The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation and Kosmos Holding and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format, it is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", the winners are referred to as the World Champion team. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition; the most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States and Australia. The present champions are Spain, who beat Canada to win their sixth title in 2019; the women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year; the Davis Cup didn't join the Open Era until 1973, five years after most tennis tournaments allowed all professionals to compete. The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U.
S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so, he tried to entice top international talent to the U. S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain. Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United States on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations. International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900. From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition.
During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match, he returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U. S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E. P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'. Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches.
This was discussed in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition. The following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments, their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition. This was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898, but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U. S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts. It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, upon his return, it occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful.
He approached James Dwight with the idea, tentatively agreed, he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000. They in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes. Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches. Research has shown this to be a myth, similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis went on to become a prominent politician in the United States in the 1
Pathfinder is a 1987 Norwegian action-adventure film written and directed by Nils Gaup. The film is based on an old Sami legend, it was the first full-length film in Sami, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1988. The leading role was played by Mikkel Gaup as Aigin. Nils-Aslak Valkeapää played one of the parts as well as writing the music to the film, together with Kjetil Bjerkestrand and Marius Müller. In Finnmark around AD 1000, a young Sami named Aigin comes home from hunting to find his family massacred by the Tchudes or Chudes, he flees to a place where he can find friends and relatives, is chased by the Chudes. He makes his way to a community of other Samis who live some distance away. Upon reaching the others, Aigin's wound is treated by the shaman of the group, he gets into a debate with them about how to face the Chude attackers: some argue for meeting them in battle, while others maintain they should all run away toward the coast. Aigin and some of the other hunters remain to meet the Chudes, while the remainder of the group flee.
The hunters, except Aigin, who hides, are killed by the numerically superior Chudes, but one of the men, the old shaman-leader Raste is kept alive and tortured. To prevent the torture Aigin reveals himself and offers to act as a pathfinder for the Chudes to the coastal settlement where a large number of Samis live; the old Pathfinder Raste is killed by the Chudes. But Aigin has a plan in mind, he can not overpower the Chudes. Leading the Chudes across mountainous terrain, Aigin lures the Chudes into a steep area where they are all forced to tie themselves together with ropes for security. Aigin unties himself and flees, leading the Chudes over a cliff where several of them fall to their deaths when the leaders cut the ropes to save themselves. An avalanche takes most of the Chudes, the few surviving men give up the pursuit, ensuring Aigin has saved his people, he shows a drum, a symbol of noaidi, given him by Raste, becomes the new Pathfinder of the Sami group by virtue of his wisdom and bravery.
Mikkel Gaup as Aigin Sara Marit Gaup as Sahve Nils Utsi as Raste Anna Maria Blind as Varia Ingvald Guttorm as Aigin's Father Ellen Anne Bulj as Aigin's Mother Inger Utsi as Aigin's Sister Henrik H. Buljo as Dorakas Nils-Aslak Valkeapää as Siida-Isit Helgi Skúlason as Tchude with scar Svein Scharffenberg as Tchude chief Knut Walle as Tchude Interpreter John Sigurd Kristensen as Tchude Strongman Svein Birger Olsen as Diemis Sverre Porsanger as Sierge Amund Johnskareng as Heina Ailo Gaup as Orbes The film was written and directed by Nils Gaup, who based the story on a Sami legend with variants in a number of Scandinavian folklores. Gaup said he heard the story from his grandfather, in turn told the story by a traditional storyteller. Gaup wove the story around the core of the legend, introduced details such as shamanic initiation rite and a romantic element with the character Sahve; the film was set in the pre-Christian era in the region depicting the worldview of the Sami people. The film was shot in Kautokeino, Finnmarksvidda during the winter of 1987, where temperatures was as low as –47°C.
This presented unique difficulties with the cast and camera equipment in the harsh cold. Most of the cast were Sami, were used to the cold, but the stuntmen hired from outside the region refused to work under such conditions and were replaced by a team who had worked in the Bond film A View to a Kill. There was sabotage of the equipment by local people suspicious of outsiders; the original title was Ofelaš, a Sami word for wizard. The film is in the Sámi language, a Tchude language created by Esben Kr. Amot; the director however chose not to subtitle the Tchude language. The film is considered the first Sami feature-length film; the film went over budget by 2.5 million, costing 17 million krone, became what was Norway's most expensive film. The film is a co-production of the Norway Film Development Co.. A/S and Norsk Film A/S, it was produced by John M. Jacobsen, it was distributed worldwide by International Film Exchange/Carolco Film International. The film was first released on 3 November 1987 in Norway, released in the United States on 7 April 1989.
