The Convair 880 was a narrow-body jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics. It was designed to compete with the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 by being smaller and faster, when it was first introduced, some aviation circles claimed that at 615 mph, it was the fastest jet transport in the world. The Convair 990 was a stretched and faster variant of the 880, Convair began development of a medium-range commercial jet in April 1956, to compete with announced products from Boeing and Douglas. It was powered by General Electric CJ-805-3 turbojets, a version of the J79 which powered the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom. The first example of the production version, the Model 22. The final assembly of the 880 and 990 took place at the Convair facilities in San Diego, the airliner never became widely used and the production line shut down after only three years. In addition, the General Electric engines had a specific fuel consumption than the Boeings Pratt & Whitney JT3Cs.
General Dynamics lost around $185 million over the lifetime of the project, the losses incurred in the Convair 880/990 are generally thought to be the largest losses incurred by a corporation up to that time. The aircraft were involved in 17 accidents and five hijackings, a more major modification to the 880 became the Convair 990, produced in parallel with the 880-M between 1961 and 1963. Swissair named theirs Coronado, after an island off the San Diego coast, the design entered service with Delta Air Lines in May 1960, slightly modified as the 880-22m, having newer version 805-3B engines. The 880s were flown by Cathay Pacific, Japan, Swissair, TWA, as they left commercial service, many 880s were bought by American Jet Industries for various uses. One example was converted to use in 1974, and flew until 1982 with various companies. Another was used to train FAA flight examiners until it was destroyed by an explosion in the cargo hold in 1995. Most of the examples were scrapped by 2000. The United States Navy acquired one 880-M in 1980, modifying it as an in-flight tanker and it had been purchased new from Convair by the FAA, and used for 18 years.
Unofficially designated UC-880, it was assigned to the Naval Air Test Center at NAS Patuxent River, Convair designed and manufactured the Tomahawk and Advanced Tomahawk Cruise Missile in San Diego where the 880 and 990 were produced. The sole UC-880 was damaged in a cargo hold explosive decompression test at NAS Patuxent River, the aircraft managed to remain theoretically controllable via backup systems unique to the 880 and 990. This flight was to be a training sortie for two Delta captains who were being type-rated on the 880
The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a Canadian and British passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s developed from the Avro Lancaster heavy bomber. The Lancaster was named after Lancaster, Lancashire, a Lancastrian is an inhabitant of Lancashire, the Lancastrian was basically a modified Lancaster bomber without armour or armament and with the gun turrets replaced by streamlined metal fairings, including a new nose section. The initial batch was converted directly from Lancasters, batches were new builds, in 1943, Canadas Victory Aircraft converted a Lancaster X bomber for civil transport duties with Trans-Canada Airlines. This conversion was a success resulting in eight additional Lancaster Xs being converted, the specials were powered by Packard-built Merlin 38 engines and featured a lengthened, streamlined nose and tail cone. Range was increased by two 400 gal Lancaster long-range fuel tanks fitted as standard in the bomb bay and these Lancastrians were used by TCA on its Montreal–Prestwick route.
In 1945, deliveries commenced of 30 British-built Lancastrians for BOAC, on a demonstration flight on 23 April 1945, G-AGLF flew 13,500 mi from England to Auckland, New Zealand in three days,14 hours at an average speed of 220 mph. Consequently, it was not suited to large numbers of passengers, but was suitable for mail. BOAC used it for flights between England and Australia from 31 May 1945 and it served with the RAF, RAF Lancaster I serial number PD328, was converted to a Lancastrian and renamed Aries, as well as serving with QANTAS and Flota Aérea Mercante Argentina. Lancastrians were used during the Berlin Airlift to transport petrol,15 aircraft made over 5,000 trips, in 1946 a Lancastrian operated by BSAA was the first aircraft to make a scheduled flight from the then-newly opened London Heathrow Airport. Data from, With the advent of gas turbine engines there emerged a need to test the new engines in a flight environment in well instrumented installations. An ideal candidate emerged as the Avro Lancastrian which could accommodate the test instrumentation as well as fly on the power of two piston engines if required.
Several Lancastrians were allocated for engine test-bed work with turbojet engines replacing the outer Merlin engines or test piston engines in the inner nacelles, fuel arrangements varied but could include Kerosene jet fuel in outer wing tanks or fuselage tanks, with AVGAS carried in remaining fuel tanks. On 2 August 1947 Lancastrian G-AGWH Star Dust of British South American Airways was lost in the Argentine Andes, whilst en route from Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Santiago, the probable cause of the crash was a navigation error due to the then-unknown effect of the fast-moving jetstream. Lancaster XPP Nine built by converting Lancaster Mk. Xs at Victory Aircraft Ltd Canada, Lancastrian C.1 Nine-seat transport aircraft for BOAC and Qantas. Royal Air Force designation Lancastrian C.1 to Specification 16/44, a total of 23 built by Avro Lancastrian C.2 Nine-seat military transport aircraft for the RAF. A total of 33 built by Avro Lancastrian 3 13-seat transport aircraft for British South American Airways, a total of 18 built by Avro Lancastrian C.4 Ten to 13-seat military transport aircraft for the RAF.
