Dashavatara refers to the ten primary avatars of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation. Vishnu is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order; the word Dashavatara derives from daśa, meaning'ten', avatar equivalent to'incarnation'. The list of included avatars varies across regions. Though no list can be uncontroversially presented as standard, the "most accepted list found in Puranas and other texts is Krishna, Buddha." Most draw from the following set of figures, in this order: Matsya. In traditions that omit Krishna, he replaces Vishnu as the source of all avatars; some traditions include a regional deity such as Vithoba or Jagannath in penultimate position, replacing Krishna or Buddha. All avatars have appeared except Kalki; the order of the ancient concept of Dashavataras has been interpreted to be reflective of modern Darwinian evolution. The word Dashavatara derives from daśa, meaning'ten' and avatar, meaning'incarnation'. Various versions of the list of Vishnu's avatars exist, varying per tradition.
Some lists mention Krishna as the eighth avatar and the Buddha as the ninth avatar, while others – such as the Yatindramatadipika, a 17th-century summary of Srivaisnava doctrine – give Balarama as the eighth avatar and Krishna as the ninth. The latter version is followed by some Vaishnavas who don't accept the Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu. Though no list can be uncontroversially presented as standard, the "most accepted list found in Puranas and other texts is Krishna, Buddha."The following table summarises the position of avatars within the Dashavatara in many but not all traditions: 1 - Matsya, the fish. Vishnu takes the form of a fish to save Manu from the deluge, after which he takes his boat to the new world along with one of every species of plant and animal, gathered in a massive cyclone. 2 - Kurma, the giant tortoise. When the devas and asuras were churning the Ocean of milk in order to get Amrita, the nectar of immortality, the mount Mandara they were using as the churning staff started to sink and Vishnu took the form of a tortoise to bear the weight of the mountain.
3 - Varaha, the boar. He appeared to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth, or Prithvi, carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story; the battle between Varaha and Hiranyaksha is believed to have lasted for a thousand years, which the former won. Varaha carried the Earth out of the ocean between his tusks and restored it to its place in the universe. 4 - Narasimha, the half-man/half-lion. The rakshasa Hiranyakashyapa, the elder brother of Hiranyaksha, was granted a powerful boon from Brahma that he could not be killed by man or animal, inside or outside a room, during day or night, neither on ground nor in air, with a weapon, either living or inanimate. Hiranyakashipu persecuted everyone for their religious beliefs including his son, a Vishnu follower. Vishnu descended as an anthropomorphic incarnation, with the body of a man and head and claws of a lion, he disemboweled Hiranyakashipu at the courtyard threshold of his house, at dusk, with his claws, while he lay on his thighs.
Narasimha thus destroyed the evil demon and brought an end to the persecution of human beings including his devotee Prahlada, according to the Hindu mythology. 5 - Vamana, the dwarf. The fourth descendant of Vishnu, with devotion and penance was able to defeat Indra, the god of firmament; this extended his authority over the three worlds. The gods appealed to Vishnu for protection and he descended as a boy Vamana. During a yajna of the king, Vamana approached. Vamana asked for three paces of land. Bali agreed, the dwarf changed his size to that of a giant Trivikrama form. With his first stride he covered the earthly realm, with the second he covered the heavenly realm thereby symbolically covering the abode of all living beings, he took the third stride for the netherworld. Bali realized. In deference, the king offered his head as the third place for Vamana to place his foot; the avatar did so and thus granted Bali immortality and making him ruler of Pathala, the netherworld. This legend appears in hymn 1.154 of the Rigveda and other Vedic as well as Puranic texts.
6 - Parashurama, the warrior with the axe. He was granted as boon, an axe after a penance to Shiva, he is the first Brahmin-Kshatriya in Hinduism, or warrior-sage, who had to follow the Dharma of both, a Brahmin as well as a Kshatriya. Once, when king Kartavirya Arjuna and his hunting party halted at the ashrama of Jamadagni, the father of Parashurama, the sage was able to feed them all with the aid of the divine cow Kamadhenu; the king demanded the cow. Enraged, the king destroyed the ashram. Parashurama killed the king at his palace and destroyed his army. In revenge, the sons of Kartavirya killed Jamadagni. Parashurama took a vow to kill every Kshatriya on earth twenty-one times over, filled five lakes with their blood, his grandfather, rishi Rucheeka, appeared before him and made him halt. He is a chiranjeevi, believed to be alive today in penance at Mahendragiri, he credited for creating Kerala by throwing his mighty axe as per Hindu mythology. The place the axe landed in sea got its water displaced and the land which emerged thus came to be known as Kerala.
