A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit fear. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, Mary Shelley, horror has existed as a film genre for more than a century; the macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction, thriller genres. Horror films aim to evoke viewers' nightmares, fears and terror of the unknown. Plots with in the horror genre involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, extraterrestrials, werewolves, Satanism, evil clowns, torture, vicious animals, evil witches, zombies, psychopaths, ecological or man-made disasters, serial killers; some sub-genres of horror film include low-budget horror, action horror, comedy horror, body horror, disaster horror, found footage, holiday horror, horror drama, psychological horror, science fiction horror, supernatural horror, gothic horror, natural horror, zombie horror, disaster films, first-person horror, teen horror.
The first depiction of the supernatural on screen appear in several of the short silent films created by the French pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès in the late 1890s. The best known of these early supernatural-based works is the 3-minute short film Le Manoir du Diable known in English as The Haunted Castle or The House of the Devil; the film is sometimes credited as being the first horror film. In The Haunted Castle, a mischievous devil appears inside a medieval castle and harasses the visitors. Méliès' other popular horror film is La Caverne maudite, which translates to "the accursed cave"; the film known for its English title The Cave of the Demons, tells the story of a woman stumbling over a cave, populated by the spirits and skeletons of people who died there. Méliès would make other short films that historians consider now as horror-comedies. Une nuit terrible, which translates to A Terrible Night, tells a story of a man who tries to get a good night's sleep but ends up wrestling a giant spider.
His other film, L'auberge ensorcelée, or The Bewitched Inn, features a story of a hotel guest getting pranked and tormented by an unseen presence. In 1897, the accomplished American photographer-turned director George Albert Smith created The X-Ray Fiend, a horror-comedy that came out a mere two years after x-rays were invented; the film shows a couple of skeletons courting each other. An audience full of people unaccustomed to the idea would have found it frightening and otherworldly; the next year, Smith created the short film Photographing a Ghost, considered a precursor to the paranormal investigation subgenre. The film portrays three men attempting to photograph a ghost, only to fail time and again as the ghost eludes the men and throws chairs at them. Japan made early forays into the horror genre. In 1898, a Japanese film company called Konishi Honten released two horror films both written by Ejiro Hatta. Though there are no records of the cast, crew, or plot of Bake Jizo, it was based on the Japanese legend of Jizo statues, believed to provide safety and protection to children.
The presence of the word bake—which can be translated to "spook," "ghost," or "phantom"—may imply a haunted or possessed statue. Spanish filmmaker Segundo de Chomón, regarded as one of the most significant silent film directors, was popular for his frequent camera tricks and optical illusions, an innovation that contributed to the popularity of trick films in the period, his famous works include Satan at Play. The Selig Polyscope Company in the United States produced one of the first film adaptations of a horror-based novel. In 1908, the company released Mr. Hyde, now a lost film, it is based on Robert Louis Stevenson's classic gothic novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, published 15 years prior, about a man who transforms between two contrasting personas. Georges Méliès liked adapting the Faust legend into his films. In fact, the French filmmaker produced at least six variations of the German legend of the man who made a pact with the devil. Among his notable Faust films include Faust aux enfers, known for its English title The Damnation of Faust, or Faust in Hell.
It is the filmmaker's third film adaptation of the Faust legend. In it, Méliès took inspiration from Hector Berlioz's Faust opera, but it pays less attention to the story and more to the special effects that represent a tour of hell; the film takes advantage of stage machinery techniques and features special effects such as pyrotechnics, substitution
Avatar (2009 film)
Avatar is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, produced, co-edited by James Cameron, stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, Sigourney Weaver. Film's title is based on Sanskrit word Avatar; the film is set in the mid-22nd century, when humans are colonizing Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system, in order to mine the mineral unobtanium, a room-temperature superconductor. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Na'vi – a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora; the film's title refers to a genetically engineered Na'vi body operated from the brain of a remotely located human, used to interact with the natives of Pandora. Development of Avatar began in 1994. Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Cameron's 1997 film Titanic, for a planned release in 1999, according to Cameron, the necessary technology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film.
Work on the language of the film's extraterrestrial beings began in 2005, Cameron began developing the screenplay and fictional universe in early 2006. Avatar was budgeted at $237 million. Other estimates put the cost between $280 million and $310 million for production and at $150 million for promotion; the film made extensive use of new motion capture filming techniques, was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing, for "4D" experiences in select South Korean theaters. The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology. Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, was internationally released on December 16 and in the United States and Canada on December 18, to positive critical reviews, with critics praising its groundbreaking visual effects. During its theatrical run, the film broke several box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time, as well as in the United States and Canada, surpassing Cameron's Titanic, which had held those records for twelve years.
