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David Copperfield

David Copperfield is the eighth novel by Charles Dickens. The novel's full title is The Personal History, Adventures and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery, it was first published as a serial in 1849–50, as a book in 1850. The novel features the character David Copperfield, is written in the first person, as a description of his life until middle age, with his own adventures and the numerous friends and enemies he meets along his way, it is his journey of change and growth from infancy to maturity, as people enter and leave his life and he passes through the stages of his development. It has been called his masterpiece, "the triumph of the art of Dickens", which marks a turning point in his work, the point of separation between the novels of youth and those of maturity. Though written in the first person, David Copperfield is considered to be more than an autobiography, going beyond this framework in the richness of its themes and the originality of its writing, which makes it a true autobiographical novel.

In the words of the author, this novel was "a complicated weaving of truth and invention". Some elements of the novel follow events in Dickens's own life, it was Dickens' favourite among his own novels. In the preface to the 1867 edition, Dickens wrote, "like many fond parents, I have in my heart of hearts a favourite child, and his name is David Copperfield."Dickens wrote this novel without an outline, unlike the way he wrote Dombey and Son, the previous novel. He wrote chapter summaries; some aspects of the story were fixed in his mind from the start, but others, like the obsession of Mr Dick with Charles I, the profession of David Copperfield as a writer, the sad fate of Dora, were not decided by Dickens until the serial publications were underway. At first glance, the work is modeled in the loose and somewhat disjointed way of "personal histories", popular in the United Kingdom of the 18th century, it begins, like other novels by Dickens, with a rather bleak painting of the conditions of childhood in Victorian England, notoriously when the troublesome children are parked in infamous boarding schools he strives to trace the slow social and intimate ascent of a young man who, painfully providing for the needs of his good aunt while continuing his studies, ends up becoming a writer.

The novel has the changes that occur on the way to maturity. In addition, Dickens included many aspects of Victorian Era life that he wanted to highlight or wished to change, which were integrated into the story, using satire as one device; the plight of prostitutes and the attitude of middle class society to them, the status of women in marriage, the rigid class structure, are aspects that he highlighted, while the system for handling criminals, the quality of schools, the employment of children in the fast-spreading factories of the 19th century were aspects he wished to influence, to change for the better. He, among other authors, achieved success in bringing about changes regarding child labour and schooling for more children up to age 12; the story follows the life of David Copperfield from childhood to maturity. David was born in Blunderstone, England, six months after the death of his father. David spends his early years in relative happiness with his loving, childish mother and their kindly housekeeper, Clara Peggotty.

They call him Davy. When he is seven years old his mother marries Edward Murdstone. To get him out of the way, David is sent to lodge with Peggotty's family in Yarmouth, her brother, fisherman Mr Peggotty, lives in a house built in an upturned boat on the beach, with his adopted relatives Emily and Ham, an elderly widow, Mrs Gummidge. "Little Em'ly" is somewhat spoiled by her fond foster father, David is in love with her. They call him Master Copperfield. On his return, David is given good reason to dislike his stepfather, who believes in firmness, has similar feelings for Murdstone's sister Jane, who moves into the house soon afterwards. Between them they tyrannize his poor mother, making her and David's lives miserable, when, in consequence, David falls behind in his studies, Murdstone attempts to thrash him – to further pain his mother. David bites him and soon afterwards is sent away to Salem House, a boarding school, under a ruthless headmaster named Mr Creakle. There he befriends an older boy, James Steerforth, Tommy Traddles.

He develops an impassioned admiration for Steerforth, perceiving him as someone noble, who could do great things if he would, one who pays attention to him. David goes home for the holidays to learn. Shortly after David returns to Salem House, his mother and her baby die, David returns home immediately. Peggotty marries the local carrier, Mr Barkis. Murdstone sends David to work for a wine merchant in London – a business of which Murdstone is a joint owner. David's landlord, Wilkins Micawber, is arrested for debt and sent to the King's Bench Prison, where he remains for several months, before being released and moving to Plymouth. No one remains to care for David in London, so he decides to run away, with Micawber advising him to head to Dover, to find his only known remaining relative, his eccentric and kind-hearted great-aunt Betsey Trotwood, she had come to Blunderstone at his birth, only to depart in ire upon learning that he was not a girl. However, she takes pity on him and agrees to r

Alfredo Fernández Simó

Alfredo Fernández Simó was a Dominican novelist and diplomat. Alfredo Fernández Simó was born in San Francisco de Macoris, Dominican Republic, the son of a classical musician Juan Antonio Fernández and Castillo and Beatriz Simó Kinipping Lucila, of Catalan and German descent, he attended elementary and secondary school in his hometown where he completed high school in 1935. He entered the University of Santo Domingo to pursue a law degree, but would drop out two years later. In July 1944 he entered the diplomatic service as a stenographer - typist Dominican Consulate in Curaçao. Between 1944 and 1975 he held the following positions: Aggregate of the Dominican Legation in Haiti, Civil Added in Colombia, Second Secretary of the Dominican Embassy in Colombia, Charge d' Affaires Dominican in Chile, First Secretary of the Dominican Embassy in Rome, Honduras and Panama, Director of Business in Peru, Chargé d'Affaires in Costa Rica, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Brazil and Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Costa Rica.

