Stall (fluid dynamics)
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases. This occurs; the critical angle of attack is about 15 degrees, but it may vary depending on the fluid and Reynolds number. Stalls in fixed-wing flight are experienced as a sudden reduction in lift as the pilot increases the wing's angle of attack and exceeds its critical angle of attack. A stall does not mean that the engine have stopped working, or that the aircraft has stopped moving—the effect is the same in an unpowered glider aircraft. Vectored thrust in manned and unmanned aircraft is used to maintain altitude or controlled flight with wings stalled by replacing lost wing lift with engine or propeller thrust, thereby giving rise to post-stall technology; because stalls are most discussed in connection with aviation, this article discusses stalls as they relate to aircraft, in particular fixed-wing aircraft. The principles of stall discussed here translate to foils in other fluids as well.
A stall is a condition in aerodynamics and aviation such that if the angle of attack increases beyond a certain point lift begins to decrease. The angle at which this occurs is called the critical angle of attack; this critical angle is dependent upon the airfoil section or profile of the wing, its planform, its aspect ratio, other factors, but is in the range of 8 to 20 degrees relative to the incoming wind for most subsonic airfoils. The critical angle of attack is the angle of attack on the lift coefficient versus angle-of-attack curve at which the maximum lift coefficient occurs. Stalling is caused by flow separation which, in turn, is caused by the air flowing against a rising pressure. Whitford describes three types of stall, trailing-edge, leading-edge and thin-aerofoil, each with distinctive Cl~alpha features. For the trailing-edge stall separation begins at small angles of attack near the trailing edge of the wing while the rest of the flow over the wing remains attached; as angle of attack increases, the separated regions on the top of the wing increase in size as the flow separation moves forwards and this hinders the ability of the wing to create lift.
This is shown by the reduction in lift-slope on a Cl~alpha curve as the lift nears its maximum value. The separated flow causes buffeting. Beyond the critical angle of attack, separated flow is so dominant that additional increases in angle of attack cause the lift to fall from its peak value. Piston-engined and early jet transports had good stall behaviour with pre-stall buffet warning and, if ignored, a straight nose-drop for a natural recovery. Wing developments that came with the introduction of turbo-prop engines introduced unacceptable stall behaviour. Leading-edge developments on high-lift wings and the introduction of rear-mounted engines and high-set tailplanes on the next generation of jet transports introduced unacceptable stall behaviour; the probability of achieving the stall speed inadvertently, a hazardous event, had been calculated, in 1965, at about once in every 100,000 flights enough to justify the cost of development and incorporation of warning devices, such as stick shakers, devices to automatically provide an adequate nose-down pitch, such as stick pushers.
When the mean angle of attack of the wings is beyond the stall a spin, an autorotation of a stalled wing, may develop. A spin follows departures in roll and pitch from balanced flight. For example, a roll is damped with an unstalled wing but with wings stalled the damping moment is replaced with a propelling moment; the graph shows that the greatest amount of lift is produced as the critical angle of attack is reached. This angle is 17.5 degrees in this case. In particular, for aerodynamically thick airfoils, the critical angle is higher than with a thin airfoil of the same camber. Symmetric airfoils have lower critical angles; the graph shows that, as the angle of attack exceeds the critical angle, the lift produced by the airfoil decreases. The information in a graph of this kind is gathered using a model of the airfoil in a wind tunnel; because aircraft models are used, rather than full-size machines, special care is needed to make sure that data is taken in the same Reynolds number regime as in free flight.
The separation of flow from the upper wing surface at high angles of attack is quite different at low Reynolds number from that at the high Reynolds numbers of real aircraft. High-pressure wind tunnels are one solution to this problem. In general, steady operation of an aircraft at an angle of attack above the critical angle is not possible because, after exceeding the critical angle, the loss of lift from the wing causes the nose of the aircraft to fall, reducing the angle of attack again; this nose drop, independent of control inputs, indicates the pilot has stalled the aircraft. This graph shows the stall angle, yet in practice most pilot operating handbooks or generic flight manuals describe stalling in terms of airspeed; this is because all aircraft are equipped with an airspeed indicator, but fewer aircraft have an angle of attack indicator. An aircraft's stalling speed is published by the manufacturer for a range of weights and flap positions, but the stalling angle of attack is not published.
