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Danish colonization of the Americas

Denmark and the former political union of Denmark–Norway had a colonial empire from the 17th through the 20th centuries, large portions of which were found in the Americas. Denmark and Norway in one form or another maintained land claims in Greenland since the 13th century. Greenland, settled by the Norsemen in the 980s, submitted to Norwegian rule in 1261. Norway entered the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Sweden in 1397 and its overseas territories including Greenland became subject to the king in Copenhagen. Scandinavian settlement in Greenland declined over the years and the last written record is a marriage recorded in 1408, although the Norwegian claims to the land remained. Following the establishment of an independent Sweden and Denmark were reorganized into a polity now known as Denmark–Norway in 1536/1537 and the nominal Norwegian sovereignty over Greenland was taken up by the new kingdom. Despite the decline of European settlement and the loss of contact, Denmark-Norway continued to maintain its claim to lordship of Greenland.

Between the years 1605-1607, King Christian IV of Denmark commissioned three expeditions to Greenland. These expeditions were conducted in order to locate the lost Norse Eastern Settlement as well as to reassert Danish sovereignty over Greenland; the expeditions were unsuccessful due to its leaders lacking experience with the arctic ice and difficult weather conditions. Additionally expeditions were searching on the east coast of Greenland, inaccessible at the time due to southward-drifting ice. In the 1660s, a polar bear was added to the royal coat of arms. Around this same time Dano-Norwegian ships, joined by ships from various other European countries, began journeying to Greenland to hunt bowhead whales, though no formal recolonization was attempted. In 1721, the Norwegian Lutheran minister Hans Egede and his Bergen Greenland Company received a royal charter from King Frederick IV granting them broad authority over Greenland and commissioning them to seek out the old Norse colony and spread the Reformation among its inhabitants, who were presumed to still be Catholic or to have reverted to paganism.

Egede led three boats to Baal's River and established Hope Colony on Kangeq with his family and a few dozen colonists. Finding no Norse survivors, he started a mission among the Inuit and baptized the first child converts in 1724. Meanwhile, his settlers had been ravaged by scurvy and the Dutch attacked and burnt a whaling station erected on Nipisat; the Bergen company went bankrupt in 1727. King Frederick attempted to replace it with a royal colony by sending Major Claus Paarss and several dozen soldiers and convicts to erect a fortress for the colony in 1728 but this new settlement of Good Hope failed due to mutiny and scurvy and the retinue was recalled in 1730. Three Moravian missionaries led by Matthias Stach arrived in 1733 and began the first of a series of mission stations at Neu-Herrnhut, but a returning Inuit child brought smallpox from Denmark and a large proportion of the native population died over the next few years; the death of Egede's wife prompted his return to Denmark, with his son Paul left in charge of the settlement.

The Danish merchant Jacob Severin was granted authority over the colony from 1734 to 1740, extended until 1749, assisted by royal patronage and Moravian sponsorship of some of Egede's missionary activities. He was succeeded by the General Trade Company. Both were granted armed ships and full monopolies over trade around their settlements, to prevent better-armed, lower-priced, better-quality Dutch goods from bankrupting the enterprise; the ranged nature of their monopolies spurred them to found new settlements: Christianshaab, Frederikshaab, Fiskenæsset and Egedesminde and Sukkertoppen, Umanak, Upernavik and Julianehaab. The GTC folded in 1774 and was replaced by the Royal Greenland Trade Department, which recognized that the island possessed neither fertile farmland nor accessible mineral wealth and that income would be dependent on the whaling and seal-hunting trade with the native Inuit. An early attempt to man a government-run Scandinavian whaling fleet was aborted and instead the KGH's Instruction of 1782 banned further attempts to urbanize the Inuit or alter their traditional way of life through improved employment opportunities or sales of luxury items.

One effect was that construction of new settlements was suspended after Nennortalik for a century until the establishment of Amassalik on the eastern shore in 1894. The 1782 Instructions established separate governing councils for North and South Greenland. Danish intervention on France's behalf during the Napoleonic Wars ended with the severing of Denmark-Norway under the 1814 Treaty of Kiel, which granted mainland Norway to Sweden but retained the former Norwegian colonies under the Danish crown. Repeated inquiries into the Greenlandic trade and the end of absolutism in Denmark did not end the KGH's monopolies. In 1857, the administrators did set up parsissaets, local councils conducted in Kalaallisut with minor control over spending decisions at each station. In 1912, Royal Greenland's independence was ended and its operations were folded into the Ministry of the Interior. Arctic exploration placed claims of Danish sovereignty over the whole of Greenland in doubt: the principle of terra nullius seemed to leave huge tracts of the territory available to new entrants.