It became the first film to gross more than $2 billion and the best-selling film of 2010 in the United States. Avatar was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, won three, for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects. Following the film's success, Cameron signed with 20th Century Fox to produce four sequels: Avatar 2 and Avatar 3 are filming, will be released on December 18, 2020, December 17, 2021, respectively. Several cast members are expected to return, including Worthington, Saldana and Weaver. In 2154, humans have depleted Earth's natural resources; the Resources Development Administration mines for a valuable mineral — unobtanium — on Pandora, a densely forested habitable moon orbiting the gas giant Polyphemus in the Alpha Centauri star system. Pandora, whose atmosphere is poisonous to humans, is inhabited by the Na'vi, a species of 10-foot tall, blue-skinned, sapient humanoids that live in harmony with nature and worship a mother goddess named Eywa.
To explore Pandora's biosphere, scientists use Na'vi-human hybrids called "avatars", operated by genetically matched humans. Dr. Grace Augustine, head of the Avatar Program, considers Sully an inadequate replacement but accepts his assignment as a bodyguard. While protecting the avatars of Grace and fellow scientist Dr. Norm Spellman as they collect biological data, Jake's avatar is attacked by a thanator and flees into the forest, where he is rescued by Neytiri, a female Na'vi. Witnessing an auspicious sign, she takes him to her clan, whereupon Neytiri's mother Mo'at, the clan's spiritual leader, orders her daughter to initiate Jake into their society. Colonel Miles Quaritch, head of RDA's private security force, promises Jake that the company will restore his legs if he gathers information about the Na'vi and the clan's gathering place, a giant tree called Hometree, which stands above the richest deposit of unobtanium in the area; when Grace learns of this, she transfers herself and Norm to an outpost.
Over the following three months, Jake grows to sympathize with the natives. After Jake is initiated into the tribe, he and Neytiri choose each other as mates, soon afterward, Jake reveals his change of allegiance when he attempts to disable a bulldozer that threatens to destroy a sacred Na'vi site; when Quaritch shows a video recording of Jake's attack on the bulldozer to Administrator Parker Selfridge, another in which Jake admits that the Na'vi will never abandon Hometree, Selfridge orders Hometree destroyed. Despite Grace's argument that destroying Hometree could damage the biological neural network native to Pandora, Selfridge gives Jake and Grace one hour to convince the Na'vi to evacuate before commencing the attack. While trying to warn the Na'vi, Jake confesses to being a spy, the Na'vi take him and Grace captive. Seeing this, Quaritch's men destroy Hometree. Mo'at frees Jake and Grace, but they are detached from their avatars and imprisoned by Quaritch's forces. Pilot Trudy Chacón, disgusted by Quaritch's brutality, frees Jake and Norm, airlifts them to Grace's outpost, but during the escape Quaritch fires at them, hitting Grace.
To regain the Na'vi's trust, Jake connects his mind to that of Toruk, a dragon-like predator
Ethan Green Hawke is an American actor and director. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards and a Tony Award. Hawke has directed three feature films, three Off-Broadway plays, a documentary, he has written three novels. He made his film debut with the 1985 science fiction feature Explorers, before making a breakthrough appearance in the 1989 drama Dead Poets Society, he appeared in various films before taking a role in the 1994 Generation X drama Reality Bites, for which he received critical praise. Hawke starred alongside Julie Delpy in Richard Linklater's Before trilogy: Before Sunrise, Before Sunset and Before Midnight, all of which received critical acclaim. Hawke has been nominated twice for both the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Hawke was further honored with SAG Award nominations for both films, as well as BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for the latter, his other films include the science fiction drama Gattaca, the contemporary adaptation of Hamlet, the action thriller Assault on Precinct 13, the crime drama Before the Devil Knows You're Dead, the horror film Sinister.
