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David Letterman

David Michael Letterman is an American television host, comedian and producer. He hosted late night television talk shows for 33 years, beginning with the February 1, 1982, debut of Late Night with David Letterman on NBC, ending with the May 20, 2015, broadcast of Late Show with David Letterman on CBS. In total, Letterman hosted 6,080 episodes of Late Night and Late Show, surpassing his friend and mentor Johnny Carson as the longest-serving late night talk show host in American television history. In 1996, Letterman was ranked 45th on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time. In 2002, The Late Show with David Letterman was ranked seventh on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, he is a television and film producer. His company, Worldwide Pants, produced his shows as well as The Late Late Show and several prime-time comedies, the most successful of, Everybody Loves Raymond, now in syndication. Several late-night hosts have cited Letterman's influence, including Conan O'Brien, Stephen Colbert, Jimmy Fallon, Jimmy Kimmel, John Oliver, Seth Meyers.

Letterman hosts the Netflix series My Next Guest Needs No Introduction with David Letterman. Letterman was born in Indianapolis, Indiana in 1947, has two sisters, one older and one younger, his father, Harry Joseph Letterman, was a florist. His mother, Dorothy Marie Letterman Mengering, a church secretary for the Second Presbyterian Church of Indianapolis, was an occasional figure on Letterman's show at holidays and birthdays. Letterman grew up on the north side of Indianapolis, in the Broad Ripple area, about 12 miles from the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, he enjoyed collecting model cars, including racers. In 2000, he told an interviewer for Esquire that, while growing up, he admired his father's ability to tell jokes and be the life of the party. Harry Joseph Letterman survived a heart attack at the age of 36; the fear of losing his father was with Letterman as he grew up. The elder Letterman died of a second heart attack in 1973, at the age of 57. Letterman attended his hometown's Broad Ripple High School and worked as a stock boy at the local Atlas Supermarket.

According to the Ball State Daily News, he had wanted to attend Indiana University, but his grades were not good enough, so he instead attended Ball State University, in Muncie, Indiana. He is a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity, he graduated in 1969 from what was the Department of Radio and Television. A self-described average student, Letterman endowed a scholarship for what he called "C students" at Ball State. Though he registered for the draft and passed his physical after graduating from college, he was not drafted for service in Vietnam because of receiving a draft lottery number of 346. Letterman began his broadcasting career as an announcer and newscaster at the college's student-run radio station—WBST—a 10-watt campus station which now is part of Indiana Public Radio, he was fired for treating classical music with irreverence. He became involved with the founding of another campus station—WAGO-AM 570, he credits Paul Dixon, host of the Paul Dixon Show, a Cincinnati-based talk show shown in Indianapolis while he was growing up, for inspiring his choice of career: I was just out of college, I didn't know what I wanted to do.

And all of a sudden I saw him doing it. And I thought: That's what I want to do! Soon after graduating from Ball State in 1969, Letterman began his career as a radio talk show host on WNTS and on Indianapolis television station WLWI as an anchor and weatherman, he received some attention for his unpredictable on-air behavior, which included congratulating a tropical storm for being upgraded to a hurricane and predicting hail stones "the size of canned hams." He would occasionally report the weather and the day's high and low temps for fictitious cities, while on another occasion saying that a state border had been erased when a satellite map accidentally omitted the state border between Indiana and Ohio, attributing it to dirty political dealings. He starred in a local kiddie show, made wisecracks as host of a late-night TV show called "Freeze-Dried Movies", hosted a talk show that aired early on Saturday mornings called Clover Power, in which he interviewed 4-H members about their projects.

In 1971, Letterman appeared as a pit road reporter for ABC Sports' tape-delayed coverage of the Indianapolis 500, his first nationally telecast appearance. Letterman was introduced as Chris Economaki, although this was corrected at the end of the interview. Letterman interviewed Mario Andretti. In 1975, encouraged by his then-wife Michelle and several of his Sigma Chi fraternity brothers, Letterman moved to Los Angeles, with hope of becoming a comedy writer, he and Michelle headed west. As of 2012, he still owned the truck. In Los Angeles, he began performing comedy at The Comedy Store. Jimmie Walker saw him on stage.