Denmark responded by acquiring diplomatic agreements recognizing its sovereignty from the


Plaxiphora is a genus of chitons in the family Mopaliidae. Plaxiphora albida Plaxiphora atlantica Plaxiphora aurata Plaxiphora aurata campbelli Filhol, 1880 Plaxiphora aurea Plaxiphora australis Suter,1907 Plaxiphora bednalli Plaxiphora biramosa Quoy & Gaimard, 1835 Plaxiphora boydeni Murdoch, 1982 Plaxiphora brevispinosa Plaxiphora caelata Reeve, 1847 Plaxiphora costata Plaxiphora dardennei Plaxiphora egregia H. Adams, 1866 Plaxiphora fernandezi Plaxiphora frigida Plaxiphora glauca Plaxiphora kamehamehae Plaxiphora marquesana Plaxiphora matthewsi Plaxiphora mercatoris Leloup, 1936 Plaxiphora mixta Plaxiphora murdochi Suter,1905 Plaxiphora obscurella Plaxiphora obtecta Carpenter in Pilsbry, 1893 Plaxiphora paeteliana Plaxiphora petholata Plaxiphora petholatus Plaxiphora reoplendens Plaxiphora schauinslandi Plaxiphora setiger Plaxiphora setigera Plaxiphora tricolor Plaxiphora tulearensis Royal Society of New Zealand Te Papa Inreach Discover Life ZipCodeZoo Powell A. W. B. New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1

Lorraine Orman

Lorraine Orman is a writer, writing tutor, competition judge and reviewer. She has written books for children and young adults and a number of her short stories have been anthologised, her novel Cross Tides won the New Zealand Post Children's Book Awards Best First Book Award in 2005. She lives in New Zealand. Lorraine Orman was born on 24 November 1948 in Auckland, she studied for a Bachelor of Arts at the University of Auckland, followed by a post-graduate diploma of librarianship in Wellington. Her library career included jobs at the National Library and school and tertiary institution libraries. With a young family, she began to write short stories for children, the first of, published in the New Zealand School Journal in 1982. Since her stories have been included in anthologies and broadcast on National Radio, she was involved with the Storylines Foundation for many years. With Tessa Duder, on behalf of IBBY and the Storylines Foundation, she edited an anthology of short stories to celebrate International Children’s Book Day in 2007.

She was a judge for the New Zealand Post Children's and Young Adults' Book Awards in 2004 and has acted as a judge for the LIANZA Awards, the Tessa Duder Award and the Tom Fitzgibbon Award. She reviewed children’s books for writing blogs and Magpies magazine and ran many courses and workshops on writing for children. After living for many years in Warkworth, Lorraine Orman moved to Christchurch with her husband in 2018 to be closer to family, she has five grandchildren. Lorraine Orman won the New Zealand Post Children's Book Awards Best First Book Award 2005 for Cross Tides. Several of her other books have been named as Storylines Notable Books. Cross Tides Kev and Borax illustrated by Mitch Vane A Long Way from Home: The Diary of Lillian Glenmore, Warkworth, 1943.

Yoo Jaehoon

Yoo Jaehoon is the Director-General and the Controller of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Yoo has a BA in economics and an MA in public administration from Seoul National University, an MA in international economics at Sciences Po, he graduated from the Ecole Nationale d'Administration in France. He obtained a PhD in economics from Kyonggi University in 2011. During his 30-year career in public service, he worked on a variety of projects related to capital market development, financial policy, international aid for developing countries. From 1997 to 2000, Yoo worked as an economist at the Asian Development Bank in Manila. HE served as a senior securities market specialist at the World Bank and International Finance Corporation between 2005 and 2008. Yoo was the president of the Sciences Po de Paris Korean Alumni Association, he worked as Spokesperson for the Financial Services Commission from 2008 to 2009. He worked as s Director General of the Treasury Bureau at the Ministry of Strategy and Finance from December 2009 to March 2011.

