George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw, known at his insistence as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic and political activist. His influence on Western theatre and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond, he wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman and Saint Joan. With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, in 1925 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Dublin, Shaw moved to London in 1876, where he struggled to establish himself as a writer and novelist, embarked on a rigorous process of self-education. By the mid-1880s he had become a respected music critic. Following a political awakening, he joined the gradualist Fabian Society and became its most prominent pamphleteer. Shaw had been writing plays for years before his first public success and the Man in 1894. Influenced by Henrik Ibsen, he sought to introduce a new realism into English-language drama, using his plays as vehicles to disseminate his political and religious ideas.
By the early twentieth century his reputation as a dramatist was secured with a series of critical and popular successes that included Major Barbara, The Doctor's Dilemma and Caesar and Cleopatra. Shaw's expressed views were contentious, he courted unpopularity by denouncing both sides in the First World War as culpable, although not a republican, castigated British policy on Ireland in the postwar period. These stances had no lasting effect on his productivity as a dramatist. In 1938 he provided the screenplay for a filmed version of Pygmalion for which he received an Academy Award, his appetite for politics and controversy remained undiminished. In the final decade of his life he made fewer public statements, but continued to write prolifically until shortly before his death, aged ninety-four, having refused all state honours, including the Order of Merit in 1946. Since Shaw's death scholarly and critical opinion has varied about his works, but he has been rated as second only to Shakespeare among British dramatists.
The word Shavian has entered the language as encapsulating Shaw's ideas and his means of expressing them. Shaw was born at 3 Upper Synge Street in a lower-middle-class part of Dublin, he was the youngest child and only son of Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw. His elder siblings were Elinor Agnes; the Shaw family was of English descent and belonged to the dominant Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. His relatives secured him a sinecure in the civil service, from which he was pensioned off in the early 1850s. In 1852 he married Bessie Gurly. If, as Holroyd and others surmise, George's motives were mercenary he was disappointed, as Bessie brought him little of her family's money, she came to despise her ineffectual and drunken husband, with whom she shared what their son described as a life of "shabby-genteel poverty". By the time of Shaw's birth, his mother had become close to George John Lee, a flamboyant figure well known in Dublin's musical circles. Shaw retained a lifelong obsession; the young Shaw suffered no harshness from his mother, but he recalled that her indifference and lack of affection hurt him deeply.
He found solace in the music. Lee was a teacher of singing; the Shaws' house was filled with music, with frequent gatherings of singers and players. In 1862, Lee and the Shaws agreed to share a house, No. 1 Hatch Street, in an affluent part of Dublin, a country cottage on Dalkey Hill, overlooking Killiney Bay. Shaw, a sensitive boy, found the less salubrious parts of Dublin shocking and distressing, was happier at the cottage. Lee's students gave him books, which the young Shaw read avidly. Between 1865 and 1871, Shaw attended four schools, his experiences as a schoolboy left him disillusioned with formal education: "Schools and schoolmasters", he wrote, were "prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents." In October 1871 he left school to become a junior clerk in a Dublin firm of land agents, where he worked hard, rose to become head cashier. During this period, Shaw was known as "George Shaw". In June 1873, Lee left Dublin for London and never returned.
A fortnight Bessie followed him. Shaw's explanation of why his mother followed Lee was that without the la
Gerrards Cross is a town and civil parish in south Buckinghamshire, separated from the London Borough of Hillingdon at Harefield by Denham, south of Chalfont St Peter and north of Fulmer and Hedgerley, north east of Cippenham. It spans land on the right bank of the River Misbourne, it is 19.3 miles west-north-west of Charing Cross, central London. Bulstrode Park Camp was an Iron Age fortified encampment; the town has a railway station on the Chiltern main line with services to London and the M40 motorway runs beside woodland on its southern boundary. The town name is new compared with the great bulk of English towns. Gerrards Cross did not exist in any formal sense until 1859 when it was formed by taking pieces out of the three parishes of Chalfont St Peter, Stoke poges and Upton cum Chalvey to form a new ecclesiastical parish, it is named after the Gerrard family. At that time homes which were not farms were smallholdings clustered in a hamlet in the south of an elongated parish of Chalfont St Peter.
