SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Darfur

Darfur is a region in western Sudan. Dār is an Arabic word meaning "home " – the region was named Dardaju while ruled by the Daju, who migrated from Meroë c. 350 AD, it was renamed Dartunjur when the Tunjur ruled the area. Darfur was an independent sultanate for several hundred years, incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916; the region is divided into five federal states: Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur. Because of the war in Darfur between Sudanese government forces and the indigenous population, the region has been in a state of humanitarian emergency since 2003; the first historical mention of the word Fur occurs in 1664 in the account by J. M. Vansleb, a traveler, of a visit to Egypt, it is claimed that, like sūdān, fūr means "blacks", was the name given by the early light-colored Berber sultans of Darfur to the original inhabitants of the country such as the Binga, etc. Those original inhabitants agreed to become muslims and submit to the sultan's rule, the alternative being to be attacked and either killed or enslaved.

As the historic dynasty's physical appearance became more "Africanized" from intermarriage with black wives and concubines, the appearance of the sultans darkened correspondingly and they became known by the appellation of their black subjects, Fūr. Darfur covers an area of 493,180 square kilometers the size of mainland Spain, it is an arid plateau with the Marrah Mountains, a range of volcanic peaks rising up to 3,042 meters of topographic prominence, in the center of the region. The region's main towns are Al Nyala. There are four main features of its physical geography; the whole eastern half of Darfur is covered with plains and low hills of sandy soils, known as goz, sandstone hills. In many places the goz is waterless and can only be inhabited where there are water reservoirs or deep boreholes. While dry, goz may support rich pasture and arable land. To the north the goz is overtaken by the desert sands of the Sahara. A second feature are the wadis, which range from seasonal watercourses that flood only during the wet season to large wadis that flood for most of the rains and flow from western Darfur hundreds of kilometres west to Lake Chad.

Many wadis have pans of alluvium with rich heavy soil that are difficult to cultivate. Western Darfur is dominated by the third feature, basement rock, sometimes covered with a thin layer of sandy soil. Basement rock is too infertile to be farmed, but provides sporadic forest cover that can be grazed by animals; the fourth and final feature are the Marrah Mountains and Daju Hills, volcanic plugs created by a massif, that rise up to a peak at Deriba crater where there is a small area of temperate climate, high rainfall and permanent springs of water. Remote sensing has detected the imprint of a vast underground lake under Darfur; the potential water deposits are estimated at 49,500 km2. The lake, during epochs when the region was more humid, would have contained about 2,500 km3 of water, it may have dried up thousands of years ago. Some conjectures include the area of Darfur as part of the Proto-Afro-Asiatic Urheimat in distant prehistoric times, though numerous other theories exclude Darfur. Most of the region consists of a semi-arid plain and thus appears unsuitable for developing a large and complex civilization.

But the Marrah Mountains offer plentiful water, by the 12th century the Daju people, succeeding the semi-legendary Tora culture, created the first historical attestable kingdom. They were centered in the Marrah Mountains and left records of valuable rock engravings, stone architecture and a list of kings; the Tunjur replaced the Daju in the fourteenth century and the Daju established new headquarters in Abyei, Denga and Mongo in the current Chad. The Tunjur sultans intermarried with the Fur and sultan Musa Sulayman is considered the founder of the Keira dynasty. Darfur became a great power of the Sahel under the Keira dynasty, expanding its borders as far east as the Atbarah River and attracting immigrants from Bornu and Bagirmi. During the mid-18th century conflict between rival factions wracked the country, external war pitted Darfur against Sennar and Wadai. In 1875, the weakened kingdom was destroyed by the Egyptian ruler set up in Khartoum through the machinations of Sebehr Rahma, a slave-trader, competing with the dar over access to ivory in Bahr el Ghazal to the south of Darfur.

The Darfuris were restive under Egyptian rule, but were no more predisposed to accept the rule of the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, when in 1882 his Emir of Darfur, who came from the Southern Darfur Arab Rizeigat tribe led by Sheikh Madibbo, defeated the Ottoman forces led by Slatin Pasha in Darfur. When Ahmad's successor, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, himself an Arab of Southern Darfur from the Ta’isha tribe, demanded that the pastoralist tribes provide soldiers, several tribes rose up in revolt. Following the overthrow of Abdallahi at Omdurman in 1899 by the Anglo-Egyptian forces, the new Anglo-Egyptian government recognized Ali Dinar as the sultan of Darfur and left the Dar to its own affairs except for a nominal annual tribute. In 1916 the British, concerned that the sultanate might fall under the influence of the Ottoman Empire and incorporated Darfur into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Colonial rule directed financial and administrative resources to

Tani Fuga

Tanielu "Tani" Fuga is a Samoan rugby union player. Born in Apia, he was brought up by his grandparents and Salavao Fuga and they moved to Auckland in 1986 for him to study, he played for the Waitemata club. He played as hooker and, after playing for Samoa in 1999, decided to move to the UK as one of his idols, Keith Wood played there for Harlequins. Tani joined Quins in 2000 and made his debut as a replacement against London Wasps on 9 September that year, he scored his first try for the club in the European Challenge Cup victory over Périgueux at the Twickenham Stoop on 7 October 2000. He retired from playing after a benefit year organised at Harlequins in 2010 and returned to New Zealand, he won nine caps for Samoa and scored a try in his second game against New Zealand back in June 1999. He was a member of the Samoan squad at the 2007 Rugby World Cup finals. Fuga opened a branch of Nando's in Ponsonby Road, New Zealand on 6 September 2011 in anticipation of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. Harlequins profile

Chilkat Range

The Chilkat Range is a mountain range in Haines Borough and the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska, west of the city of Juneau. The Chilkat Range is one of the principal divisors between Haines Borough and Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, it separates Chilkat Inlet and Lynn Canal from Muir Inlet in Glacier Bay. The northern boundary is considered to be the Klehini River; the unnamed ice field in the range feeds many glaciers including the Davidson and Rainbow Glaciers. It was named Chilkat Mountains in 1879 by the USGS for the Chilkat subdivision of the Tlingit People; these mountains were renamed as the Chilkat Range in 1891