In 2018 he garnered critical acclaim for his performance as a protestant minister in Paul Schrader's drama First Reformed receiving numerous accolades including New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and nominations at the Independent Spirit Awards and Critics' Choice Awards. In addition to his film work, Hawke has appeared in many theater productions, he made his Broadway debut in 1992 in Anton Chekhov's The Seagull, was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play in 2007 for his performance in Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia. In 2010, Hawke directed Sam Shepard's A Lie of the Mind, for which he received a Drama Desk Award nomination for Outstanding Director of a Play. Hawke was born in Austin, Texas, to Leslie, a charity worker, James Hawke, an insurance actuary. Hawke's parents were high school sweethearts in Fort Worth and married young, when Hawke's mother was 17. Hawke was born a year later. Hawke's parents were students at the University of Texas at Austin at the time of his birth, separated and divorced in 1974.
After the separation, Hawke was raised by his mother. The two relocated several times, before settling in New York City, where Hawke attended the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn Heights. Hawke's mother remarried when he was 10 and the family moved to West Windsor Township, New Jersey, where Hawke attended West Windsor Plainsboro High School, he transferred to the Hun School of Princeton, a secondary boarding school, from which he graduated in 1988. In high school, Hawke aspired to be a writer, but developed an interest in acting, he made his stage debut at age 13, in a production at The McCarter Theatre of George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan, appearances in West Windsor-Plainsboro High School productions of Meet Me in St. Louis and You Can't Take It with You followed. At the Hun School he took acting classes at the McCarter Theatre on the Princeton campus, after high school graduation he studied acting at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh dropping out after he was cast in Dead Poets Society.
He enrolled in New York University's English program for two years, but dropped out to pursue other acting roles. Hawke obtained his mother's permission to attend his first casting call at the age of 14, secured his first film role in Joe Dante's Explorers, in which he played an alien-obsessed schoolboy alongside River Phoenix; the film was met with favorable reviews but had poor box office results, a failure which Hawke has admitted caused him to quit acting for a brief period after the film's release. Hawke described the disappointment as difficult to bear at such a young age, adding "I would never recommend that a kid act."In 1989, Hawke made his breakthrough appearance in Peter Weir's Dead Poets Society, playing one of the students taught by Robin Williams's inspirational English teacher. The Variety reviewer noted "Hawke, as the painfully shy Todd, gives a haunting performance." The film received considerable acclaim, winning the BAFTA Award for Best Film and an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.
With revenue of $235 million worldwide, it remains Hawke's most commercially successful picture to date. Hawke described the opportunities he was offered as a result of the film's success as critical to his decision to continue acting: "I didn't want to be an actor and I went back to college, but the success was so monumental that I was getting offers to be in such interesting movies and be in such interesting places, it seemed silly to pursue anything else." While filming Dead Poets Society he auditioned for what would be his next film appearance, 1989's comedy drama Dad, where he played Ted Danson's son and Jack Lemmon's grandson. Hawke's next film, 1991's White Fang, brought his first leading role; the film, an adaptation of Jack London's novel of the same name, featured Hawke as Jack Conroy, a Yukon gold hunter who befriends a wolfdog. According to The Oregonian, "Hawke does a good job as young Jack... He makes Jack's passion for White Fang real and keeps it from being ridiculous or overly sentimental."
He appeared in Keith Gordon's A Midnight Clear, a well-received war film based on William Wharton's novel of the same name. In the survival drama Alive, adapted from Piers Paul Read's 1974 book, Hawke portrayed Nando Pa
Richard E. Roeper is an American columnist and film critic for The Chicago Sun-Times, he co-hosted the television series At the Movies with Roger Ebert from 2000 to 2008, as Gene Siskel's successor. From 2010 until 2014 he co-hosted The Roe and Roeper Show with Roe Conn on WLS-AM. On October 19, 2015, Roeper was selected as the new host for the FOX 32 morning show Good Day Chicago, he served as the host until October 2017. Roeper was born in Illinois, he grew up in south suburban Dolton and attended Thornridge High School, graduating from Illinois State University in 1982. Roeper began working as a columnist for the Chicago Sun-Times in 1987; the topics of his columns range from politics to media to entertainment. He has written seven books, on topics from movies to urban legends to conspiracy theories to the Chicago White Sox. In 2009 Roeper appeared on Howard Stern's show and said he had written a book on gambling, entitled Bet the House, released in the first quarter of 2010. Roeper was a radio host on WLS AM 890 in Chicago.