Near its centre is the site of an Iron Age minor hillfort, Bulstrode Park Camp, a scheduled ancient monument. Named Jarrett's Cross before the times of the Gerrard family, after a highwayman, some areas retain the original name, such as Jarrett's Hill leading up to WEC International off the A40 west of the town. In 2014, a major national surveying company named Gerrards Cross as the most sought-after and expensive commuter town or village in their London Hot 100 report, with an average sale price of £1,000,000; the large and distinctive parish church is dedicated to St. James, it was built in 1861 as a memorial to Colonel George Alexander Reid, MP for Windsor, designed by Sir William Tite in yellow brick with a Byzantine-style dome, Chinese-looking turrets and an Italianate Campanile. In 1969 the singer Lulu married Maurice Gibb of the Bee Gees in the church; the actress Margaret Rutherford is buried with her husband Stringer Davis in the St James Church graveyard. The town has various restaurants and its own cinema, the Everyman Gerrards Cross.
Independent schools include Gayhurst and Thorpe House. Students of secondary school age attend either one of the local grammar schools, such as Dr Challoner's Grammar School, Dr Challoner's High School, The Royal Grammar School, High Wycombe, John Hampden Grammar School, Beaconsfield High School Chesham Grammar School, the local Upper School, Chalfonts Community College, the catchment school, or Long Close School, Slough. On the south side of the town is the Gerrards Cross Memorial Building, on the site of the former vicarage; the building was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and unveiled in 1922 to commemorate the town's losses during the First World War. It is the only example of a Lutyens war memorial designed with a functional purpose. Just outside Gerrards Cross, on the A40 to Beaconsfield, is Wapseys Wood landfill site, one of the largest landfill sites in the UK, operated by Veolia Landfill Ltd, it accepts up to 900,000 tonnes of non hazardous waste each year from south Buckinghamshire and other areas.
The town has a railway station on the Chiltern Main Line which opened on 2 April 1906. This provides services to London and Birmingham with a commuting time of about 25 minutes to London Marylebone. A new arch over the section of deep railway cutting to allow Tesco to build a supermarket collapsed on 30 June 2005 at 19:30. Nobody was injured but the line was closed for over six weeks. Compensation by Tesco to Chiltern was reported as £8.5m and the retailer compensated by funding a media campaign to reinstate business lost by the closure. Construction of a constructed arch began in January 2009; the 11.36am from London Paddington to Gerrards Cross was an official or'parliamentary train' recognised as an outlandish loss-making service to prevent the link to that terminus being closed or re-allocated. This train now terminates at West Ruislip. In 2011, National Rail was lobbied to phase the service out; the town lies 8.4 miles north west of London's Heathrow Airport. Many houses built during development in the 1950s had defective tiles, leading to the highest court reported judgment Young & Marten Ltd v McManus Childs Ltd, holding that a person who contracts to do work and supply materials implicitly warrants that the materials will be fit for purpose if the purchaser specifies the materials to be used.
Stanley Kubrick filmed some of the exteriors in his feature 1962 film Lolita, notably Charlotte Haze's house, in Gerrards Cross. "The Italian Lesson" sketch in the first episode of the first series of the BBC Television comedy show Monty Python's Flying Circus includes the line "'Sono inglese di Gerrard's Cross', I am an Englishman from Gerrard's Cross." Jethro Tull's song "Journeyman" on their 1978 album Heavy Horses includes the line "Too late to stop for tea at Gerrards Cross". Indie band the Hit Parade released their 3rd single "The Sun Shines In Gerrards Cross" in 1986. St Hubert's House, a Grade II listed house to the southeast of Gerrards Cross, has been used as a filming location for TV series including Inspector Morse and The Professionals, was the location of Colonel Hyde's house in The League of Gentlemen. In New Tricks, the popular BBC crime drama, the opening shots of the large house in Season 12 Episode 8'Lottery Curse' were filmed on the private road of Camp Road in Gerrard's Cross.
