The Data Encryption Standard is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of digital data. Although its short key length of 56 bits—criticized from the beginning—makes it too insecure for most current applications, it has been influential in the advancement of modern cryptography. Developed in the early 1970s at IBM and based on an earlier design by Horst Feistel, the algorithm was submitted to the National Bureau of Standards following the agency's invitation to propose a candidate for the protection of sensitive, unclassified electronic government data. In 1976, after consultation with the National Security Agency, the NBS selected a modified version, published as an official Federal Information Processing Standard for the United States in 1977; the publication of an NSA-approved encryption standard resulted in its quick international adoption and widespread academic scrutiny. Controversies arose out of classified design elements, a short key length of the symmetric-key block cipher design, the involvement of the NSA, nourishing suspicions about a backdoor.
Today it is known that the S-boxes that had raised those suspicions were in fact designed by the NSA to remove a backdoor they secretly knew. However, the NSA ensured that the key size was drastically reduced such that they could break the cipher by brute force attack; the intense academic scrutiny the algorithm received over time led to the modern understanding of block ciphers and their cryptanalysis. DES, as stated above, is insecure; this is due to the 56-bit key size being too small. In January 1999, distributed.net and the Electronic Frontier Foundation collaborated to publicly break a DES key in 22 hours and 15 minutes. There are some analytical results which demonstrate theoretical weaknesses in the cipher, although they are infeasible to mount in practice; the algorithm is believed to be secure in the form of Triple DES, although there are theoretical attacks. This cipher has been superseded by the Advanced Encryption Standard. Furthermore, DES has been withdrawn as a standard by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Some documentation makes a distinction between DES as a standard and as an algorithm, referring to the algorithm as the DEA. The origins of DES go back to the early 1970s. In 1972, after concluding a study on the US government's computer security needs, the US standards body NBS —now named NIST —identified a need for a government-wide standard for encrypting unclassified, sensitive information. Around the same time, engineer Mohamed Atalla in 1972 founded Atalla Corporation and developed the first hardware security module, the so-called "Atalla Box", commercialized in 1973, it protected offline devices with an un-guessable PIN generating key, was a commercial success. Banks and credit card companies were fearful that Atalla would dominate the market, which spurred the development of an international encryption standard. Atalla was an early competitor to IBM in the banking market, was cited as an influence by IBM employees who worked on the DES standard; the IBM 3624 adopted a similar PIN verification system to the earlier Atalla system.
On 15 May 1973, after consulting with the NSA, NBS solicited proposals for a cipher that would meet rigorous design criteria. None of the submissions, turned out to be suitable. A second request was issued on 27 August 1974; this time, IBM submitted a candidate, deemed acceptable—a cipher developed during the period 1973–1974 based on an earlier algorithm, Horst Feistel's Lucifer cipher. The team at IBM involved in cipher design and analysis included Feistel, Walter Tuchman, Don Coppersmith, Alan Konheim, Carl Meyer, Mike Matyas, Roy Adler, Edna Grossman, Bill Notz, Lynn Smith, Bryant Tuckerman. On 17 March 1975, the proposed DES was published in the Federal Register. Public comments were requested, in the following year two open workshops were held to discuss the proposed standard. There was some criticism from various parties, including from public-key cryptography pioneers Martin Hellman and Whitfield Diffie, citing a shortened key length and the mysterious "S-boxes" as evidence of improper interference from the NSA.
The suspicion was that the algorithm had been covertly weakened by the intelligence agency so that they—but no-one else—could read encrypted messages. Alan Konheim commented, "We sent the S-boxes off to Washington, they came back and were all different." The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence reviewed the NSA's actions to determine whether there had been any improper involvement. In the unclassified summary of their findings, published in 1978, the Committee wrote: In the development of DES, NSA convinced IBM that a reduced key size was sufficient. However, it found that NSA did not tamper with the design of the algorithm in any way. IBM invented and designed the algorithm, made all pertinent decisions regarding it, concurred that the agreed upon key size was more than adequate for all commercial applications for which the DES was intended. Another member of the DES team, Walter Tuchman, stated "We developed the DES algorithm within IBM using IBMers; the NSA did not dictate a single wire!"