The Grand Pacific Hotel was one of the first two prominent hotels built in Chicago, after the Great Chicago Fire. The hotel, designed by William W. Boyington and managed for more than 20 years by John Drake, was located on the block bounded by Clark Street, LaSalle and Jackson. Drake hosted "Great Game Dinners" featuring exotic cuisines at this hotel; these dinners were a Chicago social institution for more than 50 years. Newspapers devoted 4 inches to its menu and guests. Along with contemporary Chicago luxury hotels such as the Palmer House, Tremont House, Sherman House, it was built in the palazzo architectural style of the day; the hotel accommodated wealthy permanent residents in addition to transient guests who enjoyed the palace hotel. It was the site where Standard time was adopted on October 11, 1883. Many notable celebrities stayed here, including Oscar Wilde on his first visit to Chicago as part of his 1882 lecture tour of America. James A. Garfield stayed at the hotel during the 1880 Republican National Convention, during which time he was nominated on the 34th ballot to represent the party in the election for President of the United States.
A Grand Pacific Hotel opened March 12, 1898, with 188 rooms
Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit, BWV 106 known as Actus tragicus, is an early sacred cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach in Mühlhausen, intended for a funeral. The earliest source for the composition is a copied manuscript dated 1768, therefore the date of the composition is not certain. Research leads to a funeral of a former mayor of Mühlhausen on 16 September 1708; the text is a compiled juxtaposition of biblical texts, three quotations from the Old Testament and four from the New Testament, combined with funeral hymns, of which two are sung and one is quoted instrumentally, some additions by an anonymous author. Bach scored the work for four vocal parts and a small ensemble of Baroque instruments, two recorders, two violas da gamba and continuo; the work is opened by an instrumental Sonatina, followed by through-composed sections which have been assigned to four movements. The structure is symmetrical around a turning point, when the lower voices, who contemplate the Old Covenant, are overcome by a soprano calling for Jesus.
Although Bach's manuscript is lost, the work is agreed to be one of the earliest Bach cantatas composed during the year he spent in Mühlhausen 1707/1708 as organist of the Divi Blasii church, at the age of 22. Various funerals known to have taken place at this time have been proposed as the occasion for the composition, for example that of his uncle Tobias Lämmerhirt from his mother's family, who died in Erfurt on 10 August 1707, that of Adolph Strecker, a former mayor of Mühlhausen, whose funeral was 16 September 1708; the earliest surviving manuscript, in the hand of Christian Friedrich Penzel, was copied in 1768 after Bach's death. It introduced; the cantata was published in 1876 as part of the first complete edition of Bach's works: the Bach-Gesellschaft-Ausgabe, edited by Wilhelm Rust. The text consists of different Bible passages from the Old and New Testament, as well as individual verses of hymns by Martin Luther and Adam Reusner, which all together refer to finiteness, preparation for death and dying.
There are two distinct parts to the cantata: the view of the Old Testament on death shown in the first part is confronted by that of the New Testament in the second part, leading to a symmetrical structure. The juxtaposition of texts from the Old and New Testament appeared before in the Christliche Betschule by Johann Olearius. Markus Rathey, professor at the Yale Institute of Sacred Music, argued in 2006, that the sermon given at the funeral of Strecker is similar in ideas to the themes of the cantatas, it may be an indication. Bach scored the cantata for four vocal parts and a chamber ensemble of Baroque instruments: two alto recorders, two violas da gamba, basso continuo; the duration is given as 23 minutes. The sections comprising the cantata are traditionally grouped into four movements; the musicologist Carol Traupman-Carr notes: "Although movements are marked by tempo changes key changes, meter changes, double bar lines, Cantata 106 appears to be a continuous work. Bach helps create a more seamless effect by resolving the cadence of one section at the downbeat of another, thus blurring the beginnings and endings of traditional movements."
