Daniel Rutherford

Daniel Rutherford was a Scottish physician and botanist, known for the isolation of nitrogen in 1772. Rutherford was born on 3 November 1749, the son of Anne Mackay and Professor John Rutherford.. He began college at the age of 16 at Mundell's School on the West Bow close to his family home, studied medicine under William Cullen and Joseph Black at the University of Edinburgh, graduating with a doctorate in 1772. From 1775 to 1786 he practiced as a physician in Edinburgh. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, he was president of the Harveian Society in 1787. At this time he lived at Hyndford Close on the Royal Mile, he was a professor of botany at the University of Edinburgh and the 5th Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh from 1786 to 1819. He was president of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh from 1796 to 1798, his pupils included Thomas Brown of Waterhaughs. Around 1805 he moved from Hyndfords Close to a newly built townhouse at 20 Picardy Place at the top of Leith Walk, where he lived for the rest of his life.

He died in Edinburgh on 15 December 1819. In 1786 he married Harriet Mitchelson of Middleton. Rutherford was the maternal uncle of the novelist Sir Walter Scott. Rutherford discovered nitrogen by the isolation of the particle in 1772; when Joseph Black was studying the properties of carbon dioxide, he found that a candle would not burn in it. Black turned this problem over to his student at Rutherford. Rutherford kept a mouse in a space with a confined quantity of air, he burned a candle in the remaining air until it went out. Afterwards, he burned phosphorus in that; the air was passed through a carbon dioxide absorbing solution. The remaining component of the air did not support combustion, a mouse could not live in it. Rutherford called the gas "noxious air" or "phlogisticated air". Rutherford reported the experiment in 1772, he and Black were convinced of the validity of the phlogiston theory, so they explained their results in terms of it. "Rutherford, Daniel". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

1885–1900. Biographical note at “Lectures and Papers of Professor Daniel Rutherford, Diary of Mrs Harriet Rutherford”


Minettia is a genus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae. They have worldwide distribution, is one of the most species rich genera of the family with more than 120 described species; the Palaearctic is the most diverse with some 56 described species. The genus is divided into 3 subgenera. Subgenus Plesioninettia Shatalkin, 2000M. Crassulata Shatalkin, 1998 M. divaricata Sasakawa, 1985 M. filia M. fuscescens Shatalkin, 1998 M. gemina Shatalkin, 1992 M. gemmata Shatalkin, 1992 M. helva Czerny, 1932 M. helvola M. ishidai M. loewi M. omei Shatalkin, 1998 M. punctata Sasakawa, 1985 M. styriaca M. tenebrica Shatalkin, 1992Subgenus Frendelia Collin, 1948M. Acuminata Sasakawa, 1985 M. austriaca Hennig, 1951 M. eoa Shatalkin, 1992 M. kunashirica Shatalkin, 1992 M. longipennis M. martineki Ceianu, 1991 M. nigritarsis Shatalkin, 1998Subgenus Minettia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830M. Andalusiaca M. biseriata M. bulgarica Papp, 1981 M. cantolraensis Carles-Tolra, 1998 M. caucasica Shatalkin, 1998 M. cypriota Papp, 1981 M. czernyi Freidberg & Yarom, 1990 M. dedecor M. desmometopa M. fasciata M. filippovi Shatalkin, 1998 M. flavipalpis M. flaviventris M. galil Freidberg, 1991 M. hyrcanica Shatalkin, 1999 M. inusta M. linguifera Sasakawa & Kozanek, 1995 M. longiseta M. lupulina M. muricata M. palaestinensis Papp, 1981 M. pallida M. plumicheta M. plumicornis M. punctiventris M. quadrisetosa M. rivosa M. subtinctiventris Papp, 1981 M. subvittata M. suillorum M. tabidiventris M. tetrachaeta M. tinctiventris M. tubifer M. tunisica Papp, 1981UnplacedM.

Nigriventris List of Minettia species

From This Wicked Patch of Dust

From This Wicked Patch of Dust is a novel by Sergio Troncoso first published in 2011 by The University of Arizona Press. It explores the struggle of a Mexican-American family to become American and yet not be pulled apart by a maelstrom of cultural forces. In the border shantytown of Ysleta, Mexican immigrants Pilar and Cuauhtemoc Martinez strive to teach their four children to forsake the drugs and gangs of their neighborhood; the family's hardscrabble origins unite them to survive, but soon the children adapt to their new home, reject their traditional religion and culture, struggle to remain together as a family. The novel spans four decades; as a young adult, daughter Julieta travels to Central America, becomes disenchanted with Catholicism, converts to Islam. Youngest son Ismael, always the bookworm, is accepted to Harvard but feels out of place in the Northeast, where he meets and marries a Jewish woman; the other boys—Marcos and Francisco—toil in their father's old apartment buildings, serving as cheap labor to fuel the family's rise to the middle class.

