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Dassault Aviation

Dassault Aviation SA is an international French aircraft manufacturer of military and business jets, is a subsidiary of Dassault Group. It was founded in 1929 by Marcel Bloch as Société des Avions Marcel Bloch or "MB". After World War II, Marcel Bloch changed his name to Marcel Dassault, the name of the company was changed to Avions Marcel Dassault on 20 January 1947. In 1971 Dassault acquired Breguet. In 1990 the company was renamed Dassault Aviation; the Dassault Aviation Group is headed by Éric Trappier since 9 January 2013. The Société des Avions Marcel Bloch was founded by Marcel Bloch in 1929. In 1935 Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise, subsequently renamed Société Aéronautique du Sud-Ouest. In 1936 the arms industry in France was nationalised as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest. Marcel Bloch was asked to act as delegated administrator of the Minister for Air. During the occupation of France by Nazi Germany the country's aviation industry was disbanded.

Marcel Bloch was imprisoned by the Vichy government in October 1940. In 1944 Bloch was deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp by the German occupiers where he remained until it was liberated on 11 April 1945. On 10 November 1945, at an extraordinary general meeting of the Société Anonyme des Avions Marcel Bloch the company voted to change its form to a limited liability entity, Société des Avions Marcel Bloch, to be a holding company. On 20 January 1947 Société des Avions Marcel Bloch became Société des Avions Marcel Dassault to reflect the name adopted by its owner. In 1954, Dassault established an electronics division, the first action of, to begin development of airborne radars, soon followed by seeker heads for air-to-air missiles and bombing aids. From the 1950s to late 1970s exports become a major part of Dassault's business, major successes were the Dassault Mirage series and the Mystere-Falcon. In 1965 and 1966, the French government stressed to its various defense suppliers the need to specialize to maintain viable companies.

Dassault was to specialise in combat and business aircraft, Nord Aviation in ballistic missiles and Sud Aviation civil and military transport aircraft and helicopters.. On 27 June 1967, Dassault acquired 66% of Breguet Aviation. Under the merger deal Société des Avions Marcel Dassault was dissolved on 14 December 1971, with its assets vested in Breguet, to be renamed Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation. Dassault Systèmes was established in 1981 to develop and market Dassault's CAD program, CATIA. Dassault Systèmes was to become a market leader in this field. In 1979 the French government took a 20% share in Dassault and established the Societé de Gestion de Participations Aéronautiques to manage this and an indirect 25% share in Aerospatiale. In 1998 the French government transferred its shares in Dassault Aviation to Aerospatiale. On 10 July 2000, Aérospatiale-Matra merged with other European companies to form EADS. In 2000 Serge Dassault was succeeded by Charles Edelstenne. Serge Dassault was appointed honorary chairman.

The American company Atlantic Aviation based in Wilmington, was acquired in October 2000. On 18 December 2000, Dassault Aviation was the first French company to be certified ISO 9001/2000 by BVQI. Within fifteen years or so, thanks to developments in I. T. the industrial design offices went from using drawing boards to computerized 3D-modelling. Physical models were replaced by virtual digital mock-ups enabling a first version to be produced, directly operational; this veritable industrial revolution was made possible thanks to PLM software from Dassault Systemes. "Virtual plateau" technology, allowing all the design offices to work together within short deadlines, was deployed for the Falcon 7X trijet program. In this way, for the first time, the primary parts and physical assembly of the first Falcon 7X were produced and carried out at Bordeaux-Mérignac without the slightest adjustment or correction. Airbus sold some of its ownership back to Dassault in 2014, further reduced its share to 27% in 2015 to 10% in 2016.

Sogitec, a wholly owned subsidiary of Dassault, makes advanced avionics simulation, 3D imaging, military flight simulators, document imaging systems. The Dassault Aviation Group is an international group that encompasses most of the aviation activities of the Dassault Group Dassault Group Airbus Dassault Aviation Private investors Marcel Dassault: 1929-1950 Auguste Le Révérend: 1950-1955 Benno-Claude Vallières: 1955-1986 Serge Dassault: 1986-2000 Charles Edelstenne: 2000-2013 Éric Trappier: since January 9, 2013 Executive committee since December 31, 2017: Éric Trappier, chairman and CEO Loïk Segalen, chief operating officer Benoît Berger, executive vice-president, industrial operations and purchasing Bruno Chevalier, senior executive vice president, military customer support Denis Dassé, chief financial officer Benoît Dussaugey, senior executive vice president, international Jean-Marc Gasparini, executive vice president, military programs Didier Gondoin, senior executive vice president, engineering Frédéric Lherm, senior executive vice president, industrial operations Gérald Maria, senior executive vice president, total quality Yves Petit, s