The keys and tempo markings are taken from the first publication. The keys in the Neue Bach-Ausgabe and other more recent publications start in F major. In the opening sonatina, marked Molto adagio, two obbligato alto recorders mournfully echo each other over a sonorous background of viola da gambas and continuo; the first vocal movement combines several aspects of getting ready to die, based on texts from the Old Testament. Bach expresses their ideas in a variety of scoring; the movement opens on a text in free poetry, "Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit". The chorus has no initial tempo marking, but has a fugal section marked Allegro, the end is Adagio assai; the thought from Psalm 90, "Ach, lehre uns bedenken, daß wir sterben müssen" is rendered as an arioso of the tenor, marked Lento. The melodic line is broken by rests of reflection; the warning to be prepared for death from Isaiah, "Bestelle dein Haus. Arpeggios of the recorder accompany the voice, described as "evocative of the command of God".
Marked Andante, the movement concludes with the central piece in the symmetrical composition. It presents a contrast: while the lower choral voices recall the Old Covenant, "Es ist der alte Bund: Mensch, du mußt sterben!", based on Jesus Sirach, the solo soprano turns to accepting death as a union with Jesus, singing three times "Ja, Herr Jesu, komm!". The personal decision is supported by the instrumental quotation in the recorders of Johann Leon's hymn "Ich hab mein Sach Gott heimgestellt"; the final call to Jesus closes the movement. The musicologist Wendy Heller writes: Bach allows the confident soprano the final word, one that silences the continuo; the second vocal movement is a similar combination of ideas, now from the New Testament. It quotes; the first quotation, "In deine Hände befehl ich meinen Geist
Civil parishes are small divisions used for statistical purposes and for local government in Scotland. Civil parishes gained legal functions in 1845 which parochial boards were established to administer the poor law, their local government functions were abolished in 1930 with their powers transferred to county or burgh councils. Since 1975, they have been superseded as the smallest unit of local administration in Scotland by community councils. Civil parishes in Scotland can be dated from 1845, when parochial boards were established to administer the poor law. While they corresponded to the parishes of the Church of Scotland, the number and boundaries of parishes soon diverged. Where a parish contained a burgh, a separate landward parish was formed for the portion outside the town; until 1891 many parishes lay in more than one county. In that year, under the terms of the Local Government Act 1889, the boundaries of most of the civil parishes and counties were realigned so that each parish was wholly within a single county.
In 1894 the parochial boards were replaced by more democratically elected parish councils. Parish councils were in turn abolished in 1930, under the Local Government Act 1929, with powers being transferred to county councils in landward areas of counties and burgh councils where they were within a burgh, their boundaries continued to be used to define some of the local authorities created by the Local Government Act 1973 and they continue to be used for census purposes and they are used as part of the coding system for agricultural holdings under the Integrated Administration and Control System used to administer schemes within the Common Agricultural Policy. According to the website of the General Register Office for Scotland, there are now 871 civil parishes. Civil parish boundaries corresponded with the ecclesiastical parishes of the Church of Scotland; as parishes used for religious functions diverged from civil parishes, the former became known as quoad sacra parishes. Since 1975, Scotland has been divided into community council areas which are similar to civil parishes in their boundaries.
These community council area not equivalent to English parish councils and Welsh community councils and do not have legal powers of their own but in some cases local authorities have a legal obligation to consult them. List of civil parishes in Scotland History of local government in Scotland Local Government Act 1894 Local Government Act 1947 Scottish Civil Parish Maps at ArcGIS scotlandsplaces.gov.uk displays parish maps for individual counties, as in this example of Dumfriesshire parishes. A list of the 871 parishes may be downloaded here
Xenia is a city in and the county seat of Greene County, United States. The municipality is located in southwestern Ohio 15 miles from Dayton and is part of the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as the Miami Valley region; the name comes from the Greek word Xenia, which means "hospitality". As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,719. Xenia is the third-largest city by population in Greene County, behind Beavercreek. At the geographical center of the county, it was selected as the county seat and houses the County Courthouse, County Sheriff's Department and other regional departments. Xenia was founded in 1803, the year. In that year, European-American pioneer John Paul bought 2,000 acres of land from Thomas and Elizabeth Richardson of Hanover County, for "1050 pounds current moneys of Virginia." Paul influenced county commissioners to locate the county seat on this land at the forks of the Shawnee creeks, stimulating development of the settlement here. Joseph C. Vance was named to lay out the town.