Over time, Francisco isolates himself in El Paso. Marcos leaves to become a teacher, but returns, struggling with a deep bitterness about his work and marriage. Through it all, Pilar clings to the idea of her family and tries to hold it together as her husband's health begins to fail; this backdrop is shaken to its core by the historic events of 2001 in New York City, which send shockwaves through this newly American family. Bitter conflicts erupt between siblings, the physical and cultural spaces between them threaten to tear them apart. Will their shared history and once-shared dreams be enough to hold together a family from Ysleta, this wicked patch of dust? Pilar Martinez – The mother who struggles to give opportunities to her children as they grow up on the Mexico–US border, yet who sees her children stray further from their religion and family. Cuauhtemoc Martinez – The father who loves Mexico and criticizes the culture in the United States as he follows Pilar to El Paso, Texas to make a new life for both of them.

Julia Martinez – The oldest of the Martinez children, a rebellious teenager becomes politically active in college, transforms herself as an adult and adopts a new religion. Francisco Martinez – A perennially shy boy, the dutiful eldest son who stays in El Paso, helps his parents as they get older, blossoms in the desert as an older adult. Marcos Martinez – An athletic and ambitious son who leaves El Paso for college, returns but is never quite happy with his hometown, becomes a teacher and a soldier. Ismael Martinez – The youngest of the Martinez children who uses his mind to break away from the poverty of the border, but struggles to find meaning in the alien world of the Northeastern United States. Troncoso's novel explores the family as a group protagonist in an assimilation story, how the family is created, questioned and recreated as the children adopt new cultural practices and politics, yet remain tenuously together because of their common origin and their effort to find new meaning in themselves.

Scholar Diane Sabatier wrote: "Pilar and Cuauhtemoc's children adopt various strategies to come to terms with their cultural hybridity. Their multiplicity of itineraries shatters monolithic and caricatured views of Chicanos.... From This Wicked Patch of Dust suggests that the handing down of a patrimony and figuratively, is synonymous with mutations due to intercultural dialogues, their children, who do not commemorate a frozen and dusty memory, subvert Cuauhtemoc and Pilar's vision of Mexico. From the siblings' point of view, being an heir implies summoning up the courage to face the ghosts of the Mexican ancestors who haunt their daily lives. More than denying them the right to do so, they assume that they do not cast a shadow over their individual destinies.... Embarking on different journeys, they search for their own place in mobile identities." Miroslav Penkov, judge for biannual PEN/Texas Southwest Book Award for Fiction, wrote: "What is it to be American, Catholic, Jewish or Muslim? What is it to struggle – for sustenance, for the freedom to choose who you want to be?

Effortlessly, with elegance of style, Troncoso weaves a tapestry of lives, of human beings who by the end of the book feel not just real, not just intimately close, but undeniable, inescapable, a part of ourselves." A reviewer from Kirkus Reviews wrote in a starred review: "Troncoso seamlessly intertwines the struggles the grown children face with their parents’ desire to help them become independent and proud Mexican-Americans. The prose is powerful in an unassuming way, making for a captivating read; the author paces the book, with each chapter plotting an era in the family's lives joining the family's collective narrative of religion and family obligation with the current events of the time. Troncoso is adept at his craft, telling a story filled with rich language and the realities of family life closing with a son reassuring his mother, literature reassuring them both. With its skillful pairing of conflict over religious and familial obligations with the backdrop of a Mexican-American family's love for one another, Troncoso's novel is an engaging literary achievement."

A reviewer from The Dallas Morning News wrote: "In a media market where cultural stereotypes abound, it’s refreshing to read a novel featuring Latino characters who are nuanced and authentic. Sergio Troncoso’s latest, From This Wicked Patch of Dust, follows a family from humble beginnings in a Texas border town through several decades as its members move beyond their Mexican Catholic culture to inhabit Jewish and Ivy League spaces.... These middle spaces ha