As speed reduces, angle of attack has to increase to keep lift
Dassault Falcon 20
The Dassault Falcon 20 is a French business jet developed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation. The first business jet developed by the firm, it became the first of a family of business jets to be produced under the same name. Known as the Dassault-Breguet Mystère 20, approval to proceed with development of the aircraft was issued during December 1961, it is a low-wing monoplane design, powered by a pair of rear-mounted General Electric CF700 turbojet engine. On 4 May 1963 the prototype made its maiden flight; the first production aircraft was introduced on 3 June 1965. On 10 June 1965, French aviator Jacqueline Auriol achieved the women's world speed record using the first prototype; as a result of an early distributor arrangement with American airline Pan American, American-delivered aircraft were marketed under the name Fan Jet Falcon. American orders proved valuable early on. Further major orders were soon placed for the type by several operators, both military. An improved model of the aircraft, designated the Falcon 200, was developed.
This variant, powered by a pair of Garrett ATF3 engines, featured several major improvements to increase its range and comfort. Additionally, a number of Falcon 20s, powered by the CF700 engines were re-engined with the Garrett TFE731 turbofan engine; the aircraft proved to be so popular that production did not end until 1988, by which point it had been superseded by more advanced developments of the Falcon family. Due to the increasing implementation of noise abatement regulations, the Falcon 20 has either been subject to restrictions on its use in some nations, or been retrofitted with Stage 3 noise-compliant engines or hush kits upon its non-compliant engines; the type has been used as a flying test bed and aerial laboratory by a number of operators, including NASA and Cobham Aviation. In November 2012, a Falcon 20 had the distinction of becoming the first civil jet to fly on 100 percent biofuel. During the 1950s and 1960s, the French government, which had taken a significant interest in the re-establishment and growth of its national aviation industries in the aftermath of the Second World War, developed a detailed request for a combined liaison/trainer aircraft, to be equipped with twin-turbofan engines.
Among those companies that took interest in the government request was French aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation. In December 1961, French aircraft designer and head of Dassault Aviation, Marcel Dassault, gave the go-ahead to proceed with work towards the production of an eight-to-ten-seat executive jet/military liaison aircraft, named as the Dassault-Breguet Mystère 20; the emerging design was of a low-wing monoplane which drew upon the aerodynamics of the transonic Dassault Mystère IV fighter-bomber and was equipped with a pair of rear-mounted Pratt & Whitney JT12A-8 turbojet engines. On 4 May 1963, the Mystère 20 prototype, registered F-WLKB, conducted its maiden flight from Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport, France. By this stage, attention in the programme was centered around the commercial opportunities for the type the large North American market. According to aerospace publication Flying Magazine, while Dassault had achieved satisfactory technical progress on the Mystère 20, it was recognised by the company's officials that the firm lacked both the sales presence and the experience in order to market the type across English-speaking nations.
Accordingly, the option of directly selling the type was discarded in favour of seeking an established US distributor. Coincidentally, management at American airline Pan American World Airways happened to be seeking a suitable aircraft to launch its planned corporate jet aircraft sales division and, following a review of a range of available business jets of the era, took an interest in the Mystère 20. Progress between Dassault and Pan American was rapid, moving from engineering evaluations of the type to the formation of general agreements between the two companies. In response to feedback received from Pan American, the aircraft was re-engined with a pair of General Electric CF700 engines and several dimensions were increased. Accordingly, Pan American formed an agreement with Dassault to distribute the Mystère 20 in the western hemisphere. On 10 July 1964, the re-engined aircraft made its first flight. On 1 January 1965, the first production aircraft performed its maiden flight. On 10 June 1965, French aviator Jacqueline Auriol achieved the women's world speed record using the first Mystère 20 prototype, having flown at an average recorded speed of 859 kilometers per hour over a distance of 1000 km.