The following year, he bought the town site of 257 acres from John Paul for $250. The name of the new village was chosen in democratic fashion. Vance called a town meeting to discuss possible names; the committee had considered several suggestions without reaching any decision. The Rev. Robert Armstrong proposed the name "Xenia," meaning "hospitality" in Greek, because of the fine hospitality extended to him in this friendly community; when a tie vote occurred, Laticia Davis, wife of Owen Davis, was invited to cast the deciding ballot. She voted for "Xenia." The first session of the Ohio General Assembly created Greene County from the Northwest Territory. It took in the homeland of the Shawnee Indians, their chief tribal village was north of Xenia at Old Chillicothe, now called Old Town. The Shawnee war chief Tecumseh was born there in 1768. William Beattie was Xenia's first businessman. In 1804, he opened a tavern. In 1804, John Marshall built Xenia's first house; the first log school house was constructed in 1805, that same year, the Rev. James Towler became the town's first postmaster.
The growing community soon attracted many pioneer industries - flour mills, woolen mills, pork packing plants, oil mills, tow mills. A petition for incorporation, dated March 24, 1817, was circulated among the 88 households of Xenia, on July 21, 1817, that petition, containing 66 signatures, was filed with the Court of Common Pleas of Greene County. On October 27, 1817, the petition for incorporation was granted by the Court and Xenia became a municipal corporation; the arrival of the Little Miami Railroad in 1843, stimulated the development of additional industries and connected the city to other markets. On March 2, 1850 the Ohio General Assembly rode from Columbus, Ohio to Xenia and back on the newly completed Columbus and Xenia Railroad. From the summer of 1851, tourists would come from Cincinnati, as well as plantations from the South, to visit the nearby Xenia Springs and Tawawa House, a hotel and health spa about three miles away, it was established as a summer resort to draw on interest in the medicinal properties of the springs.
Skin specialist Dr. Samuel Spilsbee from Cincinnati served as Superintendent of the hotel, it was three stories high, the grounds of the complex included separate cottages. After it went out of business, the complex was purchased for use as Wilberforce College, a black college founded by a collaboration between the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the Cincinnati Conference of the Methodist Church. By 1860 most of the 200 students were mixed-race children of wealthy white fathers from the South and businessmen who were prevented from getting them educated there. In the early years of the war, the college closed after Southerners withdrew their children; the AME Church took it over, continued to operate it. On Wednesday morning, February 13, 1861, President-Elect Abraham Lincoln made a brief appearance in the city as his inaugural train traveled from Cincinnati east to Columbus, he gave a short speech. According to the Times writer, "a large crowd assembled, amid the firing of a cannon and enthusiasm, Mr. Lincoln addressed them from the rear car, reiterating what he had said before.".
The town progressed during the mid-19th century. Artificial gas was provided in the 1840s and continued in use until natural gas was made available in 1905; the first fire engine house was built in 1831. Xenia opened its first free public library in 1899. By 1900, the city was operating its own sewage system. Following the Civil War, the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home was built in Xenia; some of its building remains in use by a Christian ministry organization. Xenia elected Cornelius Clark as its first mayor in 1834. On January 1, 1918, the current city commission-manager plan succeeded the old form of municipal government. Xenia has a history of severe storm activity. According to local legend, the Shawnee referred to the area as "the place of the devil wind" or "the land of the crazy winds"; such storms have been recorded since the early 19th century. Local records show 20 tornadoes in Greene County since 1884. On April 3, 1974, a tornado rated F5 on the Fujita scale cut a path directly through the middle of Xenia during the 1974 Sup
CoolToday Park is a ballpark in North Port, located in the southern portion of Sarasota County, 35 miles south of Sarasota, Florida. It is the spring training home of the Atlanta Braves of Major League Baseball; the ballpark opened on March 2019, with the Braves' 4-2 win over the Tampa Bay Rays. The Braves' $140 million project was funded by public sources. Sarasota County contributed $21.2 million through hotel bed tax dollars. The state of Florida put in $20 million after showing the Braves arrival would add $1.7 billion economic impact on the area over the team’s 30-year lease. Mattamy Homes, a private developer, donated $4.7 million. The city of North Port contributed $4.7 million and the West Villages, the planned community within North Port that houses the facility, ran the construction and development. The Braves committed a 30-year lease, annual payments to West Villages, at a minimum the first $18 million in the cost of the complex. On January 16, 2020, the Braves announced that their High-A affiliate, the Florida Fire Frogs of the Florida State League, would call CoolToday Park their home for the 2020 season.