Inequity aversion in animals

Inequity aversion in animals is the willingness to sacrifice material pay-offs for the sake of greater equality, something humans tend to do from early age. It manifests itself through negative responses when rewards are not distributed between animals. In controlled experiments it has been observed, in varying degrees, in capuchin monkeys, macaques, dogs, rats and ravens. No evidence of the effect was found in tests with orangutans, owl monkeys, squirrel monkeys, tamarins and cleaner fish. Due to inconclusive evidence it is assumed that some bonobos, baboons and gorillas may be inequity averse. Disadvantageous inequity aversion is most common, that is, the animal protests when it gets a lesser reward than another animal, but advantageous inequity aversion has been observed as well, in chimpanzees and capuchins: the animal protests when it gets a better reward. Scientists believe that sensitivity to inequity co-evolved with the ability to cooperate, as it helps to sustain benefitting from cooperation.

The first researcher to discover inequity aversion in animals was Sarah Brosnan, in an experiment with five capuchins, described in a 2003 article in Nature. The monkeys tended to refuse to participate in a food-for-token exchange task once they saw another monkey get rewarded more desirable food for equal effort. On some occasions they threw the food back at the human experimenter. Dozens of studies have been undertaken since. A few experimental paradigms have been used to test inequity aversion; the exchange is most common. Here animals need to hand over a token to the human experimenter in exchange for a food reward; the results and findings are mixed. In terms of refusal rates being higher in inequity conditions than equity, there is substantial variation across species, across studies, across individuals within the same studies; some researchers have argued that small differences in experimental setup can make the effect disappear. For instance, if the animals are not side by side and do not have good visibility of their partner and their actions, or if there is no task and the animals are given food.

In some species the females do not refuse inferior rewards but the males do. Due to low sample sizes, not all studies controlled for rank; the ability of humans to cooperate is well documented. One key aspect of cooperation is a sense of fairness: the reward an individual gets from cooperating should be fair compared to others or else future cooperation may break down. Humans show a consistent preference for equal over unequal outcomes. A full-blown concept of fairness is present in children aged 6, although 3-year-olds prefer a giver who distributes rewards from cooperation over one who does so unfairly; when given the choice to accept an unfair reward, children rejected it if it was less valuable than the reward of their peer, researchers Blake et al. found in a study across seven countries. If it was more valuable than the reward of their peer, older children in three countries still on average rejected it. Disadvantageous inequity aversion is considered a universal feature of human behavior, whereas advantageous inequity aversion may be influenced by cultural norms.

Humans are not the only cooperative animals. By researching aspects of cooperation in other species, evolutionary psychologists aim to pinpoint when and under which conditions cooperation emerges. Many species of animals cooperate in the wild. Collaborative hunting has been observed in the air, on land, in the water, under the ground. Further examples of cooperation include parents and others working together to raise young, groups defending their territory, studied in primates and other social species such as bottlenose dolphins, spotted hyenas, common ravens. Fairness in cooperative animals -- in particular, primates -- in the wild has been observed. Chimpanzees are known to divide the carcass obtained during collective hunting based on each individual's contribution to the hunt. With cooperation not being uniquely human, inequity aversion may not be uniquely human either. Through controlled experiments with animals researchers look for this behavior and hope to be able to answer the questions of how and why inequity aversion, cooperative behavior as a whole, evolved.

The first researcher to test inequity aversion in animals was Sarah Brosnan. As a PhD student at Emory University in Atlanta, the idea for an experiment came to her during a feeding session with capuchin monkeys; as she was handing out peanuts to the lower-ranked monkeys, an alpha male named Ozzie offered her an orange, a higher-value food, to get a peanut. Under guidance of her professor, Frans de Waal, Brosnan set up an experiment to ascertain if capuchins' behavior is influenced by rewards given to others. In a preliminary test with two conditions capuchins were tested side by side and were either both given a cucumber as a reward, or one was given a cucumber and the other a grape, known to be perceived as a higher-value food; the results indicated. Male capuchins did not show any different behavior between the two conditions. Brosnan subsequently tested five female capuchins in different conditions; as before, the rewards were either inferior to what the other monkey received. Brosnan tested if it matters if the other monkey receives food as reward for effort or for not doing anything at all.