Deliveries of the type soon commenced to Pan American's outfitting facility at Burbank Airport, California. All non-American aircraft were fitted out prior to delivery at Bordeaux-Merignac. During 1966, the company re-designated the American-delivered aircraft as the Fan Jet Falcon, this was subsequently shortened to the Falcon 20. During 1967, Pan American Business Jets Division decided to increase their firm orders for the type to 160 Falcon 20s. Military orders for the type were received from Australia and Canada, in addition those placed by France. A number of Falcon 20s, powered by CF700 engines were re-engined with the G
In aviation, V-speeds are standard terms used to define airspeeds important or useful to the operation of all aircraft. These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing for aircraft type-certification testing. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance or both; the actual speeds represented by these designators are specific to a particular model of aircraft. They are expressed by the aircraft's indicated airspeed, so that pilots may use them directly, without having to apply correction factors, as aircraft instruments show indicated airspeed. In general aviation aircraft, the most used and most safety-critical airspeeds are displayed as color-coded arcs and lines located on the face of an aircraft's airspeed indicator; the lower ends of the green arc and the white arc are the stalling speed with wing flaps retracted, stalling speed with wing flaps extended, respectively. These are the stalling speeds for the aircraft at its maximum weight.
The yellow range is the range in which the aircraft may be operated in smooth air, only with caution to avoid abrupt control movement, the red line is the VNE, the never exceed speed. Proper display of V-speeds is an airworthiness requirement for type-certificated aircraft in most countries; the most common V-speeds are defined by a particular government's aviation regulations. In the United States, these are defined in title 14 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, known as the Federal Aviation Regulations. In Canada, the regulatory body, Transport Canada, defines 26 used V-speeds in their Aeronautical Information Manual. V-speed definitions in FAR 23, 25 and equivalent are for designing and certification of airplanes, not for their operational use; the descriptions below are for use by pilots. These V-speeds are defined by regulations, they are defined with constraints such as weight, configuration, or phases of flight. Some of these constraints have been omitted to simplify the description.
Some of these V-speeds are specific to particular types of aircraft and are not defined by regulations. Whenever a limiting speed is expressed by a Mach number, it is expressed relative to the speed of sound, e.g. VMO: Maximum operating speed, MMO: Maximum operating Mach number. V1 is takeoff decision speed, it is the speed above which the takeoff will continue if an engine fails or another problem occurs, such as a blown tire. The speed will vary among aircraft types and varies according to factors such as aircraft weight, runway length, wing flap setting, engine thrust used and runway surface contamination, thus it must be determined by the pilot before takeoff. Aborting a takeoff after V1 is discouraged because the aircraft will by definition not be able to stop before the end of the runway, thus suffering a "runway overrun". V1 is defined differently in different jurisdictions: The US Federal Aviation Administration defines it as: "the maximum speed in the takeoff at which the pilot must take the first action to stop the airplane within the accelerate-stop distance.
V1 means the minimum speed in the takeoff, following a failure of the critical engine at VEF, at which the pilot can continue the takeoff and achieve the required height above the takeoff surface within the takeoff distance." Transport Canada defines it as: "Critical engine failure recognition speed" and adds: "This definition is not restrictive. An operator may adopt any other definition outlined in the aircraft flight manual of TC type-approved aircraft as long as such definition does not compromise operational safety of the aircraft." Getting to grips with aircraft performance. Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance. Airbus Customer Services. January 2002
Thrust reversal called reverse thrust, is the temporary diversion of an aircraft engine's thrust so that it is directed forward, rather than backward. Reverse thrust acts against the forward travel of the aircraft. Thrust reverser systems are featured on many jet aircraft to help slow down just after touch-down, reducing wear on the brakes and enabling shorter landing distances; such devices affect the aircraft and are considered important for safe operations by airlines. There have been accidents involving thrust reversal systems, including fatal ones. Reverse thrust is available on many propeller-driven aircraft through reversing the controllable-pitch propellers to a negative angle; the equivalent concept for a ship is called astern propulsion. A landing roll consists of touchdown, bringing the aircraft to taxi speed, to a complete stop. However, most commercial jet engines continue to produce thrust in the forward direction when idle, acting against the deceleration of the aircraft; the brakes of the landing gear of most modern aircraft are sufficient in normal circumstances to stop the aircraft by themselves, but for safety purposes, to reduce the stress on the brakes, another deceleration method is needed.
