Robert Burns, known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is in English and he wrote in standard English, and in these writings his political or civil commentary is often at its bluntest. Celebration of his life and work became almost a national charismatic cult during the 19th and 20th centuries, in 2009 he was chosen as the greatest Scot by the Scottish public in a vote run by Scottish television channel STV. As well as making original compositions, Burns collected songs from across Scotland. His poem Auld Lang Syne is often sung at Hogmanay, and he was born in a house built by his father, where he lived until Easter 1766, when he was seven years old. William Burnes sold the house and took the tenancy of the 70-acre Mount Oliphant farm, here Burns grew up in poverty and hardship, and the severe manual labour of the farm left its traces in a premature stoop and a weakened constitution.
By the age of 15, Burns was the principal labourer at Mount Oliphant, during the harvest of 1774, he was assisted by Nelly Kilpatrick, who inspired his first attempt at poetry, O, Once I Lovd A Bonnie Lass. In the summer of 1775, he was sent to finish his education with a tutor at Kirkoswald, despite his ability and character, William Burnes was consistently unfortunate, and migrated with his large family from farm to farm without ever being able to improve his circumstances. Subsequently, the family became integrated into the community of Tarbolton, to his fathers disapproval, Robert joined a country dancing school in 1779 and, with Gilbert, formed the Tarbolton Bachelors Club the following year. His earliest existing letters date from this time, when he began making overtures to Alison Begbie. In spite of four songs written for her and a suggestion that he was willing to marry her, Robert Burns was initiated into masonic Lodge St David, Tarbolton, on 4 July 1781, when he was 22. This venture accordingly came to an end, and Burns went home to Lochlea farm, during this time he met and befriended Captain Richard Brown who encouraged him to become a poet.
He continued to write poems and songs and began a book in 1783. The case went to the Court of Session, and Burnes was upheld in January 1784, a fortnight before he died. During the summer of 1784 Burns came to know a group of girls known collectively as The Belles of Mauchline, one of whom was Jean Armour, the daughter of a stonemason from Mauchline. His first child, Elizabeth Paton Burns, was born to his mothers servant, Elizabeth Paton, while he was embarking on a relationship with Jean Armour, Burns signed a paper attesting his marriage to Jean, but her father was in the greatest distress, and fainted away. To avoid disgrace, her parents sent her to live with her uncle in Paisley, although Armours father initially forbade it, they were eventually married in 1788
Essen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Its population of approximately 589,000 makes it the ninth-largest city in Germany and it is the central city of the northern part of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area and seat to several of the regions authorities. Founded around 845, Essen remained a town within the sphere of influence of an important ecclesiastical principality until the onset of industrialization. The city — especially through the Krupp family iron works — became one of Germanys most important coal and steel centers. Essen, until the 1970s, attracted workers from all over the country, following the region-wide decline of heavy industries in the last decades of the 20th century, the city has seen the development of a strong tertiary sector of the economy. Although it is the most indebted city in Germany, Essen continues to pursue its redevelopment plans, notable accomplishments in recent years include the title of European Capital of Culture on behalf of the whole Ruhr area in 2010 and the selection as the European Green Capital for 2017.
In 1958, Essen was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic diocese, in early 2003, the universities of Essen and the nearby city of Duisburg were merged into the University of Duisburg-Essen with campuses in both cities and a university hospital in Essen. Essen is located in the centre of the Ruhr area, one of the largest urban areas in Europe, comprising eleven independent cities and four districts with some 5.3 million inhabitants. The city limits of Essen itself are 87 km long and border ten cities, five independent and five kreisangehörig, the city extends over 21 km from north to south and 17 km from west to east, mainly north of the River Ruhr. The Ruhr forms the Lake Baldeney reservoir in the boroughs of Fischlaken, the lake, a popular recreational area, dates from 1931 to 1933, when some thousands of unemployed coal miners dredged it with primitive tools. Generally, large areas south of the River Ruhr are quite green and are quoted as examples of rural structures in the otherwise relatively densely populated central Ruhr area.
