. Department for Business and Regulatory Reform Archived Website Department of Trade and Industry: history Automotive Innovation and Growth Team


Seborga is a small town in the region of Liguria in northwest Italy, near the French border. Administratively, it is a comune of the Italian province of Imperia; the main economic activities are tourism. The town is notable for claims of independence from Italy as the sovereign Principality of Seborga. Seborga is known in the region for its agricultural activity: in particular and collection of olives and floriculture crops. Thanks to Seborga's publicity as a principality, tourism has expanded in recent years; the principality's historic town centre was restored, ensuring that its charms were protected from commercial overdevelopment. An important cultural event in Seborga is the annual festival of Saint Bernard, the town's patron saint, held on August 20. Seborga's twin city is France; the festival includes the carrying of a statue of Saint Bernard. Seborga is situated along Provincial Road 57 in Imperia; the nearest motorway access is at the Bordighera exit on the A10. The nearest railway station is the one in Bordighera, on the Ventimiglia-Genoa line.

In the early 1960s, Giorgio Carbone head of the local flower-growers co-operative, began promoting the idea that Seborga retained its historic independence as a principality. By 1963 the people of Seborga were sufficiently convinced of these arguments to elect Carbone as their ostensible head of state, he assumed the self-styled title Giorgio I, Prince of Seborga, which he claimed thereafter. Carbone's status as prince was further supported by locals on 23 April 1995, when, in an informal referendum, Seborgans voted 304 in favour, 4 against, for the principality's constitution, in favour of independence from Italy; the prince was known locally as Sua Tremendità. The national anthem of Seborga, titled "The Hope", was composed by Carbone himself and set to music by Maestro Luigi Poggi of Bordighera in 1994. Prince Giorgio Carbone reigned until his death at the age of 73, he died on 25 November 2009. The following year the Principality held its first election for a new Prince. There were five proposals, of whom two, Marcello Menegatto and Gian Luigi Morgia, were nominated by council as candidates.

Elections were held on 24 and 25 April 2010. Out of a total of 220 eligible voters, 89 voted for Menegatto and 67 voted for Morgia, making Menegatto the new Prince of Seborga. 31 year old Menegatto was crowned Prince in a ceremony held on 22 May 2010. After his victory against Mark Dezzani in the 2017 elections, Menegatto gained seven more years on the throne of Seborga; the Republic of Italy and international institutions consider and treat Seborga as an integral part of the territory of Italy. Law enforcement, public health, telecommunications, school services and all other public services are provided as in the rest of Italy. Seborgans pay taxes, participate in the Italian administrative life, vote in local and national elections. For instance, in the elections of the Senate in 2001 the voter turnout was 84.21%. Seborga official website Giorgio Carbone, Elected Prince of Seborga, Dies at 73