Roy Castle, singer, actor, television presenter and musician, lived in Gerrards Cross. Amal Clooney and human rights activist, moved from Lebanon to
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs: their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. In the case of oral languages, phonetics has three basic areas of study: Articulatory phonetics: the study of the organs of speech and their use in producing speech sounds by the speaker. Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener. Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener; the first known phonetic studies were carried out as early as the 6th century BCE by Sanskrit grammarians. The Hindu scholar Pāṇini is among the most well known of these early investigators, whose four part grammar, written around 350 BCE, is influential in modern linguistics and still represents "the most complete generative grammar of any language yet written".
His grammar formed the basis of modern linguistics and described a number of important phonetic principles. Pāṇini provided an account of the phonetics of voicing, describing resonance as being produced either by tone, when vocal folds are closed, or noise, when vocal folds are open; the phonetic principles in the grammar are considered "primitives" in that they are the basis for his theoretical analysis rather than the objects of theoretical analysis themselves, the principles can be inferred from his system of phonology. Advancements in phonetics after Pāṇini and his contemporaries were limited until the modern era, save some limited investigations by Greek and Roman grammarians. In the millenia between Indic grammarians and modern phonetics the focus of phonetics shifted from the difference between spoken and written language, the driving force behind Pāṇini's account, began to focus on the physical properties of speech alone. Sustained interest in phonetics began again around 1800 CE with the term "phonetics" being first used in the present sense in 1841.
With new developments in medicine and the development of audio and visual recording devices, phonetic insights were able to use and review new and more detailed data. This early period of modern phonetics included the development of an influential phonetic alphabet based on articulatory positions by Alexander Melville Bell. Known as visible speech, it gained prominency as a tool in the oral education of deaf children. Speech sounds are produced by the modification of an airstream exhaled from the lungs; the respiratory organs used to create and modify airflow are divided into three regions: the vocal tract, the larynx, the subglottal system. The airstream can be either ingressive. In pulmonic sounds, the airstream is produced by the lungs in the subglottal system and passes through the larynx and vocal tract. Glottalic sounds use. Clicks or lingual ingressive sounds create an airstream using the tongue. Articulations take place in particular parts of the mouth, they are described by the part of the mouth that constricts airflow and by what part of the mouth that constriction occurs.
In most languages constrictions are made with tongue. Constrictions made by the lips are called labials; the tongue can make constrictions with many different parts, broadly classified into coronal and dorsal places of articulation. Coronal articulations are made with either the tip or blade of the tongue, while dorsal articulations are made with the back of the tongue; these divisions are not sufficient for describing all speech sounds. For example, in English the sounds and are both voiceless coronal fricatives, but they are produced in different places of the mouth. Additionally, that difference in place can result in a difference of meaning like in "sack" and "shack". To account for this, articulations are further divided based upon the area of the mouth in which the constriction occurs. Articulations involving the lips can be made in three different ways: with both lips, with one lip and the teeth, with the tongue and the upper lip. Depending on the definition used, some or all of these kinds of articulations may be categorized into the class of labial articulations.
Ladefoged and Maddieson propose that linguolabial articulations be considered coronals rather than labials, but make clear this grouping, like all groupings of articulations, is equivocable and not cleanly divided. Linguolabials are included in this section as labials given their use of the lips as a place of articulation. Bilabial consonants are made with both lips. In producing these sounds the lower lip moves farthest to meet the upper lip, which moves down though in some cases the force from air moving through the aperature may cause the lips to separate faster than they can come together. Unlike most other articulations, both articulators are made from soft tissue, so bilabial stops are more to be produced with incomplete closures than articulations involving hard surfaces like the teeth or palate. Bilabial stops are unusual in that an articulator in the upper section of the vocal tract moves downwards, as the upper lip shows some active downward movement. Labiodental consonants are made by the lower lip rising to the upper teeth.
Labiodental consonants are most fricatives while labiodental nasals are typologically common. There is debate as to
Paul Édouard Passy was a French linguist, founder of the International Phonetic Association in 1886. He took part in the elaboration of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Paul Passy was born into a notable French family: his father Frédéric, a noted economist and politician, was the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901. Passy mastered English and Italian as a child, studied Sanskrit and Gothic Latin at the École des Hautes Études, he graduated from university at 19 and spent ten years as a language teacher in public schools as an alternative to military service. Around this time he became a committed Christian. Passy was self-taught in phonetics. In 1886, Passy founded the Phonetic Teachers' Association, which became the International Phonetic Association. Passy gave private lessons in French pronunciation at his home in Bourg-la-Reine. In 1894, he took up a chair in General and Comparative Phonetics at the École des Hautes Études, by 1897 had become an assistant director of the school.