In scenarios involving bad weather, where factors like snow or rain on the runway reduce the effectiveness of the brakes, in emergencies like rejected takeoffs, this need is more pronounced. A simple and effective method is to reverse the direction of the exhaust stream of the jet engine and use the power of the engine itself to decelerate. Ideally, the reversed exhaust stream would be directed straight forward. However, for aerodynamic reasons, this is not possible, a 135° angle is taken, resulting in less effectiveness than would otherwise be possible. Thrust reversal can be used in flight to reduce airspeed, though this is not common with modern aircraft. There are three common types of thrust reversing systems used on jet engines: the target, clam-shell, cold stream systems; some propeller-driven aircraft equipped with variable-pitch propellers can reverse thrust by changing the pitch of their propeller blades. Most commercial jetliners have such devices, it has applications in military aviation.
Small aircraft do not have thrust reversal systems, except in specialized applications. On the other hand, large aircraft always have the ability to reverse thrust. Reciprocating engine and jet aircraft can all be designed to include thrust reversal systems. Propeller-driven aircraft generate reverse thrust by changing the angle of their controllable-pitch propellers so that the propellers direct their thrust forward; this reverse thrust feature became available with the development of controllable-pitch propellers, which change the angle of the propeller blades to make efficient use of engine power over a wide range of conditions. Single-engine aircraft tend not to have reverse thrust. However, single-engine turboprop aircraft such as the PAC P-750 XSTOL, Cessna 208 Caravan, Pilatus PC-6 Porter do have this feature available. One special application of reverse thrust comes in its use on multi-engine seaplanes and flying boats; these aircraft, when landing on water, have no conventional braking method and must rely on slaloming and/or reverse thrust, as well as the drag of the water in order to slow or stop.
In addition, reverse thrust is necessary for maneuvering on the water, where it is used to make tight turns or propel the aircraft in reverse, maneuvers which may prove necessary for leaving a dock or beach. On aircraft using jet engines, thrust reversal is accomplished by causing the jet blast to flow forward; the engine does not rotate in reverse. High bypass ratio engines reverse thrust by changing the direction of only the fan airflow, since the majority of thrust is generated by this section, as opposed to the core. There are three jet engine thrust reversal systems in common use: The target thrust reverser uses a pair of hydraulically-operated'bucket' type doors to reverse the hot gas stream. For forward thrust, these doors form the propelling nozzle of the engine. In the original implementation of this system on the Boeing 707, still common today, two reverser buckets were hinged so when deployed they block the rearward flow of the exhaust and redirect it with a forward component; this type of reverser is visible at the rear of the engine during deployment.
The clam-shell door, or cascade, system is pneumatically operated. When activated, the doors rotate to open the ducts and close the normal exit, causing the thrust to be directed forward; the cascade thrust reverser is used on turbofan engines. On turbojet engines, this system would be less effective than the target system, as the cascade system only makes use of the fan airflow and does not affect the main engine core, which continues to produce forward thrust. In addition to the two types used on turbojet and low-bypass turbofan engines, a third type of thrust reverser is found on some high-bypass turbofan engines. Doors in the bypass duct are used to redirect the air, accelerated by the engine's fan section but does not pass through the combustion chamber such that it provides reverse thrust; the cold stream reverser system is activated by an air motor. During normal operation, the reverse thrust vanes are blocked. On selection, the system folds the doors to block off the cold stream final nozzle and redirect this airflow to the cascade vanes.