In contrast, a declassified NSA book on cryptologic history states
Brett Ralph is a former professional Canadian football receiver, who most played with the Canadian Football League's Calgary Stampeders. He is the younger brother of fellow CFL receiver Brock Ralph. Ralph was drafted in the 2005 CFL Draft in the 6th round by the Calgary Stampeders, he became part of the team's receiving corps. In his rookie season he finished fourth in receiving on the team with 609 yards. 2006 was an off year for him, recording only seven receptions for 76 yards, finishing eighth on the team. 2007 was a return to form. His duties on the team were expanded to include holding for placekicks, he threw a touchdown on a fake field goal play in the Stampeders game against the Argonauts on July 21. On May 31, 2010, Ralph announced his retirement from professional football in order to concentrate on his education to become a teacher. Brett Ralph on CFL
The AAA Contest Board was the motorsports arm of American Automobile Association. The contest board sanctioned automobile races from 1904 until 1955, establishing of Championship Car racing. Modern-day IndyCar racing traces its roots directly to these AAA events. All of the races at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway during that time period were sanctioned by AAA, including the Indianapolis 500. AAA sanctioned the 1905 National Motor Car Championship, the first national championship for major auto racing, it sanctioned the National Championship in 1916, from 1920 to 1955. It sanctioned the Vanderbilt Cup; the AAA Contest Board dissolved and decided to focus on helping the automobiling public, as a result of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. AAA was established in Chicago, Illinois on March 4, 1902. By June the same year, AAA established the Racing Board. Arthur Rayner Pardington was appointed chairman and the board sanctioned its first race, the 1904 Vanderbilt Cup held in Long Island, New York, it is unclear as to why William Vanderbilt had AAA sanction his race as opposed to the Automobile Club of America, the predominant sanctioning body for major U.
S. racing at the time. With the success of the racing board's experience sanctioning automobile events in 1904, the board announced a national track championship for 1905; the National Motor Car Championship was the first time in American racing history that a points system was used to decide an annual champion. From 1906 through 1915 the racing board, recognized no official championship seasons, it did, continue to sanction numerous individual events, the Vanderbilt Cup and events at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. In 1908, the ACA created the American Grand Prize, the first traces of Grand Prix style racing in the U. S. along with the established Vanderbilt Cup. This race started a feud between the ACA and AAA. In 1908 it was decided that AAA would sanction all big time racing nationally and the ACA would sanction all international events held on American soil. On 2 December 1908, AAA created the Contest Board soon after. Though the rationale for this decision has been lost with time, the move was most done to allow AAA to oversee all automobile events and not just racing contests.
The Manufacturers Contest Association urged AAA to organize racing so American manufacturers could race stock configuration cars and ban the pure race cars being imported from Europe. The stock car style rules continued until 1916, when the Contest Board relaxed the rules allowing purpose built machines back into competition ahead of its next recognized championship season in 1916. Although AAA did not award national champions during 1906 through 1915, the American automobile journal Motor Age published who they regarded the most outstanding American driver during the years of 1909-1915; these picks have become de facto national champions of the day. During World War I, AAA suspended the national championship and stopped sanctioning races as a whole; this time saw the demise of the American Grand Prize and the ACA folded during the war. American manufacturers saw the absence of European racers, the relaxed rules due to no national level sanctioning as a chance for the U. S. to catch up to the European racers.
The Contest Board picked up the pieces and held national championships from 1920 until the outbreak of World War II in 1941. After World War I, the race car specifications for the national championship were aligned with what the Indianapolis Motor Speedway wanted to run during its Memorial Day classic, this still holds true today. AAA, restarted the championship with the close of the war for the 1946 season and continued uninterrupted through 1955. After that season, AAA pulled out of auto racing, citing the Le Mans disaster and the death of Bill Vukovich at Indianapolis as contributing factors; the United States Auto Club filled the void left by AAA's departure. During the last half of the Racing Boards existence they sanctioned many forms of racing such as midgets, sprint cars, sports cars and stock cars as well as top level championship car racing. Between the years of 1902 and 1919, although AAA sanctioned many races, an official national championship was only awarded in 1905 and 1916. On two separate occasions, Contest Board record keepers changed the results of certain seasons, calculated retrospective national championships for years in which one was not awarded.