Apart from a four-year hiatus beginning in 1913, when he was dismissed on political grounds for opposing an extension to mandatory military service, he remained at the École des Hautes Études until his retirement in 1926. In 1896, he began to give lectures and practical phonetics classes at the Sorbonne, where he was the first teacher to insist that women be allowed to attend his classes. Passy was devoted to Christian socialism, he founded an agricultural colony called Liéfra, named after Liberté, égalité, fraternité, near Fontette, Aube. Biography of Paul Passy at University of Warwick ELT Archive
Ida C. Ward
Ida Caroline Ward, was a British linguist working on African languages who did influential work in the domains of phonology and tonology. Her 1933 collaboration with Diedrich Hermann Westermann, Practical Phonetics for Students of African languages, was reprinted many times. African languages she worked on include Efik, Igbo and Yoruba. Born in Bradford, Ida Ward was the eighth child of a Yorkshire wool merchant, she studied for a B. Litt degree at Durham University, as a member of the recently founded Women's Hostel, graduating in 1902. Following this she taught as a secondary school teacher for 16 years before becoming an academic. From 1919 to 1932 she worked in the phonetics department at University College London with the famous phonetician Daniel Jones. In her books on African languages she gave a detailed account of the tones of the languages, in her day was one of the leading authorities in the subject. Ward, Ida C. Defects of Speech: Their Nature and Their Cure. E. P. Dutton. Armstrong, Lilias E. & Ward, Ida C.
Handbook of English Intonation, B. G. Teubner, Germany Westermann, Diedrich Hermann & Ward, Ida C. Practical phonetics for students of African languages. London: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute Ward, Ida C; the phonetic and tonal structure of Efik. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C. An introduction to the Ibo language. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C. Practical suggestions for the learning of an African language in the field, supplement, vol. 10, no. 2. London. Ward, Ida C; the Phonetics of English. Heffer, Cambridge. Ward, Ida C; the Pronunciation of Twi. Heffer, Cambridge. Ward, Ida C. Ibo dialects and the development of a common language. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C.'A phonetic introduction to Mende', in Crosby, K. H. An introduction to the study of Mende. Cambridge: Heffer. Ward, Ida C. An introduction to the Yoruba language. Cambridge: Heffer & Sons. Collins, B. S.. M.. "Ward, Ida Caroline". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. 14. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Pp. 520–521.
Doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02975-8. Forde, Daryll. "Ida Caroline Ward". Africa. 20: 1. Doi:10.1017/S0001972000012559. JSTOR 1156043. Green, M. M.. "Ward, Ida Caroline". In Cannadine, David. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Rev. by D. W. Arnott. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36731. Lasebikan, E. L.. "Ida Ward". African Affairs. 49: 30–32. Doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a093781. JSTOR 719354. Tucker, A. N.. "Ida Caroline Ward". Obituaries. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 13: 542–547. Doi:10.1017/S0041977X00083798. JSTOR 609308. Westermann, D.. "Ida Ward—An Appreciation". Africa. 20: 2–4. Doi:10.1017/S0001972000012560. JSTOR 1156044. "Professor Ida Ward". The Times. London. 14 October 1949. Col E, p. 7. "Memorial Service: Professor Ida C. Ward"; the Times. London. 27 October 1949. Col B, p. 7.\ "Ward, Ida Caroline". A Companion to Who's Who Containing the Biographies of Those Who Died During the Decade 1941–1950. Who Was Who. 4. London: Adam & Charles Black. 1952. P. 1200
Pygmalion is a play by George Bernard Shaw, named after a Greek mythological figure. It was first presented on stage to the public in 1913. In ancient Greek mythology, Pygmalion fell in love with one of his sculptures, which came to life; the general idea of that myth was a popular subject for Victorian era English playwrights, including one of Shaw's influences, W. S. Gilbert, who wrote a successful play based on the story called Pygmalion and Galatea, first presented in 1871. Shaw would have been familiar with the burlesque version, Galatea, or Pygmalion Reversed. Shaw's play has been adapted numerous times, most notably as the musical My Fair Lady and its film version. Shaw mentioned that the character of Professor Henry Higgins was inspired by several British professors of phonetics: Alexander Melville Bell, Alexander J. Ellis, Tito Pagliardini, but above all, the cantankerous Henry Sweet. Shaw read it to famed actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell in June, she came on board immediately, but her mild nervous breakdown contributed to the delay of a London production.