The task the ca

Philip Hefner

Philip Hefner is a professor emeritus of systematic theology at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago. His research career has focused on the interaction of religion and science, for which he is most well known. Hefner has held several dozen visiting teaching and lecturing appointments at seminaries and universities in the United States, Europe and Asia, he is an ordained minister of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, has taught in numerous Lutheran seminaries in America. In 1988, Hefner was instrumental in bringing to fruition the vision of Ralph Wendell Burhoe by helping to create the Chicago Center for Religion and Science, renamed the Zygon Center for Religion and Science, he was the first director of the center and remained in that capacity from 1988 until 2003, at which point Antje Jackelén succeeded him. Today the Zygon Center is directed by Lea Schweitz, he is the former editor for Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science the leading journal of religion and science in the world. He retired as editor at the end of 2008.

Dutch scholar Willem B. Drees was named as his successor at the Journal. Hefner was four times co-chair of the annual conference of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science. In this activity he has been a leader in the discussions there on the evolving paradigm of Religious Naturalism. Hefner is a prominent figure in this emergence belief, it distances itself from traditional religions seeing religious aspects in the world which can be appreciated in a naturalistic framework rather than relying on the supernatural. He is an individualist in his approach to it. Hefner writes - “A second alternative response identified as “religious naturalism,” is composed of a cross-section of people, many of whom are scientists, who are fashioning a religious worldview, consistent with their personal outlook and/or free of those encumbrances of traditional religion which they consider conceptually anachronistic and morally dangerous. Religious naturalism is a variety of naturalism which involves a set of beliefs and attitudes that there are religious aspects of this world which can be appreciated within a naturalistic framework.”Audrey R. Chapman says of him – “Philip Hefner is the theologian who has grappled the most and explicitly with the evolution of human nature.

His approach to this topic in his work ‘The Human Factor’ is to sacralize the process of evolution….like several other thinkers, Hefner presents a bio-cultural evolutionary paradigm of Homo sapiens…For him, culture is a happening in nature” Hefner is a Senior Fellow at the Metanexus Institute where one can find his biography. The Publications Board of Zygon has established the Philip Hefner Fund to honor the 20 years of outstanding editorial leadership, demonstrated by Hefner. Over 150 scholarly articles, about half of which deal with religion and the natural sciences, while the other half deal with traditional historical and theological issues. Faith and the Vitalities of History: A Theological Study Based on the Thought of Albrecht Ritschl - Harper and Row, 1966 Changing Man: The Threat and the Promise- Doubleday, 1968 The Promise of Teilhard - Lippincott, 1970, Defining America: A Christian Critique of the American Dream - Fortress Press, 1974 The Human Factor: Evolution, Religion - Fortress Press, 1993 Natur-Weltbild-Religion - Bavarian Evangelical Press, Munich, 1995 Biocultural Evolution and the Created Co-Creator - in Ted Peters and Theology: The New Consonance - Westview Press, 1998 When Worlds Converge: What Science and Religion Tell Us about the Story of the Universe and Our Place in It - Open Court, 2001, ISBN 0-8126-9451-1 Technology and Human Becoming - Fortress Press, 2003 Religion-and-Science as Spiritual Quest for Meaning - Pandora Press, 2008He translated and edited a volume of Ritschl's shorter writings, Three Essays by Albrecht Ritschl - Fortress Press, 1972.

He contributed Church to the two-volume work, Christian Dogmatics - eds. Carl Braaten and Robert Jenson - Fortress Press, 1984, his 2002 Rockwell lectures, delivered at Rice University, on the theme of the Created Co-Creator were to be published by Trinity International Press. 2010 – Michael Hogue – The Promise of Religious Naturalism, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Sept.16, 2010, ISBN 0-7425-6261-1 2009 – Willem B. Drees - Religion and Science in Context: A Guide to the Debates Routledge.