This system can redirect both the exhaust flow of the core. The cold stream system is known for structural integrity and versatili
Aviation Partners Inc.
Aviation Partners Inc. is a Seattle-based private corporation that specializes in performance enhancing winglet systems. The corporation is owned by The Washington Companies. API was founded in 1991 by and Joe Clark and Dennis Washington, bringing together a team consisting of retired Boeing and Lockheed engineers and flight test department directors, his design team was led by Dr. Louis "Bernie" Gratzer, who retired from Boeing that same year and began with API, with title of senior vice president. Washington, a US entrepreneur who made his money from copper mining, was frustrated that his private jet could not fly coast-to-coast in the US without refueling. Instead of buying a new aircraft, he approached his friend Joe Clark who had experience in the aviation industry having co-founded Horizon Air. Clark calculated that by increasing the wings' performance, non-stop coast-to-coast flying would be possible. Together with a group of aviation specialists, Clark developed a new winglet, with permission from Gulfstream, fitted the winglet to Washington's jet.
Test flights confirmed a fuel saving and range increase of 4–5%. Washington and Clark set out on a publicity campaign to sell the idea, they started setting a number of World Records in performance with the winglets. In 1997, API's winglets were sold as a standard fit on all Boeing Business Jets, winglets were offered as an addition to standard 737s. Around 95 % of all 737 customers want. Aviation Partners formed a joint venture with Boeing, called Aviation Partners Boeing, in 1997; this entity licenses the Blended Winglet Technology for use on Boeing aircraft. Starting with the Boeing Business Jet, winglets have been factory installed onto the Boeing 737 Next Generation as well as retrofitted on 737'Classic' and 757 and 767-300ER airliners. In addition to the Boeing airliner programs, API has certified winglets for the Hawker 800 series jets and has over 100 Blended Winglet equipped Hawkers in service as of December 2008. At EBACE 2007, Dassault Aviation, in conjunction with Aviation Partners, announced the Falcon 2000 LX aircraft.
A derivative of the Falcon 2000 EX airframe, it is the first aircraft to be put into production with API's new High Mach winglets. The Falcon 2000-winglets received FAA certification on April 16, 2009 with the 900 series receiving certification in September 2011. Dassault and API are developing winglets for the Falcon 50 series aircraft. Airbus worked with Aviation Partners from 2006 through 2011, in an effort to modernize its A320 family of jets. In 2011, Airbus announced that it came up with its own design, which it branded "sharklets," and obtained a patent in Europe. In December 2011, Airbus filed suit in Texas seeking to invalidate Aviation Partners' 1994 winglet patent. By 2009, API's product had been introduced to Boeing 767, several Business Jets. Aviation Partners is developing the Spiroid winglet, a closed wing surface mounted at the end of a conventional wing. Initial testing using a Gulfstream II test aircraft has shown the winglet design to reduce fuel consumption in the cruise phase by over 10%.
APB's Split Scimitar Winglet retrofit program consists of retrofitting 737NG's winglets by replacing the aluminum winglet tip cap with a new aerodynamically shaped "Scimitar" winglet tip cap and by adding a new Scimitar tipped ventral strake. This modification demonstrated 2% drag reduction over the basic Blended Winglet configuration. FAA granted supplemental type certification for the Split Scimitar Winglet retrofit on the 737-800 and BBJ2 on February 6, 2014, for 737-900ER on August 27th, 2014, for 3 additional 737-800 wing configuration on October 2, 2014, for all models of the 737-700 including the Boeing Business Jet on April 21, 2015. APB expects Scimitar Winglet Systems installed on a 737-800 to save the typical airline more than 45,000 gallons of jet fuel per aircraft per year resulting in a corresponding reduction of carbon dioxide emissions of 476 tons per aircraft per year; the fuel savings can enable a 737-800 to increase its payload up to 2,500 pounds or increase its range up to 75 nautical miles.