Pygmalion premiered at the Hofburg Theatre in Vienna on 16 October 1913, in a German translation by Shaw's Viennese literary agent and acolyte, Siegfried Trebitsch. Its first New York production opened on 24 March 1914 at the German-language Irving Place Theatre, it opened in London on 11 April 1914, at Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree's His Majesty's Theatre and starred Mrs. Campbell as Eliza and Tree as Higgins, running for 118 performances. Shaw directed the actors through tempestuous rehearsals punctuated by at least one of the two storming out of the theatre in a rage.'Portico of Saint Paul's Church' – 11.15 p.m. A group of people are sheltering from the rain. Among them are the Eynsford-Hills, superficial social climbers eking out a living in "genteel poverty", consisting of Mrs. Eynsford-Hill and her daughter Clara. Clara's brother Freddy enters having earlier been dispatched to secure them a cab, but being rather timid and faint-hearted he has failed to do so; as he goes off once again to find a cab, he bumps into Eliza.
Her flowers drop into the mud of Covent Garden, the flowers she needs to survive in her poverty-stricken world. Shortly they are joined by Colonel Pickering. While Eliza tries to sell flowers to the Colonel, a bystander informs her that a man is writing down everything she says; the man is a professor of phonetics. Eliza worries that Higgins is a police officer and will not calm down until Higgins introduces himself, it soon becomes apparent that Colonel Pickering have a shared interest in phonetics. Higgins tells Pickering that he could pass off the flower girl as a duchess by teaching her to speak properly; these words of bravado spark an interest in Eliza, who would love to make changes in her life and become more mannerly though, to her, it only means working in a flower shop. At the end of the act, Freddy returns after finding a taxi, only to find that his mother and sister have gone and left him with the cab; the streetwise Eliza takes the cab from him, using the money that Higgins tossed to her, leaving him on his own.
Higgins' home – the next day As Higgins demonstrates his phonetics to Pickering, the housekeeper Mrs. Pearce, tells him that a young girl wants to see him. Eliza has shown up, she tells Higgins. He shows no interest. Higgins claimed. Pickering makes a bet with him on his claim, says that he will pay for her lessons if Higgins succeeds, she is sent off to have a bath. Mrs. Pearce tells Higgins that he must behave himself in the young girl's presence, meaning he must stop swearing, improve his table manners, but he is at a loss to understand why she should find fault with him. Alfred Doolittle, Eliza's father, appears with the sole purpose of getting money out of Higgins, having no paternal interest in his daughter's welfare, he sees himself as a member of the undeserving poor, means to go on being undeserving. With his intelligent mind untamed by education, he has an eccentric view of life, he is aggressive, when Eliza, on her return, sticks her tongue out at him, he goes to hit her, but is prevented by Pickering.
The scene ends with Higgins telling Pickering that they have got a difficult job on their hands. Mrs. Higgins' drawing room Higgins bursts in and tells his mother he has picked up a "common flower girl" whom he has been teaching. Mrs. Higgins is not impressed with her son's attempts to win her approval because it is her'at home' day and she is entertaining visitors; the visitors are the Eynsford-Hills. Higgins is rude to them on their arrival. Eliza soon falls into talking about the weather and her family. Whilst she is now able to speak in beautifully modulated tones, the substance of what she says remains unchanged from the gutter, she confides her suspicions that her aunt was killed by relatives, mentions that gin had been "mother's milk" to this aunt, that Eliza's own father was always more cheerful after a goodly amount of gin. Higgins passes off her remarks as "the new small talk", Freddy is enraptured; when she is leaving, he asks her if she is going to walk across the park, to which she replies, "Walk?
Not bloody likely!" (This is the most famous line from the play, for many years after the play's debut, use of the word'bloody' was known as a pygmalion.