According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Essen with 9. 2% of its covered by recreational green is the greenest city in North Rhine-Westphalia. The city has been shortlisted for the title of European Green Capital two consecutive times, for 2016 and 2017, winning for 2017, the city was singled out for its exemplary practices in protecting and enhancing nature and biodiversity and efforts to reduce water consumption. Essen participates in a variety of networks and initiatives to reduce gas emissions. The lowest point can be found in the borough of Karnap at 26.5 m. The average elevation is 116 m, Essen comprises fifty boroughs which in turn are grouped into nine suburban districts often named after the most important boroughs. Each Stadtbezirk is assigned a Roman numeral and has a body of nineteen members with limited authority. Most of the boroughs were originally independent municipalities but were annexed from 1901 to 1975
Patric Park was a Scottish sculptor. He was the son of Matthew Park, a mason from a line of masons. At age 14, he was apprenticed to Edinburgh mason John Cornell, with Cornell, when aged only 16, Park was entrusted to carve the family coat of arms over the entrance of Hamilton Palace. From 1828 he worked with the architect James Gillespie Graham, here he worked on Murthly Castle, which is mainly now demolished, but a chapel containing his work still survives. From 1831–1833 he studied in Rome under Bertel Thorvaldsen and he was regarded as one of Scotlands finest portrait sculptors. His subjects included the miniaturist Kenneth Macleay, who in turn made a portrait of Park, from a photograph. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1849 and he exhibited in the Royal Scottish Academy 1839-1855 and at the Royal Academy from 1832-1855. He exhibited in the British Institution 1837-1854, in 1841 he moved from London to Edinburgh, and in 1852 moved to Manchester. He died suddenly at Warrington Railway Station, when he ruptured a blood vessel helping a porter with a heavy trunk.
Two of his busts, depicting Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald and his 1838 seated marble figure of Charles Tennant of St Rollox is on Tennants tomb at the Glasgow Necropolis. His 1845 bust of Robert Burns is in the Robert Burns Birthplace Museum and his bust of Napoleon III, purchased from the Paris International Exhibition of 1855, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In 1839 he submitted a design as a memorial to Horatio Nelson of Nelsons dead body being carried by two heroic figures. A figure, Modesty Unveiled, was refused by the Royal Academy due to its inappropriate content
Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with boundaries to Perth and Kinross. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib. It is an area, and was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was very occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents, a person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a government region divided into three districts, Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotlands third largest local authority area by population and it has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes. The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife and it is well known for the University of St Andrews, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf.
Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay, the earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife. The notion of a kingdom may derive from a misintrepretation of an extract from Wyntoun, the name is recorded as Fib in A. D.1150 and Fif in 1165. It was often associated with Fothriff, the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig, near Newburgh, was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD. Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey. The Abbey replaced Iona as the resting place of Scotlands royal elite. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past, the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the previously thatched roofs.
This endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie. Fife became a centre of industry in the 19th century
Hill & Adamson
Http, //rockhouse-edinburgh. com/ In 1843 painter David Octavius Hill joined engineer Robert Adamson to form Scotlands first photographic studio. Hill was present at the Disruption Assembly in 1843 when over 450 ministers walked out of the Church of Scotland assembly, brewster was himself experimenting with this technology which only dated back to 1839, and he introduced Hill to another enthusiast, Robert Adamson. Hill & Adamson took a series of photographs of those who had been present, the 5-foot x 11-foot 4 inches painting was eventually completed in 1866. Adamsons studio, Rock House, on the Calton Hill in Edinburgh became the centre of their photographic experiments and they photographed local and Fife landscapes and urban scenes, including images of the Scott Monument under construction in Edinburgh. They produced several groundbreaking action photographs of soldiers and – perhaps their most famous photograph – two priests walking side by side. Their partnership produced around 3,000 different photographs, but was cut short after four years due to the ill health.