He hosted shows on WLUP-FM, WLS-FM and WMVP-AM in Chicago. He won three Emmy awards for his news commentaries on Fox in the 1990s, was the film critic for CBS in Chicago for three years in the early 2000s, he won the National Headliner Award as the top newspaper columnist in the country in 1992, has been voted best columnist in Illinois by the Associated Press on numerous occasions. His columns have been syndicated by The New York Times to publications around the world. Roeper has written for a number of magazines, including Esquire, Spy, TV Guide, Playboy and Entertainment Weekly, he was once named as one of People magazine's most eligible bachelors. Roeper has been a frequent guest on The Tonight Show, Live with Regis and Kelly, The O'Reilly Factor and countless other national programs, he is the host of Starz Inside, a monthly documentary series airing on the Starz network since the fall of 2007. Roeper appeared on the first episode of the fifth season of Entourage reviewing the fake movie Medellin starring fictional movie star Vincent Chase.
In April 2008, Roeper was the central figure on an episode of Top Chef, in which the contestants served up movie themed dishes to Roeper and his friends, including Aisha Tyler. In February 2009, Roeper launched his own web site, which features movie reviews, blog entries about politics and movies, photos and Twitter entries. For most of the year Roeper was blog entries. In December 2009, he launched a video section, with on-camera reviews of movies; the video segments are produced in partnership with the Starz premium cable channel. Roeper announced the reviews will appear first on his site on the Starz channel. In December 2009, it was reported that Roeper had signed a "six-figure" deal with ReelzChannel to be a regular contributor, he co-hosted the Roe and Roeper show with Roe Conn from April 12, 2010 until October 7, 2014 on Chicago's WLS-AM 890 radio station from 2-6pm CST. Roeper stopped reviewing movies for ReelzChannel in February 2015. In October 2015, he joined the cast of the Fox Chicago morning TV show.
He continues to review movies for the Chicago Sun-Times, he publishes videos of his reviews to YouTube. Roeper signed off from Fox Chicago's morning TV on October 18, 2017. Roeper was suspended from the Sun-Times on January 29, 2018, pending an investigation into allegations that he had purchased Twitter followers. On February 2, the Sun-Times released a statement stating that their investigation did find that Roeper purchased over 25,000 fake followers, he was reinstated by the paper, though he was required to begin using a new account on which he was explicitly disallowed from buying followers. After Gene Siskel of Siskel & Ebert died on Saturday, February 20, 1999, Roger Ebert did the show with nearly 30 co-hosts. After 10 guest stints, Roeper was offered the opportunity to permanently co-host the popular film review show with Ebert; the series was renamed Ebert & Roeper and the Movies in 2000, shortened to Ebert & Roeper in 2002. Beginning in August 2006, while his co-host Roger Ebert was recovering from cancer surgery, Roeper was joined by guest critics, including Clerks director Kevin Smith and The Tonight Show host Jay Leno.
On Sunday, July 20, 2008, Roeper announced he was leaving the show in mid-August and would return with a new show in the year. He continues to write his general interest column, contributes reviews to the Sun-Times and to newspapers across the country, he Rents, She Rents: The Ultimate Guide to the Best Women's Films and Guy Movies, with Laurie Viera Hollywood Urban Legends: The Truth Behind All Those Delightfully Persistent Myths of Films and Music Urban Legends: The Truth Behind All Those Deliciously Entertaining Myths That Are Absolutely, Positively, 100% Not True Ten Sure Signs a Movie Character is Doomed, Other Surprising Movie Lists Schlock Value: Hollywood At Its Worst Sox and the City: A Fan's Love Affair with the White Sox from the Heartbreak of'67 to the Wizards of Oz Debunked!: Conspiracy Theories, Urban Legends, Evil Plots of the 21st Century Bet the House: How I Gambled Over a Grand a Day for 30 Days on Sports and Games of Chance Official website Biography from TV Tome Richard Roeper on IMDb
Vincenzo Colosimo known professionally as Vince Colosimo is an Australian AFI Award winning stage and screen actor. He has worked in the United States, he is of Italian descent and resides in Melbourne, Australia. Colosimo was born in one of four children of Italian-born parents from Calabria, he grew up in the inner city suburb of Carlton North. He has a daughter, with his former wife, actress Jane Hall. Colosimo and Hall worked together on A Country Practice in 1994, he lived in Westgarth, a suburb of Melbourne, until late 2015. The mother of his second child is Australian actress Diana Glenn with whom he had a son, Massimo, in April 2014; the couple separated 2 months after the birth of Massimo. Colosimo has had some success on film in Australia, he made his film debut in the coming-of-age story Moving Out in 1983 and featured in 1984's Street Hero. Other credits include the cult movie Chopper, in which he played Melbourne drug dealer Neville Bartos opposite Eric Bana, The Wog Boy Lantana, Walking on Water, The Nugget, Take Away and Opal Dream.
