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De Havilland Comet

The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at its Hatfield Aerodrome in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, the Comet 1 prototype first flew in 1949, it featured an aerodynamically clean design with four de Havilland Ghost turbojet engines buried in the wing roots, a pressurised cabin, large square windows. For the era, it offered a quiet, comfortable passenger cabin and was commercially promising at its debut in 1952. However, within a year of entering airline service, problems started to emerge, with three Comets lost within twelve months in publicised accidents, after suffering catastrophic in-flight break-ups. Two of these were found to be caused by structural failure resulting from metal fatigue in the airframe, a phenomenon not understood at the time; the Comet was extensively tested. Design and construction flaws, including improper riveting and dangerous concentrations of stress around some of the square windows, were identified.

As a result, the Comet was extensively redesigned, with oval windows, structural reinforcements and other changes. Rival manufacturers meanwhile heeded the lessons learned from the Comet while developing their own aircraft. Although sales never recovered, the improved Comet 2 and the prototype Comet 3 culminated in the redesigned Comet 4 series which debuted in 1958 and remained in commercial service until 1981; the Comet was adapted for a variety of military roles such as VIP, medical and passenger transport, as well as surveillance. The most extensive modification resulted in a specialised maritime patrol derivative, the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, which remained in service with the Royal Air Force until 2011, over 60 years after the Comet's first flight. On 11 March 1943, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom formed the Brabazon Committee, tasked with determining the UK's airliner needs after the conclusion of the Second World War. One of its recommendations was for the development and production of a pressurised, transatlantic mailplane that could carry non-stop, one long ton of payload at a cruising speed of 400 mph.

Aviation company de Havilland was interested in this requirement, but chose to challenge the widely-held view that jet engines were too fuel-hungry and unreliable for such a role. As a result, committee member Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, head of the de Havilland company, used his personal influence and his company's expertise to champion the development of a jet propelled aircraft; the committee accepted the proposal, calling it the "Type IV", awarded a development and production contract to de Havilland under the designation Type 106 in February 1945. The type and design were to be so advanced that De Havilland had to undertake the design and development of both the airframe and the engines; this was because in 1945 no turbojet engine manufacturer in the world was drawing up a design specification for an engine with the thrust and specific fuel consumption, that could power an aircraft at the proposed cruising altitude and transatlantic range as was called for by the Type 106. First-phase development of the DH 106 focused on short and intermediate range mailplanes with a small passenger compartment and as few as six seats, before being redefined as a long-range airliner with a capacity of 24 seats.

Out of all the Brabazon designs, the DH 106 was seen as the riskiest both in terms of introducing untried design elements and for the financial commitment involved. The British Overseas Airways Corporation found the Type IV's specifications attractive, proposed a purchase of 25 aircraft. A design team was formed in 1946 under the leadership of chief designer Ronald Bishop, responsible for the Mosquito fighter-bomber. A number of unorthodox configurations were considered; the Ministry of Supply was, interested in the most radical of the proposed designs, ordered two experimental tailless DH 108s to serve as proof of concept aircraft for testing swept-wing configurations in both low-speed and high-speed flight. During flight tests the DH 108 gained a reputation for being accident-prone and unstable, leading de Havilland and BOAC to gravitate to conventional configurations and designs with less technical risk; the DH 108s were modified to test the DH 106's power controls. In September 1946, prior to the completion of the DH 108s, BOAC requests necessitated a redesign of the DH 106 from its previous 24-seat configuration to a larger 36-seat version.

With no time to develop the technology necessary for a proposed tailless configuration, Bishop opted for a more conventional 20-degree swept-wing design with unswept tail surfaces, married to an enlarged fuselage accommodating 36 passengers in a four-abreast arrangement with a central aisle. Replacing specified Halford H.1 Goblin engines, four new, more powerful Rolls-Royce Avons were to be incorporated in pairs buried in the wing roots. The redesigned aircraft was named the DH 106 Comet in December 1947. Revised first orders from BOAC and British South American Airways totalled 14 aircraft with delivery projected for 1952; as the Comet represented a new category of passenger aircraft, more rigorous testing was

Condition number

In the field of numerical analysis, the condition number of a function measures how much the output value of the function can change for a small change in the input argument. This is used to measure how sensitive a function is to changes or errors in the input, how much error in the output results from an error in the input. One is solving the inverse problem: given f = y, one is solving for x, thus the condition number of the inverse must be used. In linear regression the condition number of the moment matrix can be used as a diagnostic for multicollinearity; the condition number is an application of the derivative, is formally defined as the value of the asymptotic worst-case relative change in output for a relative change in input. The "function" is the solution of a problem and the "arguments" are the data in the problem; the condition number is applied to questions in linear algebra, in which case the derivative is straightforward but the error could be in many different directions, is thus computed from the geometry of the matrix.