Hill became less active and abandoned the studio several months. They had an assistant, Jessie Mann, who worked them for at least three years until Adamsons death. It is reasoned that Mann is the assistant that made the photograph of the King of Saxony in 1844, taken at the studio whilst Hill, a resulting print is now in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. A web page of the University of Glasgow Library notes, Early scholarship by art historians usually credited Hill as the author of the photographic prints. Some historians had disparagingly added with Adamson as a credit, scholars today recognise that the partnership was crucial to the production of their amazing photographic works. Adamsons solo work was technically proficient but lacked flair and spontaneity before he met Hill, Hills photographic efforts after the death of Adamson were dismal. It is clear that men played a crucial role in the creation and the execution of the final images. David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, archived from the original on 25 February 2012.
David Octavius Hill 1802–1870 & Robert Adamson 1821–1848, archived from the original on 13 October 2012
Leith /ˈliːθ/, Scottish Gaelic, Lìte, is a district to the north of the city of Edinburgh at the mouth of the Water of Leith. The earliest surviving references are in the royal charter authorising the construction of Holyrood Abbey in 1128. The medieval settlements of Leith had grown into a burgh by 1833, historically part of Midlothian, Leith is sited on the coast of the Firth of Forth and lies within the council area of the City of Edinburgh. The port remains one of its most valuable enterprises, handling over 1.5 million tonnes of cargo a year in 2003, previous to the bridge being built in the late 15th century, Leith had settlements on either side of the river, lacking an easy crossing. South Leith was larger and was controlled by the lairds of Restalrig and it was based on trade and had many merchants houses and warehouses. This was where ships offloaded their cargoes at The Shore where they were collected by Edinburgh merchants, leithers were explicitly forbidden by statute to participate directly in the trade at the port, to ensure that landed goods were not sold elsewhere.
North Leith was smaller but proportionately richer, coming under the jurisdiction of Holyrood Abbey and it was effectively a fishing village consisting of one street, now Sandport Street and Quayside Lane. Burgage plots ran down to the river from each house and this has traditionally been the shipbuilding side of Leith with several wet and dry docks built over time. The first dry dock in Scotland was built here in 1720, a small peninsula of land on the east bank came under the same jurisdiction on what is now Sheriff Brae/Sheriff Bank. The first bridge to both banks of the river was built in 1493 by Abbot Bellenden, who controlled the church at North Leith. The bridge was a bridge, the revenue supplementing the churchs income. Reputedly Leiths oldest building, it was demolished in 1780 to allow ships to sail further upstream, the earliest evidence of settlement in Leith comes from several archaeological digs undertaken in the Shore area in the late 20th century. Amongst the finds were medieval wharf edges from the 12th century and this date fits with the earliest documentary evidence of settlement in Leith - the foundation charter of Holyrood Abbey.
Leith has played a long and prominent role in Scottish history, as the major port serving Edinburgh, it has been the stage on which many significant events in Scottish history have taken place. Mary of Guise ruled Scotland from Leith in 1560 as Regent while her daughter, Mary of Guise moved the Scottish Court to Leith, to a site that is now Parliament Street, off Coalhill. According to the 18th-century historian William Maitland, her palace was situated on Rotten Row, now Water Street. Artifacts from the residence are held by the National Museum of Scotland. In June 1560, Mary of Guise died, and the Siege of Leith ended with the departure of the French troops in accordance with the Treaty of Leith, known as the Treaty of Edinburgh
Royal Scottish Academy
For Scotlands national academy, see Royal Society of Edinburgh. The Royal Scottish Academy is a Scottish organisation that promotes contemporary Scottish art, founded in 1826 as the Scottish Academy, it became the Royal Scottish Academy on being granted a royal charter in 1838. The RSA is separate from the Royal Academy in London, though there are links between the two organisations, in addition to a continuous programme of exhibitions, the RSA administers scholarships and residencies for artists who live and work in Scotland. Displays of the collections are mounted whenever possible. Its home since 1911 has been the Royal Scottish Academy Building on The Mound, Princes Street, the building is managed by the National Galleries of Scotland but the 1910 Order grants the RSA permanent administration offices in the building. Exhibition space is shared throughout the year with the NGS and other organisations, the building, originally designed by William Henry Playfair, was recently refurbished as part of the Playfair Project, and is used by the National Galleries of Scotland.