In late 1959, while serving as Chargé d'Affaires in Costa Rica, the Trujillo dictatorship ordered the persecution and murder due to the participation of his cousin José Antonio Fernández Caminero and his brother Abel Fernandez Simó in organizing a resistance movement against Trujillo in the Northeast. This situation led him to take refuge in the Embassy of Venezuela in Costa Rica, but when he was denied asylum, fled to Colombia and to Peru where he remained several years hiding in the Andean forests, he was a pianist and violinist of the Philharmonic francomacorisana Verdi and directed by his father, amateur painter. He began his literary career in 1931 with the publication of several of his poems in the national press, he collaborated with newspapers The Information, Listin Diario, El Siglo and numerous literary magazines Venezuelan, Peruvian and Dominican. Many of his poems and prose writings reflect the experiences of his travels and stays in different South and Central American countries the prints dedicated to Costa Rica and Peru that depict their contact with nature and with the customs and way of life some of the indigenous tribes who harbored.

His poems Rumbo Sleep was awarded in Colombia in 1947. Has authored the Guazábara novel, considered one of the best genre novels Dominican literature. Heading dream. Bogotá, Colombia: Bolívar Editor, 1946. In the world of monkeys. Santo Domingo: Editorial People, 1987. Visions of Peru. Costa Rica: Texts Publishing Ltd. 1970. Fronds amazing. Costa Rica: Text Publishing Ltd. 1973. Guazábara. Lima, Peru: Editorial Boards and Sons, 1958

Lago di Fondi

Lake Fondi is a brackish lake about 90 km to the southeast of Rome in the Province of Latina, Italy, in the region called Sud or "South" Pontino, the western end of, the Piana di Fondi, "Plain of Fondi". The plain is a basin below the arc of the Monti Lepini; the lake forms at the west end of the basin in a depression filling with spring water exuding from the base of the mountains, which are a cracked and faulted limestone karst absorbent of most rainfall. In addition to the flows from springs, a number of canals have been constructed from regions of the marsh below sea level to drain water from the marsh into the lake. Pumping stations are required to lift the water into the canals. Before the marsh was reclaimed the lake was part of it. Canals at either end of the lake connect it to the Tyrrhenian Sea. All the coastal lagoons of Lazio formed in the same way: an offshore Pliocene graben created by extensional forces in NE and SW directions behind a karst of Mesozoic limestone filled by peaty and fluvial deposition in the Pleistocene.

A barrier fringe of sand developed offshore enclosing first a lagoon a coastal marsh. The remnant chain of lagoons are brackish due to heavy inflow of fresh water from springs at the base of the porous Volscian Mountains and the intrusion of salt water from the marsh, much of, still below sea level; the positions of the lakes are determined by local elevations and equilibrium between inflow and outflow. In the last few centuries bonifica or "restoration", of the marshland to produce agricultural land, associated control of the water channels, have stabilized the lakes as landforms. According to the Water Framework Directive of the European Union the lagoons of Lazio are transitional waters, "partly saline" but "influenced by freshwater flows." Although the geology is the same in this case the ecology is far from it. Transitional waters tend to be biodiverse; the ecotomes, or transitional communities created, are unique. In 2008 a group of scientists from the University of Salento published a study of biodiversity in 26 Italian lagoons.

They compared "the taxonomic composition of benthic macro-invertebrate guilds" in the lakes, where a guild is a group of taxa that subsist in the same way. The 944 taxa included 343 families. Any two lakes can be given a percentage similarity based on the number of taxa they contain in common. Using the methods of cladistics the investigators constructed a cladogram of lagoons, grouping them by similarity; the "Central Tyrrhenian Lagoons. Of the second group and Lungo, both of the South Pontino, were most like each other; the other lakes of that group are all of Agro Pontino. All similarities were considered low. In essence, each lagoon contains its own characteristic species, with a slight similarity for geographic proximity. Fondi Basset, Alberto. "Hierarchical scaling of biodiversity in lagoon ecosystems". Transitional Waters Bulletin. 3: 75–86. Gruber, Andrea. "Lazio". PBase.com. Retrieved 11 February 2010