More condition numbers can be defined for non-linear functions in several variables. A problem with a low condition number is said to be well-conditioned, while a problem with a high condition number is said to be ill-conditioned. In non-mathematical terms, an ill-conditioned problem is one where, for a small change in the inputs there is a large change in the answer or dependent variable; this means. The condition number is a property of the problem. Paired with the problem are any number of algorithms that can be used to solve the problem, that is, to calculate the solution; some algorithms have a property called backward stability. In general, a backward stable algorithm can be expected to solve well-conditioned problems. Numerical analysis textbooks give formulas for the condition numbers of problems and identify known backward stable algorithms; as a rule of thumb, if the condition number κ = 10 k you may lose up to k digits of accuracy on top of what would be lost to the numerical method due to loss of precision from arithmetic methods.

However, the condition number does not give the exact value of the maximum inaccuracy that may occur in the algorithm. It just bounds it with an estimate. Given a problem f and an algorithm f ~ with an input x, the absolute error is ‖ f − f ~ ‖ and the relative error is ‖ f − f ~ ‖ / ‖ f ‖. In this context, the absolute condition number of a problem f is lim ε → 0 sup ‖ δ x ‖ ≤ ε ‖ δ f ‖ ‖ δ x ‖ and the relative condition number is lim ε → 0 sup ‖ δ x ‖ ≤ ε ‖ δ f ‖ / ‖ f ‖ ‖ δ x ‖ / ‖ x ‖ For example, the condition number associated with the linear equation Ax = b gives a bound on how inaccurate the solution x will be after approximation. Note that this is before the effects of round-off error are taken into account. In particular, one should think of the condition number as being the rate at which the solution x will change with respect to a change in b. Thus, if the condition number is large a small error in b may cause a large error in x. On the other hand, if the condition number is small the error in x will not be much bigger than the error in b.

The condition number is defined more to be the maximum ratio of the relative error in x to the relative error in b. Let e be the error in b. Assuming that A is a nonsingular matrix, the error in the solution A−1b is A−1e; the ratio of the relative error in the solution to the relative error in b is ‖ A − 1 e ‖ ‖ A

Bantul the Great

Batul, Batul the Great, or Bantul the Great is a popular Bengali comic strip character created by Narayan Debnath. It was inspired by the famous comics character Desperate Dan drawn by Dudley D. Watkins, it first appeared and still appears in a children's magazine called Shuktara and is read, not only by children but by adults as well. It has since appeared as an animation series. Narayan Debnath's first comic book characters in color were for the comic strip and book Batul The Great. By Debnath's admission, he thought up the idea of the superhero while returning from College Street, Calcutta, he has remarked that the character of Batul was influenced by his friend Manohar Aich, the famous Bengali bodybuilder. The name came to him and he thought up the figure of the protagonist rapidly, he did not know what he foresaw as a future for Batul and did not give him any superpowers. When the Bangladesh War of Liberation known as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 flared up, he was asked by the editors and publishers to add an aura of invincibility.

Debnath was reluctant at first. On assurance, he made Batul a superhero. Bullets began to bounce off of him, much like Superman. Batul is still drawn by Debnath for Shuktara, it has been argued that the historical and cultural significance of Bantul is that he “became a symbol of formidability, a much needed push for the Bengalis in the Bangladesh Liberation War, 1971.” The protagonist of the story, Batul, is a superhero, with god-like strength. He is so strong that he can lift the whole earth, run through a wall breaking it to pieces, kill whales and sharks barehanded, missiles cannot pierce his chest, he sometimes has a whale for his breakfast. Unlike other heroes, Batul does not wear any attractive attire. Rather, he is always seen clad in a black shorts, he is the terror of dacoits and hooligans, protects the good. Sometimes, Batul's amazing strength is the cause of his downfall; this is true when he is trying to operate machinery, since he breaks it. Another example, depicted in the panel, shows him trying to ride a bull in a rodeo, but due to his weight, the legs of the bull get embedded in the ground.