Steve Sion

Steve Sion is a former American bridge player. Steve Sion and his regular partner Alan Cokin were accused of cheating in 1979, they were banned, their American Contract Bridge League membership was reinstated five years later. Sion was convicted of cheating in 1997 and was expelled from the ACBL; the cheating convictions make. Fishbein Trophy 1984 North American Bridge Championships North American Pairs 1984 Grand National Teams 1989 Jacoby Open Swiss Teams 1993 Lebhar IMP Pairs 1995 Mitchell Board-a-Match Teams 1979 Chicago Mixed Board-a-Match 1984, 1994 Wernher Open Pairs 1990 North American Bridge Championships Grand National Teams 1978 Reisinger 1974 Spingold 1984 von Zedtwitz Life Master Pairs 1984, 1991, 1994

Skewen Dram Road

The Skewen Dram Road was a 3 miles long mining railway near Skewen in Wales with a gauge of 2 feet 7 1⁄2 inches. The railway was built to take coal from Bryncoch to Skewen Wharf via the Skewen Incline. In 1871 the New Neath Abbey Coal Company, who operated the dram road across New Road, was requested to install level crossing gates; these were painted white and hence gave their name to the location, still known as White Gates. The Skewen Dram Road was owned and operated by the Main Colliery Company Limited, the successor of the Dynevor Dyffryn and Neath Abbey United Collieries Company Limited; the New Neath Abbey Coal Company is said to have been founded in June 1819 by the Fox family, which held 7/12ths of the company's shares and Joseph T. Price, who held the remaining 5/12ths. In 1873 the company failed, its assets were sold to Batters & Scott on behalf of the Dyffryn Main Colliery Company. In 1874 the property was sold again to the United Company, a merger of the Dynevor Dyffryn and Neath Abbey United Collieries Company, under the directorship of John Newell Moore of Cambrian Place, Swansea.

The United Company ceased to operate in 1888 and was re-incorporated as the Main Colliery Company Limited with effect from 1 May 1899. According to a contemporary newspaper report, an accident, involving the death of three men and serious injuries to two others, occurred on the evening of 20 September 1906 on the private railway of the Main Colliery Company, by means of which coals are conveyed from Bryncoch to the wharves on Neath River. A party of ten line repairers was proceeding towards the top of the Skewen, on a repairer’s trolly, was rounding a curve when a locomotive travelling on the same rails in the opposite direction dashed into the trolly; the effect of the impact was such that three of the men were hurt and died before they could be conveyed home. One of the steam locomotives was built by H. H. Price at the Neath Abbey Works, it had 8 by 15 inches cylinders, 2 feet 4 inches diameter wheels at 4 foot centres, used 8 hundredweight of coal a day. It could climb-up a 1 in 40 gradient at a tremendous pace with 30 empty trams weighing 12 hundredweight each, rushed round a curve of not more than 2 chains radius with great velocity.

Neath Abbey’s price for selling such a locomotive was above £600, as confirmed in quotation of 19 April 1864. When assets were acquired by the Main Colliery Co. Ltd. in 1889, these included four locomotives, of which two were scrapped. This company converted its narrow gauge lines to standard gauge in 1899 and advertised six locomotives for sale, of which two had been built by the Neath Abbey Ironworks, three by Pecketts and one unknown; the gauge was 2 feet 7 1⁄2 inches. There were three 0-6-0ST with Peckett works Nos. 501/1890, 542/1890 and 602/1896, one 0-6-0T, one more saddle tank locomotive and one unknown locomotive. Two similar 0-4-0T steam locomotives with a gauge of 2 feet 8 1⁄2 inches were supplied to the Neath Abbey Coal Company in 1858 by the company of R. & W. Hawthorn in Newcastle upon Tyne; these two steam locomotives had been built in 1864 and 1870 to be exported to South America, but were stored or used at Neath Abbey Iron Company’s works. They were up for sale in 1899. Historic Neath Abbey archives to be preserved online Historic and modern maps side by side

Yassir Raad

Yassir Raad Mohammed is an Iraqi defender who plays for Sulaymaniya FC. The left-side Al-Zawraa player is capable of playing in defence, as well as midfield. Yassir has been one of the Iraqi league's top defenders for the past four years, having played for Al-Defaa Al-Jawiya, Al-Shorta, Al-Zawraa and now Arbil FC, he was first selected for the Olympic team by Wathik Naji in October, 2002. The former Iraqi national coach picked a squad of twenty-four players from a list of 217 players. At the end of the war, Yassir played at the 2003 Arab Club Championship in Cairo, where he played against Kuwait SC, Al-Jaish and Zamalek, which would be one of his last appearances for the Police Club before he moved to Al-Zawraa, he was recalled by coach Adnan Hamad and played a part in the side’s 5-1 demolition of Al-Nasr at the Emir Abdullah Al-Faisal Cup in Abha, the team reached went all the way to the final where they beat Morocco 1-0. He was used sparely by coach Hamad making only two appearances in the Qualifiers for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, as well as giving him a starting place in the friendly against South Korea in Seoul in April.

2005 West Asian Games Gold medallist