The RSA is led by a body of eminent artist and architect members who encompass a broad cross-section of contemporary Scottish art, members are known as Academicians, and are entitled to use the postnominal letters RSA. The president uses the postnominal letters PRSA while in office, Academicians are elected to the Academy by their peers. There are Honorary Academicians, including the RSAs patron, the Duke of Edinburgh, the membership includes 30 Honorary Academicians and 104 Academicians. As of 2010, the RSA President is Professor Bill Scott, Secretary Arthur Watson, Royal West of England Academy Esme Gordon The Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture & Architecture 1826-1976
The Dean Cemetery is a historically important Victorian cemetery north of the Dean Village, west of Edinburgh city centre, in Scotland. It lies between Queensferry Road and the Water of Leith, bounded on its east side by Dean Path, a 20th-century extension lies detached from the main cemetery to the north of Ravelston Terrace. The main cemetery is accessible through the gate on its east side, through a grace and favour access door from the grounds of Dean Gallery. The modern extension is only accessible at the junction of Dean Path, the many monuments bear witness to Scottish achievement in peace and war, at home and abroad. As the cemetery plots were bought up the cemetery was extended on its north side in 1871. A second set of gates were built on Dean Path. Although this section was originally accessed through this gate the extension was quickly linked to the original section by creating gaps in the mutual wall where no graves existed. This extension is laid out in a more rectilinear pattern than the original curvelinear layout, whilst numerically greater in its number of lords it is far less eye-catching.
The entire cemetery is owned by the Dean Cemetery Trust Limited. The resultant layout, with its mature designed landscape, can be seen as an excellent example of a cemetery actually being visible in the form it was conceived to be seen. The southern access from Belford Road is now blocked and the road here is now grassed and used for the interment of ashes. The cemetery stands on the site of Dean House, part of Dean Estate which had purchased in 1609 by Sir William Nisbet. The Nisbets of Dean held the office of Hereditary Poulterer to the King, the famous herald, Alexander Nisbet, of Nisbet House, near Duns, Berwickshire, is said to have written his Systems of Heraldry in Dean House. The estate house was demolished in 1845, and sculptured stones from it are incorporated into the retaining wall supporting at the south side of the cemetery. It is not always realised that this lower, hidden section contains graves, Sir John Stuart Hepburn Forbes was born in Dean House in 1804. All four Baron Kinross spanning almost two centuries, the oldest soldier buried is Major-General Sir John Munro Sym KCB aged 80.
Most of the war graves lie in the independently accessed 20th century section to the north of the main cemetery, robert Digby-Jones VC is memorialised on his parents grave in the north extension. Official website The Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh edited by A. S. Cowper and Euan S. McIver, Edinburgh,1992
Perth Academy is a state comprehensive secondary school in Perth, Scotland. The institution is a non-denominational one, the school occupies ground on the side of a hill in the Viewlands area of Perth, and is within the Perth and Kinross Council area. The first Rector of the school was the Honourable John Murray, at time it was considered a purely honourable title. By April 1762 accommodation was first provided for the school, in the form of a building which occupied the site of the current city hall. At this time education in Perth was provided by a variety of smaller institutions each specialising in a particular field, by the 1800s it was felt that the disparate nature of these, often cramped, buildings was detrimental to the efficiency and success of the schools. This, combined with a new appreciation of the value of education, designed by Robert Reid, the Kings architect, work on this building was started in October 1803, and finished for the start of the teaching year in 1807. The building housed the Academy, the Grammar, the English School, the French school, the Drawing and Painting school, together they were known as the public Seminaries, and were housed on Rose Terrace, near the North Inch of Perth.