He is a detective. With him stay two mischievous boys viz. Bachhu and Bichchu, who play truant at school conspire with robbers and commit daring crimes like bank robberies. Other characters in the comic strip include Lambakarna, who has superhuman hearing. Batul's aunt, he can ignite flames by rubbing "Uko" on his head. Handa Bhonda Nonte Phonte Read Bantul Comics on the internet Page on Batul from International Heroes website

Malabar Naval Outer Landing Field

The Malabar Naval Outer Landing Field was an airfield built by the US Navy in 1943 within Brevard County, Florida to augment what was Naval Air Station Melbourne. The airfield, which had four runways, was decommissioned as an active airfield in the mid-1950s. Now known as the "Malabar Transmitter Annex," the property is used as an auxiliary communications annex in support of aerospace activities for NASA and the U. S. Air Force; the facility is under the control of the 45th Space Wing. The airfield was built during World War II as one of two satellite airfields for NAS Melbourne, which conducted advanced flight training in North American T-6 Texans, Grumman F4F Wildcats and Grumman F6F Hellcats; the Malabar airfield was constructed early in 1943. It was not depicted on the January 1943 Miami Sectional Chart. Early depictions of the field include USDA aerial photos from February 24, 1943, which show four unfinished airfield runways. On April 22, 1943, Malabar had four asphalt runways; the earliest chart depiction, located of the Malabar airfield was on the July 1943 Orlando Sectional Chart.

It depicted "Malabar" as an auxiliary airfield. It was an active military airfield, labeled "Malabar", on the 1949 Orlando Sectional Chart, described as having a 4,000 feet hard-surface runway; the airfield was closed in 1954. It was listed as an active airfield on the August 1954 Orlando Sectional Chart, but the Aerodromes table on the chart listed its status as "Closed, leased for grazing"; the Malabar Test Facility was opened in the early 1960s to study lasers and laser effects. Subsequently, it was transferred to the Space and Missile Systems Organization in 1978, Air Force Space Technology Center in 1984, Phillips Laboratory in 1990; the former Malabar airfield property was erroneously labeled "Lynbrook Park" on a 2007 street map. There are a dozen antenna towers around the facility, as well as log periodics; the primary function is to act as a remote transmitter site to support operations for the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral AFS. The facility is under military security. An annual firearms drill is held for security personnel.

The facility is under the control of the 45th Space Wing and security is administered from Patrick Air Force Base. As of June 1, 2010 all the large antennas have been removed. Only one tower remains for microwave communications

Jean Antoine Joseph Fauchet

Jean Antoine Joseph Fauchet was a French diplomat, French ambassador to the United States. He studied law; when the French Revolution broke out, he published pamphlets in praise of the event. He was a secretary in the Ministry of War, Executive Council, he was appointed ambassador with orders to arrest Edmond-Charles Genêt. He wrote an essay about the Franco-American relations and America itself, he pressed the United States for repayment of the loans, made. Some intercepted letters that he wrote, were used to embarrass Edmund Randolph, he supported Napoleon's coup d'etat, was made a prefect of Var, Gironde. In 1805, he was made a baron, he was dismissed during the Bourbon Restoration in 1814. Coup d'oeil rapide sur l'etat actuel de nos rapports politiques avec les Etats Unis d'Amerique septentrionale, 1797 "Jean Antoine Joseph Fauchet", Papers of the War Department Fauchet, Jean Antoine Joseph > French minister to U. S. Papers of James Madison "Fauchet, Jean Antoine Joseph", The Papers of George Washington

The Scarred

The Scarred is a garage punk band from Anaheim, California formed in 2003, on the East Coast-based label Jailhouse records. Formed by Jordan Thompson, they are one of the only old school punk bands active from Anaheim, known for bridging the sound between 70s Punk rock and classic rock and roll; the Scarred formed in 2003 by Justin "Scarred" James, Matt "Monkey" Hatcher, Isha Rose and Jordan Thompson. The three had been in bands before and set to work playing live shows with such Punk Rock notables as Naked Aggression, The Adicts, Cheap Sex, The Skeptix, more. After starting a family, Isha stepped down and was replaced by Ben 9000, drummer of other notable bands such as Rezurex and Jeffree Star; the band recorded a demo in the back room of a radio station, sent it out to underground fanzines, where it received good reviews, including California's legendary MRR. Capitalizing on their good reviews, the band decided to record a full-length album and entered 459 Audio studios in Monrovia, California to record their debut album.