He served as Commissioner of the Securities and Futures Commission from April 2012. He served as Chairman and CEO of Korea Securities Depository from November 2013 to October 2016. Yoo is Director General and Controller of AIIB. Yoo's publications include The Korean Bond Market: The Next Frontiers and Development Strategy for China Capital Market, he published the papers "Financing Innovation: How to Build an Efficient Exchange for Small Firms", "Study on the Financial Characteristics and Financing Patterns of Innovative Firms" and "Creating an Artificial Sun"

Vlastimil Babula

Vlastimil Babula is a chess grandmaster from the Czech Republic, Czech Champion in 1993 and second at the World Junior Championship of 1993. In 1998 Babula tied for 1st–4th with Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu, Bartlomiej Macieja and Zoltan Almasi in the Zone 1.4 zonal tournament in Krynica and qualified to the FIDE World Chess Championship 1999 where he was knocked out in the first round by Tal Shaked. In 2007, he was joint winner of the Czech Open, he was eliminated in the first round by Zahar Efimenko. Babula played for the Czech Republic in the Chess Olympiads of 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Vlastimil Babula player profile and games at

Ross Farm Museum

The Ross Farm Museum is an agricultural museum located in New Ross, Nova Scotia, about an hour's drive from Halifax. The exhibits feature working artisans, live animals, historic buildings, antique implements and furnishings; the goal of the Ross Farm Museum is to give visitors an understanding of the importance of Nova Scotia's rural heritage. It includes a country store displaying the types of products available a working cooper shop, historic breeds of farm animals, a blacksmith, a working farm, a village school house. Costumed guides are on hand to explain life in that time period. Wagon rides are available. Ross Farm is a member of the Nova Scotia Museum network. After the War of 1812, the village of Sherbrook and the Ross Farm were established by William Ross in 1816. William Ross was from Cork, Ireland. During the Napoleonic Wars, he became part of the British Army 16th Regiment of Foot and stationed in Fort Amsterdam, Surinam, his wife Mary accompanied him. They had their second child. During their return to Britain, they survived their ship being wrecked on the Tuskar Rock off the coast of Wexford, Ireland.

William and Mary moved to Sunderland, where their son Edward Ross was born, the author of the diaries on which the museum is based. During the War of 1812, as a soldier in the 16th Regiment, William Ross and his family moved to British North America and were stationed at Fort Coteau-du-Lac, Quebec; the Battle of the Chateauguay happened. His role in the battle is unknown. Lieutenant William Ross chose to transfer to the Nova Scotia Fencibles Infantry. After the war, upon their return to Nova Scotia, the Ross family again survived the sinking of their ship Archduke Charles off the coast of Green Island. Capt. Ross arrived in Halifax where his family were hosted by John Lawson, Esquire. In gratitude to their host, Capt. Ross named the lake below the settlement Lawson Lake after his Haligonian host; the Fencibles were disbanded on 25 July 1816. Two weeks on 7 August 1816, William Ross led 172 former soldiers who were given land grants along the newly burned road between Chester and Kentville, Nova Scotia.

Six years on 2 May 1822, William Ross died at the age of 39 and was buried in the Old Burying Ground. Four months his wife Mary gave birth to their fourth child. William’s son Edward Ross kept a diary for most of his life; the Ross Farm Museum is based on the diaries Edward wrote when he was a young man age 22-28. During this time on the farm, he sold produce from the local community in his store and made a trip by boat from Chester to Halifax every spring, he was a justice of the peace. At age 28, Edward left the community and married Marie three years at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. At age 52, Edward spent time in jail for not being able to pay his debts. Five years he went to Boston in search of work. While there, he heard, they returned to Nova Scotia until Marie died. Edward lived for twelve more years, he moved back to the Ross Farm. He lived on the farm for the last three years of his life, he died at age 81. The Museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Canada Agriculture Museum Manitoba Agricultural Museum Central Experimental Farm Agriculture in Canada Ontario Agricultural Museum Deborah Trask.

The Edward Ross Diaries. Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vol.9, 2006. Pp. 33 "Farm Life in Western Nova Scotia prior to 1850". Nova Scotia Historical Society, #37: Capt. Wm. Ross and the settlement of New Ross, Lunenburg, N. S.. Vol. 37. Ross Farm Museum Website William Ross and his settlement Maps of Ross Farm - NS Museum