APB expects to certify an improvement in low speed performance that will generate significant take-off benefits from high/hot or obstacle limited runways. The first European Split Scimitar Winglets were installed on the TUI fleet aircraft in Stansted in 2014 by Chevron Technical Services Ltd. APB sign deal in October 2015 with Japan Transocean Air, Siam Air, Myanmar National Airlines, Solaseed Air and Lion Air to install Split Scimitar Winglets starting 2016, they will be the only Asian Split Scimitar Winglets user, confirmed. Aviation Partners Inc. Official site
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A business jet, private jet, or bizjet is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces; the Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. A total of 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978 powered by several different engines; the smaller, 17,760 pounds MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines Garrett TFE731s, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982; the 25,000 pounds MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962 as the de Havilland DH.125, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engines were replaced by Garrett TFE731s Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. 1,700 aircraft of all variants, including the Hawker 800, were produced between 1962 and 2013.
The Aero Commander 1121 Jet Commander, which became the IAI Westwind, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets Garrett TFE731s. Production of Jet Commanders and Westwinds from 1965 to 1987 came to 442 aircraft; the 29,000 pounds MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700s Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731s. A total of 508 were built from 1963 to 1988, it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family; the first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963: the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force General Electric CJ610s, its 12,500 pounds MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations; the first member of the Learjet family, 104 were built between 1962 and 1966. The forward wing sweep, 20,280 pounds MOTW Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet first flew on 21 April 1964, powered by two General Electric CJ610s; the joint Piaggo-Douglas, 18,000 pounds MOTW Piaggio PD.808 first flew on 29 August 1964, powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Vipers, 24 were built for the Italian Air Force.
On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family; the 11,850 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 for a total of 689 examples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family; the trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight on 7 November 1976. The 40,000 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force TFE731 engines. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900. On 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off; the 43,000–48,000 pounds MTOW craft powered by two 9,200 pounds-force General Electric CF34s, formed the basis of the long range Bombardier Global Express family and of the Bombardier CRJ regional airliners.
The 1000th Challenger entered service in 2015. On 30 May 1979 the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation III took off for the first time, powered by two 3,650 pounds-force TFE731s; the Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force JT15D; the design was sold and was renamed Beechjet 400 Hawker 400, with a total of 950 produced of all variants. The 1980s only saw the introduction of no major new designs. There was an advent of fractional ownership in the late 1980s for business jets; the first flight of the clean-sheet Learjet 45 was on 7 October 1995. All of the 642 aircraft built since have been powered by two 3,500 pounds-force TFE731 engines. Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force Williams FJ44s, the 12,500 pounds Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on 22 December 1998. Nearly 300 had been made before production stopped in 2013. In the opposite way compared to Bombardier, which developed airliners from a business jet, Embraer derived the Legacy 600 from the Embraer ERJ family of regional jet airliners.
Powered by two 8,800 pounds-force Rolls-Royce AE 3007s, the first flight of the 50,000 pounds aircraft was on 31 March 2001. On 14 August 2001, the Bombardier Challenger 300 made its first flight; the 38,850 pounds aircraft is powered by two 6,825 pounds-force HTF7000s. The 500th example was delivered in 2015; the first light jet, the 5,950 pounds MTOW Eclipse 500, took off for the first time on 26 August 2002, powered by two 900 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s. Between and the end of production in 2008, 260 were produced, it was followed by the 8,645 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation Mustang on 23 April 2005, powered by two 1,460 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s and with more than 450 produced. The Embraer Phenom 100 made its maiden flight on 26 July 2007; the 10,500 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by two 1,600 pounds-force Whitney Canada PW600s. With its Phenom 300 development, nearly 600 have been built; the first flight of the midsize, fly-by-wire, 7,000 lbf Honeywell HTF700