Shared residency in England

Shared residence, joint residence, or shared parenting refers to the situation where a child of parents who have divorced or separated live with each parent at different times, such as every other week. With shared residency, both parents have parental responsibility. Shared residency does not mean. Shared residency is an option when both parents want to be involved in their children's upbringing, when either or both parents consent to the order, when the Court certifies that the Order as being in the best interests of the child. Compared to children in sole residency that live with only one of their parents, scientific research has shown that children with a shared residency arrangement have better physical health, higher psychological wellbeing, less behavioral problems and stronger social relationships. Shared residence is uncommon in the United Kingdom. Among children not living in an intact family with both there mother and father, a 2005/06 survey found that only 7% had a shared residence arrangement while 83% lived only with their mother and 10% lived only with their father.

The Children Act 1989 defines a residence order as one "...settling the arrangements to be made as to the person with whom a child is to live". A sole residence order settles the child in the home of one parent; the other parent will be allowed contact. A joint or shared residence order allows the child to alternate periods of residence between the homes of both parents; the Children Act 1989 Guidance and Regulations, Volume 1, Court Orders produced by the President of the Family Division and published by the Stationery Office in 1991 discussed shared orders in paragraph 2.2 at page 10: is not expected that it would become a common form of order because most children will still need the stability of a single home, because in the cases where shared care is appropriate there is less to be a need for the court to make any order at all. However, a shared care order has the advantage of being more realistic in those cases where the child is to spend considerable amount of time with both parents, brings with it certain other benefits, removes any impression that one parent is good and responsible whereas the other parent is not.

This was the approach in D v D 1 FLR 495, in which it was held that residence of the children involved could be shared when one of the parents was hostile to the idea. The principle was stated: it is not necessary to show that exceptional circumstances exist before a shared residence order may be granted. Nor is it necessary to show a positive benefit to the child. What is required is to demonstrate that the order is in the interest of the child in accordance with the requirements of s1 Children Act 1989 which makes the interests of the children the first and paramount concern of the Courts in any litigation. In the case of young children, there is an informal rebuttable presumption in disputed cases that a young child's interests are more to be served by having a single'base' with one parent, regardless of how the other has performed; this may be rebutted by evidence to demonstrate that the child's interests will be better served by shared residence, or by sole residence with one spouse or with other significant persons.

Baroness Morris of Bolton commented: If a parent is considered a fit parent when they are married or living together, there is no reason in a normal case why that assumption should change just because they separate or divorce. They should not have to prove that they are able to care for their children by being subject to reversal of the burden of proof that the current system operates; that in no way undermines the presumption. The issue of hostility was addressed in Re M 2 FLR 636, which provides for the making of an order under s37 Children Act 1989 inviting the local authority to investigate and report. Wall J. found that the mother had caused the children to believe that they had suffered abuse at the hands of the father and paternal grandparents, that an assessment was needed when the children were not at home with the mother. This was secured away from the home under an interim care order. Free from the mother’s influence, the children were able to re-establish their relationship with the father.

Subsequently an Order was made. Although this approach is not appropriate in all cases involving disputing parents, it is a useful tool to have available. If it is clear that contact is desirable but one parent obstructs it, the risk of significant harm may be present; the judge must prepare a coherent care plan, identifying the reasons for making a Section 37 Order, stating the consequences of the Order and possible removal. In these proceedings, it is essential that the children are separately represented and that there the same judge is allocated to deal with all aspects arising from the proceedings. In Family Law, each case is held to be unique on its facts, but the usual process of the interpretation of the law being based on precedents applies. Hence, since D v D, there have been a number of cases where shared residence has been awarded to children in spite of one parent's initial objections o

Ghost Story Games

Ghost Story Games, LLC is an American video game developer based in Westwood and led by Ken Levine. The studio is the rebranding of Irrational Games as announced in February 2017, while still the same business subsidiary under Take-Two Interactive, the rebranding was considered a fresh start by the founders as they move into more emergent narrative-driven titles compared to the larger titles they had made under Irrational. Irrational Games had a history of several successful titles, including BioShock and BioShock Infinite, both helmed by Levine. Levine expressed how much stress completing a large title was at the conclusion of work of BioShock Infinite, decided that he would drastically trim down the studio "to refocus my energy on a smaller team with a flatter structure and a more direct relationship with gamers. In many ways, it will be a return to how we started: a small team making games for the core gaming audience." While Levine had considered founding a new startup for this endeavor, Take-Two convinced Levine that they would still be the best place for his studio.

On February 18, 2014, the studio was restructured: Levine kept about 15 others, with Take-Two, 2K Games, the studio helping to find positions for the other 75 employees. At this point, Irrational was shut down, though over the next few years, it would continue to provide new job openings. In October 2016, several video game journalists noted that Take-Two had filed a trademark for the name "Ghost Story", related to video games, but otherwise not clear what this was for. On February 23, 2017, the studio announced it had rebranded itself as Ghost Story Games, though they were treating it as a fresh start as a newly founded studio, it was founded by 12 of the former Irrational members with Levine still as president and creative director. The studio's focus is "to create immersive, story-driven games for people who love games that ask something of them"; as of this point, the studio had about 25 employees. While details of their first game have yet to be made public, Levine has spoken on elements that they are trying to develop for it.

At the 2014 Game Developers Conference following the restructure, Levine presented his idea of "narrative Legos" that he wanted to explore with this studio. Levine stated that in this concept, they can distill narrative elements to key aspects that the player can learn, act upon, affect a non-linear narrative story, combine them in a way to make a player-driven, highly-replayable game. In January 2015, Levine said that their first game with the narrative Legos concept will be a "first-person sci-fi" game. During a presentation at the March 2017 EGX Rezzed conference, Levine said that this game uses a system inspired by the Nemesis System within Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor, which he found provided a way to include a larger metanarrative in a game without having to customize a lot of story or dialog for it. Further, he said they included the idea of "radical recognition", in which the game's world responds in some way to actions that the player makes in a more programmatic manner, in contrast to the narrative approach used by Telltale Games which features branching decisions.

Levine anticipated the game will not be as "smooth" for players in contrast to the BioShock games, in that he does not anticipate that they will explain how the game's mechanics work directly to the player but require the player to figure out as they go. Official website