Initial critical reception for the film was lukewarm, but it was popular in the box office in Norway, where 700,000 attended screenings of the film. The film was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 1988 Oscars, but lost to Babette's Feast, it won the Amanda Best Film award in 1988. The film is now considered one of the best films of Norwegian cinema; the film is seen as part of the Sami revitalisation movement that celebrates the survival of the Sami language and tradition that resisted their assimilation into the wider Norwegian culture. An American remake titled Pathfinder was released in 2007; this remake is only loosely based on the 1987 film. A graphic novel of the remake was produced. List of historical drama films List of submissions to the 60th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Norwegian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Pathfinder on IMDb Pathfinder at AllMovie Pathfinder at Rotten Tomatoes
Moron 5 and the Crying Lady is a 2012 Filipino comedy film directed by Wenn V. Deramas, starring Luis Manzano, DJ Durano, Martin Escudero, Billy Crawford, Marvin Agustin, John Lapus, it was distributed by Viva Films. A sequel, Moron 5.2: The Transformation, was released on November 5, 2014. It tells the story of five friends, they cross paths with a gay man who has a grudge against them, so much that the gay man, played by John Lapus, will do anything to bring them down. Half-witted longtime friends Albert, Mozart “Mo”, Michaelangelo “Mike” and Aristotle “Aris” were used to living moronic yet pretty normal and hassle-free lives until successful careerwoman Beckie Pamintuan accused them of killing her father and ruin everything for them; the Moron 5 are more than sure of their innocence but for the life of them, they can't find any single satisfactory argument on how to prove it when their opponent would do everything to punish them for whim. Spending three miserable years in prison trying different failed comedic attempts to get out, they figured a way to escape.
They stalked Beckie and tried to understand why she's fighting so hard to have them imprisoned when it's clear as day that what happened three years ago was a nonsense frame-up. An opportunity came when Beckie's driver got fired for having an affair with her maid and Albert volunteered to apply to replace him, he infiltrated the Pamintuan Residence and together with his four crazily daft friends, they've gathered information about the curious family yet to them, it isn't making any sense at all Vecky's unexplained hatred to the five of them. Why is Beckie fighting so hard to have them suffer? The Moron 5 will try harder to know and understand what's going on although little did they know that by doing so, everything that they hold dear might be at risk. Luis Manzano as Albert Macapagal Billy Crawford as Isaac Estrada Marvin Agustin as Aristotle Ramos DJ Durano as Mozart Twister Aquino Mart Escudero as Michael Angelo Marcos John Lapus as Beckie Pamintuan Roden Araneta† as Albert's Father Carlos Agassi as Bully 1 German Moreno† as Isaac's Father Dennis Padilla as Michael's Father Arlene Muhlach as Isaac's Mother Deborah Sun as Mozart's Mother Jon Santos as Albert's Mother Roldan Aquino as Mozart's Father Joy Viado† as Filomena Gaborone Eagle Riggs as Principal Christopher Roxas as Bully 2 Andrew Wolfe as Carding Tess Antonio as Teacher 1 Dang Cruz as Teacher 2 Aki Torio as Issac's Brother Eri Neeman as Bully 3 Nikki Gil as Bank Teller Jennylyn Mercado as Prison Visitor Ya Chang as Hiroshi Mark Andrew Felix as Young Albert Marco Barillo as Young Isaac Carlos Dala as Young Aristotle Kevin Kier Remo as Young Mozart Martin Luigie Venegas as Young Mike Kyle Ang as Young Beckie A sequel, entitled Moron 5.2: The Transformation, will be shown on November 5, 2014.
All lead stars but one reprised their roles in the original movie. Matteo Guidicelli joined the cast as Michael Angelo. In an interview from Viva Entertainment YouTube Video, Guidicelli stressed that the character's face was accidentally burnt, his face was surgically restored in the story, following Guidicelli's face. The theatrical release was on November 5, 2014; the First names of the protagonists were based on the names of the Ancient Philosophers and Renaissance painters and musicians and their last names were based on the surnames of the Philippine Presidents. The name of the main antagonist is Beckie Pamintuan; the first name "Beckie" is a term for Filipino Gays and Homosexuals and the last name is "Pamintuan", derived from the word "Paminta", the extended term for "pa-men", the term for Filipino Bisexuals. Moron 5 and the Crying Lady on IMDb