24 Squadron RAF No.231 Squadron RAF No, Aircraft of comparable role and era Boeing C-108 Flying Fortress Transport B-17 Flying Fortress with minimal external changes. Consolidated C-87 Liberator Express Transport variant of B-24 Liberator, related lists List of aircraft of World War II List of aircraft of the RAF Notes Bibliography Benedetto, Fernando
American Airlines, Inc. commonly referred to as American, is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. It is the worlds largest airline measured by fleet size, scheduled passenger-kilometres flown. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the name of American Eagle. American operates out of ten located in Dallas/Fort Worth, Chicago-OHare, Miami, Washington, DC-National, Los Angeles, New York-JFK. American operates its primary base at Tulsa International Airport in addition to the maintenance locations located at its hubs. Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is Americans largest passenger carrying hub handling 51.1 million passengers annually with an average of 140,000 passengers daily, the company as of 2015 employs over 113,300 people. Through the airlines parent company, American Airlines Group, it is traded under NASDAQ. American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines, the two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport.
The former was first formed in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation and this in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system, between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001. In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, in 2013, US Airways and American Airlines merged. Eventually operations were merged under one operating certificate to create the largest United States airline which kept the American Airlines brand name, American Airlines is headquartered in Fort Worth, adjacent to the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. The headquarters is located in two buildings in the CentrePort office complex and these buildings together have about 1,400,000 square feet of space. As of 2014 over 4,300 employees work at this complex, before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
In 1979 American moved its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described the move as a betrayal of New York City. American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, the airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility. As of 2015 American Airlines is the corporation with the largest presence in Fort Worth, in 2015 the airline announced it will build a new headquarters in Fort Worth. Groundbreaking began in the spring of 2016 and occupancy is scheduled for summer 2019, the airline plans to house 5,000 new workers in the building
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads. It is the progressive and localized damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. The nominal maximum stress values that cause such damage may be less than the strength of the material typically quoted as the ultimate tensile stress limit. Fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading, if the loads are above a certain threshold, microscopic cracks will begin to form at the stress concentrators such as the surface, persistent slip bands, and grain interfaces. Eventually a crack will reach a size, the crack will propagate suddenly. The shape of the structure will affect the fatigue life. Round holes and smooth transitions or fillets will therefore increase the strength of the structure. ASTM defines fatigue life, Nf, as the number of cycles of a specified character that a specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature occurs. Engineers have used any of three methods to determine the life of a material, the stress-life method, the strain-life method.
One method to predict fatigue life of materials is the Uniform Material Law, UML was developed for fatigue life prediction of aluminium and titanium alloys by the end of 20th century and extended to high-strength steels, and cast iron. Macroscopic and microscopic discontinuities as well as component design features which cause stress concentrations are common locations at which the process begins. Fatigue is a process that has a degree of randomness, often showing considerable scatter even in seemingly identical sample in well controlled environments, Fatigue is usually associated with tensile stresses but fatigue cracks have been reported due to compressive loads. The greater the applied stress range, the shorter the life, Fatigue life scatter tends to increase for longer fatigue lives. Materials do not recover when rested, some materials exhibit a theoretical fatigue limit below which continued loading does not lead to fatigue failure. High cycle fatigue strength can be described by stress-based parameters, a load-controlled servo-hydraulic test rig is commonly used in these tests, with frequencies of around 20–50 Hz.
Other sorts of machines—like resonant magnetic machines—can be used, to achieve frequencies up to 250 Hz, low cycle fatigue is associated with localized plastic behavior in metals, thus, a strain-based parameter should be used for fatigue life prediction in metals. Testing is conducted with constant strain amplitudes typically at 0. 01–5 Hz,1837, Wilhelm Albert publishes the first article on fatigue. He devised a test machine for conveyor chains used in the Clausthal mines,1839, Jean-Victor Poncelet describes metals as being tired in his lectures at the military school at Metz
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water, that usually has no type of landing gear to allow operation on land. It differs from a floatplane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage. Flying boats were some of the largest aircraft of the first half of the 20th century and their advantage lay in using water instead of expensive land-based runways, making them the basis for international airlines in the interwar period. They were used for maritime patrol and air-sea rescue. Their use gradually trailed off after World War II, partially because of the investments in airports during the war. In the 21st century, flying boats maintain a few uses, such as dropping water on forest fires, air transport around archipelagos. Many modern seaplane variants, whether float or flying boat types, are convertible amphibious aircraft where either landing gear or flotation modes may be used to land, on 6 June 1905 Gabriel Voisin took off and landed on the River Seine with a towed kite glider on floats.