These actions have made it difficult to distinguish fact from fiction regarding AAA sanctioned national racing. In 1927 Arthur Means, the Assistant Secretary of the AAA Contest Board, with the approval of Secretary Val Haresnape, retrospectively calculated championship results for major AAA-sanctioned races run between 1909 and 1915 and for 1917 to 1920; the pair initially changed the 1920 championship winner to Tommy Milton, but by no than 1929 had restored Gaston Chevrolet. In 1951 Russ Catlin revised AAA records with results based on all AAA races from 1902 to 1919, first published his list in the 1952 Indianapolis 500 program. Using his own devised system of awarding championship points, this had the effect of retroactively creating seven new champions and changing the 1909 champion from Bert Dingley to George Robertson and the 1920 champion from Gaston Chevrolet to Tommy Milton. IndyCar recognizes Russ Catlin's list from 1909-1919, but with Gaston Chevrolet as champion for 1920; each year from 1909 to 1915 and in 1919, the American automobile journal Motor Age selected a "driver of the year".
Other contemporary publications such as The Horseless Age, MoToR, The New York Times, Los Ang
Raffaëla Anderson is a French former adult film performer. During her porn career, she was credited as Raphaëlla. Anderson studied to be a secretary, she left it four years later. Still a virgin at that time, she had her first sexual intercourse with a porn actor on a film set. During her adult film career, she was raped by two men, her aggressors were identified but, according to her own account, the public prosecutor told her that she was "the product of a bad education" and that, being a porn actress, she should not be complaining. Anderson played Manu in the 2000 film, Baise-moi, an explicit French film about two women embarking on a journey of sex and murderous violence. Time magazine reviewed the film and said, "And as one of the amoral avengers, Raffaela Anderson has true star quality...." In the 2001 mainstream film, Amour de Femme, she played a dance instructor who falls in love with a married woman. In 2005 she participated, along with nine other current or former adult film performers, in the documentary Une vie classée X from Mireille Darc for the French TV channel France 3.
She related how she lost her virginity on camera, spoke of her family and background, of the violence she suffered or witnessed in the porn industry. She mentioned cocaine and alcohol abuse during episodes of depression after leaving the pornography business. Anderson wrote a book, titled Hard, describing her experiences in the porn industry and decrying its abuses. In the documentary film La Petite Morte she voiced many of the same criticisms. In 2006, she published Tendre violence, a narration of her childhood with her Muslim family in Gagny. Baise-moi Un amour de femme La petite morte 2001 -- Grasset Ed. – ISBN 2-246-61511-9 Tendre violence, 2006 – Jean-Claude Lattès Ed. – ISBN 2-7096-2828-7 Raffaëla Anderson on IMDb Raffaëla Anderson at the Internet Adult Film Database Raffaëla Anderson at the European Girls Adult Film Database Raffaëla Anderson at the Adult Film Database
Driving Like Crazy is a 2009 book by P. J. O'Rourke about the automobile, its chapters include The End of the American Car, The Rolling Organ Donors Motorcycle Club, Getting Wrecked, The Geezers Grand Prix, Call for a New National Park. O'Rourke uses wit to recount his childhood growing up in an automobile dominated family, he recounts his adventures driving cross country in the Baja, the American West and the Indian subcontinent. In the final chapter he comments on the present state of the American auto industry. In the Introduction O'Rourke calls his book "a collection of car journalism from 1977 to the present, a sort of social history...". O'Rourke, Patrick J. Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 978-0-8021-1883-7 https://archive.org/details/drivinglikecrazy00pjor
It's All in the Game is an album by tenor saxophonist Eric Alexander. It was released by HighNote Records; the album was recorded at the Van Gelder Studio on July 29, 2005. It was produced by Todd Barkan; the quartet are tenor saxophonist Eric Alexander, pianist Harold Mabern, bassist Nat Reeves, drummer Joe Farnsworth. Three of the tracks are Alexander originals: "Typhoon 11", "Open and Shut", "Little Lucas". It's All in the Game; the AllMusic reviewer concluded that "Eric Alexander is a clear winner with It's All in the Game." All compositions by Eric Alexander except where noted "Where or When" – 7:05 "Typhoon 11" – 6:51 "Where Is the Love" – 6:30 "It's All in the Game" – 5:51 "Open and Shut" – 8:27 "Ruby, My Dear" – 7:54 "Little Lucas" – 5:20 "Bye Bye Baby" – 5:30 Eric Alexander – tenor saxophone Harold Mabern – piano Nat Reeves – bass Joe Farnsworth – drums