In 2008, he starred alongside Leonardo DiCaprio in the 2008 American film Body of Lies. In 2010, Colosimo starred in Wog Boy 2: Kings of Mykonos. Colosimo appeared in the vampire film Daybreakers, starring alongside Sam Neill, Willem Dafoe and Ethan Hawke. In 2011, he starred in the film Face to Face, in 2012, he starred in Starz "Spartacus" Season 4, portrays a pirate leader. In 2013, he starred in The Great Gatsby alongside Leonardo DiCaprio as a coffee shop owner. Despite several movie roles and guest roles in A Country Practice, Good Guys Bad Guys and Stingers, it was not until his performance as Joe Sabatini in Something in the Air in 2001 and 2002 that resulted in wider exposure. In 2003, he starred After the Deluge. In 2003 and 2004, he played Dr. Rex Mariani in The Secret Life of Us. Vince starred as himself in episode 6 of the hit ABC series We Can Be Heroes, he is chosen as the actor to play Phil Olivetti in the fictional mini-series within the show. From 2005 until late 2007, Colosimo had guest roles in Blue Heelers, MDA, Two Twisted and City Homicide.
His American credits include popular shows such as The Practice and Without a Trace. In 2008, Colosimo had a busy year, he portrayed Melbourne gangland figure Alphonse Gangitano in the Channel 9 series Underbelly, played in Channel Ten's telemovie Emerald Falls and Channel Nine's Scorched. He appeared in Top Gear Australia's "Star in a bog-standard car" section in the first episode. In early 2009, Colosimo appeared in Carla Cametti PD, a six-part series that aired on SBS. In 2010, he had the leading male role in the Wicked Love: The Maria Korp Story. In 2012 he and his ancestors featured in the SBS show, Who Do You Think You Are? He announced in late 2013 that he would be reprising his role of Alphonse Gangitano in the sequel/spin-off series Fat Tony & Co. which will not be placed under the Underbelly franchise and will focus on the rise and fall of Tony Mokbel, who featured in the original series, played by Robert Mammone. Colosimo is part-owner of a cafe in Espresso Alley, with Vince Mazzone.
He sampled his voice on Snitch by Vanessa Amorosi in on her 2009 album Hazardous He was selected as one of the entrants to the Who's Who in Australia 2011 edition. In September 2016, Colosimo was charged by police after he was found in possession of Methamphetamine in Melbourne's north. In January 2017, he appeared in court where he had pleaded guilty and was fined $1000 without conviction and was put under a good behaviour bond for a year. AFI Awards 1982 – Nominated for "Best Actor in a Lead Role" 2001 – Won for "Best Actor in a Supporting Role" 2002 – Nominated for "Best Actor in a Lead Role" 2008 – Nominated for "Best Guest or Supporting Actor in a Television Drama" Logie Awards 2009 – Nominated for "Most Outstanding Actor" Newport Beach Film Festival, USA 2011 – Jury Award for best actor for Face to Face. Vince Colosimo on IMDb
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited while they were alive, they wore shrouds and were described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century. Vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures. Local variants in Eastern Europe were known by different names, such as shtriga in Albania, vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. In modern times, the vampire is held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
Porphyria was linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been discredited. The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of "The Vampyre" by John Polidori. Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend though it was published after Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's 1872 novel Carmilla; the success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, television shows, video games. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. Vampires had been discussed in French and German literature. After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires".
These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity. The English term was derived from the German Vampir, in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian vampir; the Serbian form has parallels in all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian вампир, Bosnian: vampir / вампир, Croatian vampir and Slovak upír, Polish wąpierz, upiór, Ukrainian упир, Russian упырь, Belarusian упыр, from Old East Slavic упирь. The exact etymology is unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь. Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch". Czech linguist Václav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepiť sa", or its hypothetical anagram "vperiť sa" as an etymological background, thus translates "upír" as "someone who thrusts, bites". An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy", dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Ancient Greeks, Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and public executions of people believed to be vampires, it is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were reported as bloated in appearance, ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour.
Blood was seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, its teeth and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature. Although vampires were described as undead, some folk tales spoke of them as living beings; the causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse, jumped over by an animal a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was at risk. In Russian