This arrangement was continued until 1892, under the terms of the 1878 Education Act, teachers were still paid separately and collected their share of the tuition fees directly from the students in their classes. In 1881 that this was changed, with the going into a central treasury before being redistributed. In 1915 the Academy was amalgamated with the rival Sharps institution, located in Perth, the school moved to its present site at Viewlands in 1932, construction on the building having begun in 1930. The buildings were designed by the Edinburgh architects, and school specialists, Reid & Forbes, up to 1968 the school was a selective senior secondary school with entrants being required to sit an entrance exam. At this time the schools had a catchment area of over 642 square miles and including Dunkeld, Errol. In 1971 the school become a school serving all pupils within a smaller catchment area. Large extensions were added to the school in 1990, including a building for a Gymnasium and Games Hall, as well as workshops.
The science labs were renovated at this time with computing rooms being added and suites created for the music. Perth Academy is situated in the middle of extensive grounds, stretching to some 11. 93Ha, the campus is shared with Viewlands Primary School, with many students attending both during their education, and Fairview School, an additional support needs school. The school canteen is in a separate, smaller building which outside lunch times serves as a gym room, there is a separate block housing the Physical Education department which includes two indoor areas for gym and sports activities. The pitch was finished in time for the start of the 2014/15 Summer Term, fully kitted out with football and hockey goals, the school follows the national curriculum for Scotland, including the teaching of cooking and technical subjects
Calotype or talbotype is an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot, using paper coated with silver iodide. The term calotype comes from the Greek καλός, and τύπος, Talbot made his first successful camera photographs in 1835 using paper sensitised with silver chloride, which darkened in proportion to its exposure to light. This early photogenic drawing process was a process, i. e. the paper had to be exposed in the camera until the image was fully visible. A very long exposure—typically an hour or more—was required to produce an acceptable negative, the paper, shielded from further exposure to daylight, was removed from the camera and the latent image was chemically developed into a fully visible image. This major improvement was introduced to the public as the calotype or talbotype process in 1841, the light-sensitive silver halide in calotype paper was silver iodide, created by the reaction of silver nitrate with potassium iodide. At this stage, the balance of the chemicals was such that the paper was practically insensitive to light, development was effected by brushing on more of the gallo-nitrate of silver solution while gently warming the paper.
The calotype process produced a translucent original negative image from which multiple positives could be made by contact printing. This gave it an important advantage over the process, which produced an opaque original positive that could only be duplicated by copying it with a camera. Although calotype paper could be used to make prints from calotype negatives, Talbots earlier silver chloride paper. It was simpler and less expensive, and Talbot himself considered the appearance of salted paper prints to be more attractive, the longer exposure required to make a salted print was at worst a minor inconvenience when making a contact print by sunlight. Calotype negatives were often impregnated with wax to improve their transparency, Talbot is sometimes erroneously credited with introducing the principle of latent image development. Despite their flexibility and the ease with which they could be made, in part, this was the result of Talbot having patented his processes, unlike Daguerre who had been granted a stipend by the French state in exchange for making his process publicly available.
In addition, the calotype produced a clear image than the daguerreotype. Albumen print Ambrotype Collodion process Daguerreotype Tintype Aronold, H. J. P. William Henry Fox Talbot pioneer of photography, the Calotype familiarly explained, including the Daguerreotype, Calotype & Chrysotype. Buckland, G. Fox Talbot & the invention of photography, primitive Photography, A Guide to Making Cameras and Calotypes Lassam, and Seabourne. W H Fox Talbot, photographer, classical scholar 1800 -1877, marshall, F. A. S. Photography, the importance of its applications in preserving pictorial records. Containing a practical description of the Talbotype process, basic Photography — a manual for the training of fashion photographers