In 2015, the Atlanta Braves began looking for a new Spring Training home. Since 1997, the Braves held spring training at Champion Stadium near Orlando. To reduce travel times the team sought a new spring home in Florida to get closer to other teams’ facilities. In April 2016, the Braves and Sarasota County officials announced; the Braves and Sarasota County began discussing a 100-to-150-acre site in the West Villages master-planned community in North Port. In January 2017, the Braves and Sarasota County announced. Initial plans for the project were for a $125 million complex on about 70 acres. Six weeks after the Braves entered exclusive negotiations with Sarasota County, Fla. about a new spring-training facility, the parties reached agreement on the key terms of a proposed deal. The term sheet describes a $75.4 million facility to be built in the city of North Port and funded by Sarasota County, the state of Florida, North Port, the Braves and a private developer. On February 28, 2017, the planned deal for a new Atlanta Braves spring training stadium received its first approval.
The initial agreement, known as a term sheet, outlines some of the basic finance and operating commitments for baseball stadium. The Sarasota County Commission voted 4-1 to approve the terms, but only after commissioners raised serious questions about naming rights for the would-be stadium and public access to its numerous baseball and multi-use fields. Although other commissioners seemed to support her concerns, no amendments were made to the terms, which now still include that the team is to retain revenues from naming the stadium. Commissioners agreed, there is more negotiating to be done and time to refine public access issues in the series of agreements due before the board in coming months. On May 9, 2017, the Sarasota County Commission unanimously endorsed the plan to revise the distribution of the county’s tourist development tax, collected on overnight stays at hotel rooms and short-term rentals; the county plans to borrow about $22 million for the project and pay it back using a portion of the tourist tax funds, now designated for the new Braves complex and the Baltimore Orioles’ Ed Smith Stadium in Sarasota, without raising the tax itself.
The mechanism behind the change is best understood by imagining the 5% tax as five pennies levied on every dollar spent on hotel stays or short-term rentals. Each of those “pennies” are divided and distributed to fund certain projects and the tax raises about $20 million a year. By shifting the assignments of those “pennies,” the county will now dedicate about 15% of the annual collections — estimated at $3.3 million — to pay back borrowing for both the Braves and Ed Smith stadiums, plus capital improvement agreements for each. On May 23, 2017, the Sarasota County Commission voted unanimously to approve an operating agreement that spells out the terms and conditions of a new facility for the Braves and a non-relocation agreement that requires the team to hold spring training in the complex for 30 years; the 48-page operating agreement sets a targeted completion date of January 15, 2019, for construction of the facility, to be built in the Sarasota County city of North Port. In June 2017, the West Villages submitted the final grant application for $20 million in state stadium funding necessary to complete the $75 million to $80 million proposed public-private financing deal.
North Port city leaders endorsed a licensing agreement with the Braves that allows for regular public use of the complex outside of baseball games. This satisfied concerns. On July 25, 2017, the North Port City Commission voted 3-2 to pay $4.7 million of sales tax money to help fund the spring training complex. Mayor Linda Yates and Commissioner Debbie McDowell both opposed approving the inter-local agreement. Commissioner Chris Hanks proved the swing vote on the motion to approve funding, made by Vice Mayor Vanessa Carusone and seconded by Commissioner Jill Luke. On September 1, 2017, it was announced that the Florida Department of Economic Opportunity had conditionally approved $20 million that rounded out funding for the project. On September 12, 2017 the Sarasota County commissioners unanimously approved the agreements. Commissioners approved an interlocal agreement that outlines rights and responsibilities between the county and the West Villages Improvement District; the West Villages Improvement District will be responsible for the design and construction of the training facility.
Upon completion, ownership wi