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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between 1916 and 1922. He was the final Liberal to hold the post. Lloyd George was born in Manchester to Welsh parents, his father—a schoolmaster—died in 1864 and he was raised in Wales by his mother and her shoemaker brother, whose Liberal politics and Baptist faith influenced Lloyd George. Lloyd George became active in local politics, gaining a reputation as an orator and a proponent of a Welsh blend of radical Liberalism which championed nonconformism and the disestablishment of the Anglican church in Wales, equality for labourers and tenant farmers, reform of landownership. In 1890 he narrowly won a by-election to become the Member of Parliament for Caernarvon Boroughs, in which seat he remained for fifty-five years. Lloyd George served in Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet from 1905. After H. H. Asquith succeeded to the premiership in 1908 Lloyd George replaced him as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

To fund extensive welfare reforms he proposed taxes on land ownership and high incomes in the "People's Budget", which the Conservative-dominated House of Lords rejected. The resulting constitutional crisis was only resolved after two elections in 1910 and the passage of the Parliament Act 1911, his budget was enacted alongside the National Insurance Act 1911 which helped to establish the modern welfare state. In 1913 he was embroiled in the Marconi scandal, but he remained in office and promoted the disestablishment of the Church in Wales, until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 suspended its implementation; as wartime Chancellor Lloyd George strengthened the country's finances and forged agreements with trade unions to maintain production. In 1915 Asquith formed a Liberal-led wartime coalition with Labour. Lloyd George became Minister of Munitions and expanded production. In 1916 he was appointed Secretary of State for War but was frustrated by his limited power and clashes with the military establishment over strategy.

Amid stalemate on the Western Front, confidence in Asquith's leadership waned. He was forced to resign in December 1916, he centralised authority through a smaller war cabinet, a new Cabinet Office and his "Garden Suburb" of advisers. To combat food shortages he implemented the convoy system, established rationing, stimulated farming. After supporting the disastrous French Nivelle Offensive in 1917, he had to reluctantly approve Field Marshal Haig's plans for the Battle of Passchendaele which resulted in huge casualties with little strategic benefit. Against the views of his commanders, he was able to see the Allies brought under one command in March 1918; the war effort turned to their favour. In the aftermath he and the Conservatives maintained their coalition with popular support following the December 1918 "Coupon" election, his government had extended the franchise to some women earlier in the year. Lloyd George was a major player in Paris Peace Conference of 1919 but the situation in Ireland worsened that year, erupting into the Irish War of Independence which lasted until Lloyd George negotiated independence for the Irish Free State in 1921.

At home he initiated reforms to education and housing but trade union militancy entered record levels, the economy became depressed in 1920 and unemployment rose. Bonar Law won backbench support for the Conservatives to contend the next election alone. Lloyd George resigned; the next year the pair reunited to oppose Stanley Baldwin's tariff proposal which he put to the country. The Liberals made gains in 1923 but remained third after the Conservatives and Labour, propping up a Labour minority government. Lloyd George led the Liberals from 1926 to 1931, putting forward innovative proposals for public works, he declined an offer to serve in Winston Churchill's War Cabinet in 1940 and was raised to the peerage in 1945, shortly before his death. Lloyd George was born on 17 January 1863 in Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester, to Welsh parents, was brought up as a Welsh-speaker, he is so far the only British Prime Minister to have been Welsh and to have spoken English as a second language. His father, William George, had been a teacher in both Liverpool.

He taught in the Hope Street Sunday Schools, which were administered by the Unitarians, where he met Unitarian minister James Martineau. In March of the same year, on account of his failing health, William George returned with his family to his native Pembrokeshire, he took up farming but died in June 1864 of pneumonia, aged 44. His widow, Elizabeth George, sold the farm and moved with her children to her native Llanystumdwy in Caernarfonshire, where she lived in a cottage known as Highgate with her brother Richard Lloyd, a shoemaker, a minister, a strong Liberal. Lloyd George was educated at the local Anglican school Llanystumdwy National School

Polarization in astronomy

Polarization is an important phenomenon in astronomy. The polarization of starlight was first observed by the astronomers William Hiltner and John S. Hall in 1949. Subsequently, Jesse Greenstein and Leverett Davis, Jr. developed theories allowing the use of polarization data to trace interstellar magnetic fields. Though the integrated thermal radiation of stars is not appreciably polarized at source, scattering by interstellar dust can impose polarization on starlight over long distances. Net polarization at the source can occur if the photosphere itself is asymmetric, due to limb polarization. Plane polarization of starlight generated at the star. Both circular and linear polarization of sunlight has been measured. Circular polarization is due to transmission and absorption effects in magnetic regions of the Sun's surface. Another mechanism that gives rise to circular polarization is the so-called "alignment-to-orientation mechanism". Continuum light is linearly polarized at different locations across the face of the Sun though taken as a whole, this polarization cancels.

Linear polarization in spectral lines is created by anisotropic scattering of photons on atoms and ions which can themselves be polarized by this interaction. The linearly polarized spectrum of the Sun is called the second solar spectrum. Atomic polarization can be modified in weak magnetic fields by the Hanle effect; as a result, polarization of the scattered photons is modified providing a diagnostics tool for understanding stellar magnetic fields. Polarization is present in radiation from coherent astronomical sources due to the Zeeman effect; the large radio lobes in active galaxies and pulsar radio radiation show polarization. Apart from providing information on sources of radiation and scattering, polarization probes the interstellar magnetic field in our galaxy as well as in radio galaxies via Faraday rotation. In some cases it can be difficult to determine how much of the Faraday rotation is in the external source and how much is local to our own galaxy, but in many cases it is possible to find another distant source nearby in the sky.

The polarization of the cosmic microwave background is being used to study the physics of the early universe. CMB exhibits 2 components of polarization: E-mode polarization; the BICEP2 telescope located at the South Pole helped in the detection of B-mode polarization in the CMB. The polarization modes of the CMB may provide more information about the influence of gravitational waves on the development of the early universe, it has been suggested that astronomical sources of polarised light caused the chirality found in biological molecules on Earth. Discovery by Hiltner and Hall, analysis by Greenstein

Adrian Timmis

Adrian Timmis is an English professional racing cyclist. In 1981 he rode in the British National Track Championships, he represented Britain in the team pursuit event at the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. Between 1986 and 1995, he was a professional cyclist, he rode the Tour de France in 1987, competed in the international Paris-Nice race, Criterium International, Tour de Romandie, Liège–Bastogne–Liège, La Flèche Wallonne, Amstel Gold and the Het Volk. Towards the end of its professional career, he began mountain biking in 1989, while going forward to ride for Raleigh Cycles, he worked for the Linda McCartney Foods team and the British National team in the World Championships, Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games. official Website Profile on cycling website.net Profile on Olympic Games website