River Avon, Falkirk

The Avon is a river in the Falkirk council area of Scotland. It originates, near some wind turbines, at what modern maps call Avonhead Cottage south of Upperton just west of Longriggend. Older maps show it near Avonhead just west of "Avonhead Rows" and north of "Avonhead Coal Pit No 9"; some maps show a stream coming from Fannyside Lochs in North Lanarkshire, some 3 miles east of Cumbernauld, but, not the Avon's source if some water drains in a rivulet from there. The west of Fannyside Loch is the source of the Glencryan Burn which ends up in the River Carron via the Red Burn and the Bonny Water. Herd's Hill, the source of the Luggie Water which ends up in the River Clyde via the River Kelvin is close by; the first tributary of the Avon is the Shiellhill Burn on the south of Greengairs close to the source of the Cameron Burn, which itself is a tributary of the Luggie Water. The Avon picks up the Shiellhill Burn close to Upperton, north of the sewage works and west of Easter Glentore Farm; the Avon crosses Fannyside Road at the Bog Bridge near Toddle Knowe.

Within about a kilometre of this point are streams whose waters make it to Linlithgow and Kirkintilloch on their way to their destinations. The next tributary is the Garbethill Burn near Jawhills followed by the Rashiehill Burn; the next tributary, near Slamannan, is the Culloch Burn which starts in Longriggend but takes a more easterly course initially. The Culloch Burn joins the Avon just to the north. After Avonbridge the Lin Mill Burn just after the start of the River Avon Heritage Trail; the next two tributaries are the Logie Water, near Westfield, the Brunton Burn. After Muiravonside Country Park, the other end of the River Avon Heritage Trail, the Bowhouse Burn confluence occurs just before the Avon Aqueduct; this is the tallest aqueduct in Scotland. The Avon Aqueduct—Scotland's longest navigable aqueduct—carries the Union Canal above the river; the Avon flows under the aqueduct and under both Linlithgow Bridge and the M9 motorway. The river broadens; this is not far down from where the River Carron meet the Firth.

The Avon flows through the Avon Gorge and forms the boundary between Falkirk and West Lothian council areas. It is 19 miles in length. Like other rivers of this name throughout Britain, the name Avon means'river', derived from Scottish Gaelic abhainn, or British afon. Other rivers named River Avon List of places in Falkirk council area "Forth District Salmon Fishery Board" "River Forth Fisheries Trust"

Position-specific isotope analysis

Position-specific isotope analysis called site-specific isotope analysis, is a branch of isotope analysis aimed at determining the isotopic composition of a particular atom position in a molecule. It can be described as the determination of the relative concentration of isotopomers at natural abundance; the first evidence for a deviation from a stochastic distribution was found in 1961 on amino acids whose carboxyl groups were 13C-enriched compared to the rest of the molecule. Since several studies have shown that PSIA can give insights into the origin of a given molecule: biosynthetic pathway and temperature of formation. Following a pure stochastic distribution, isotopomers of a given molecules should be present in the same amount. For instance, 13CH3-12CH2OH and 12CH3-13CH2OH are expected to have the same concentration. Yet, due to differences in the rate and/or equilibrium constant of a given reaction, an isotopomer can react faster than its homologue, creating a deviation from a stochastic distribution.

For example, C3 plants are known to assimilate preferentially 12CO2 compared with C4 plants, leading to different 13C isotope composition of the biomass. Recent results on ethanol show that the relative abundances of isotopomers are not equal, that the amplitude and sign of the deviation is dependent on the plant; these variations are thought to arise from biosynthetic isotope effects and different metabolic routes those associated with the biosynthesis of sugars which are converted into ethanol during fermentation. The difficulty of position-specific isotope analyses relies on the fact that isotopomers have the same mass and are thus difficult to separate using conventional isotopic measurements. Several methods can be used to overcome these difficulties. Chemical degradation: the molecule is degraded chemically into smaller fragments; each of the fragment is separated and its isotopic composition analysed using a conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Pyrolysis: the sample is introduced into a pyrolysis furnace.

Thermal cracking leads to the formation of fragments that are subsequently analyzed by IRMS. High-resolution mass spectrometry: the molecule is fragmented by electron impact directly in the ion source of the spectrometer. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: each non-equivalent isotopomer of the molecule leads to a peak at a specific chemical shift, their relative concentration is determined through the area of each peak.. Density functional theory calculations: equilibrium isotope effects at the position-specific levels can be computed through DFT calculations for different temperatures