In February 2004, the band released their first album, before heading out on their first U. S. Tour. Over the next year they toured the country relentlessly selling out the thousand copies of their debut CD and gaining some attention in the Punk media not only for their albums, but for their live show; the quick sales of Repression led to the band entering the studio to record a split seven-inch with New Jersey punk band Void Control. It was released in early 2005 earning the band more good reviews; the split-EP was released on limited Coke bottle Green colored Vinyl, which sold out and has since become difficult to find. In August 2005, the band was offered a record deal with a New York street-punk label. According to the band, they were thrilled to receive the offer, as they were in debt, on the verge of bankruptcy, would have had no other option but to end the band. At the urging of the label, The Scarred rushed to a rent-by-the-hour practice studio in downtown Anaheim and had a live set of three songs recorded by filmmaker Lewis Smithingham, who included it in Punk Core records' first DVD, Pure Punk Rock, released March 7, 2006.

The master copy of the DVD had been scratched over the Scarred's set, causing the audio and video on the last segments to skew. Justin would comment that they regretted recording for the DVD at all, due to the rushed and comparatively low quality of their segment, but that they were honored to be included and featured alongside The Casualties, The Virus, Defiance, among others. According to the Spring 2006 Edition of Loud, Rules! magazine, the band had been recording songs over the last nine months one session at a time as budget allowed. With Punk Core's help, they were able to finish the album in December 2005, at which point it was set for release in April, 2006. After an October tour, which included both the debut of new rhythm guitar player Andy White of KTP, his dismissal after the tour was over, the band set out on their second Clampdown U. S. tour with Destruct. The date of their Washington, DC show was canceled due to a stabbing at the venue the previous night, but on April 4, 2006 The Scarred's second album No Solution was released in stores.

The album was received with good reviews from the United States and Europe. Skratch Magazine praised its diversity in a feature in the May Issue of that year, in which, Justin hinted at his disappointment in not being able to see the album released on Cassette tape, an obsolete format; the Scarred went back on the road soon after returning from their April 2006 tour. The Scarred took two weeks off before heading out to support. On tour the shows did well, but was plagued by conflict within the tour that would signal the eventual breakup of Cheap Sex; the Scarred's drummer, was pregnant the entire tour with her and husband and singer Justin Willits' first child. At the end of the tour, The Scarred released cover artwork from their forthcoming record, only to cancel recording sessions after 6 songs due to fatigue and lack of funds from the label, they played only a few shows during the remainder of Isha's pregnancy, including one with Cheap Sex's drummer Gabe at the Allen Theatre. Their baby was born on March 21, 2007, The Scarred announced via Myspace that they would be returning to work soon, starting with the third annual Clampdown Tour in June and July 2007, which would feature Brad Jamison of Vengeance 77 on the drums while Isha was still recovering.

However, despite fans eagerly expecting their arrival, an accident forced The Scarred to drop off the tour the day before their departure, as Vocals/Guitar player Justin Willits broke his leg at the last practice. After several months of healing, The Scarred recruited Ben 9000 on drums, announced a fall 2007 tour, posted several Studio Updates on YouTube.com. As fate would have it, the tour proved disastrous. Not only did several winter storms force cancellations of many of the tour's shows, but the band ran out of money. After breaking down 4 weeks into a 7-week tour, the band was forced to return home. Isha returned to the drums in 2008 and the original lineup seemed poised to make a comeback and finish their delayed third album, the band learned that PunkCore records had gone inactive, leaving their album unfinished. Complicating things further, bass player Matt "Monkey" Hatcher relocated to Ferndale, Washington as the band released a limited 4-song digital EP, titled "Panic!" Featuring three songs from what would have been their sophomore punkcore album, one song with drummer Ben 9000 of Rezurex.

Recruiting studio assistant Patrick Clancy t