The first of his flights was 150 yards. He built a powered floatplane in partnership with Louis Blériot, other pioneers attempted to attach floats to aircraft in Britain, Australia and the USA. On 28 March 1910 Frenchman Henri Fabre successfully flew the first successful powered seaplane, the Gnome Omega-powered hydravion, fabres first successful take off and landing by a powered seaplane inspired other aviators and he designed floats for several other flyers. The first hydro-aeroplane competition was held in Monaco in March 1912, featuring aircraft using floats from Fabre, Curtiss and this led to the first scheduled seaplane passenger services at Aix-les-Bains, using a five-seat Sanchez-Besa from 1 August 1912. The French Navy ordered its first floatplane in 1912, in 1911-12 François Denhaut constructed the first seaplane with a fuselage forming a hull, using various designs to give hydrodynamic lift at take-off. Its first successful flight was on 13 April 1912, throughout 1910 and 1911 American pioneering aviator Glenn Curtiss developed his floatplane into the successful Curtiss Model D land-plane, which used a larger central float and sponsons.
Combining floats with wheels, he made the first amphibian flights in February 1911 and was awarded the first Collier Trophy for US flight achievement, from 1912 his experiments with a hulled seaplane resulted in the 1913 Model E and Model F, which he called flying-boats. In February 1911 the United States Navy took delivery of the Curtiss Model E, in Britain, Captain Edward Wakefield and Oscar Gnosspelius began to explore the feasibility of flight from water in 1908. They decided to use of Lake Windermere in the Lake District. Meanwhile, Wakefield ordered a similar to the design of the 1910 Fabre Hydravion. By November 1911, both Gnosspelier and Wakefield had aircraft capable of flight from water and awaited suitable weather conditions, gnosspeliers flight was short-lived as the aircraft crashed into the lake
Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. The airlines global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport, Air Frances corporate headquarters, previously in Montparnasse, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris. During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, it was one of the three main Allied scheduled airlines operating in Germany at West Berlins Tempelhof and Tegel airports. In 1990, it acquired the operations of French domestic carrier Air Inter and it served as Frances primary national flag carrier for seven decades prior to its 2003 merger with KLM. Between April 2001 and March 2002, the airline carried 43.3 million passengers and had a revenue of €12. 53bn. In November 2004, Air France ranked as the largest European airline with 25. 5% total market share, Air France operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing widebody jets on long-haul routes, and uses Airbus A320 family aircraft on short-haul routes.
Air France introduced the A380 on 20 November 2009 with service to New York Citys JFK Airport from Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport, the carriers regional airline subsidiary, HOP. operates the majority of its regional domestic and European scheduled services with a fleet of regional jet aircraft. Of these airlines, SGTA was the first commercial company in France. The constituent members of Air France had already built extensive networks across Europe, to French colonies in North Africa, during World War II, Air France moved its operations to Casablanca. In 1936, Air France added French-built twin engine Potez 62 aircraft to its featuring a two compartment cabin that could accommodate 14 to 16 passengers. A high wing monoplane, it had a fuselage with composite coating while the wings were fabric covered with a metal leading edge. Equipped with Hispano-Suiza V-engines, they were used on routes in Europe, South America, on 26 June 1945 all of Frances air transport companies were nationalised. On 29 December 1945, a decree of the French Government granted Air France the management of the entire French air transport network, Air France appointed its first flight attendants in 1946.
The same year the airline opened its first air terminal at Les Invalides in central Paris and it was linked to Paris Le Bourget Airport, Air Frances first operations and engineering base, by coach. At that time the network covered 160,000 km, claimed to be the longest in the world, Société Nationale Air France was set up on 1 January 1946. European schedules were initially operated by a fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft, on 1 July 1946, Air France started direct flights between Paris and New York via refuelling stops at Shannon and Gander. Douglas DC-4 piston-engine airliners covered the route in just under 20 hours, in September 1947 Air Frances network stretched east from New York, Fort de France and Buenos Aires to Shanghai
The Tupolev Tu-104 was a twin-engined medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner and the worlds first successful jet airliner. Although it was the jet airliner to fly, the Tu-104 was the second to enter regular service. The Tu-104 was the sole jetliner operating in the world between 1956 and 1958, in 1957, Czechoslovak Airlines – ČSA, became the first airline in the world to fly a route exclusively with jet airliners, using the Tu-104A variant between Prague and Moscow. In civil service, the Tu-104 carried over 90 million passengers with Aeroflot, and its successors included the Tu-124, the Tu-134 and the Tu-154. At the beginning of the 1950s, the Soviet Unions Aeroflot airline needed a modern airliner with better capacity, the design request was filled by the Tupolev OKB, which based their new airliner on its Tu-16 Badger strategic bomber. The wings and tail surfaces of the Tu-16 were retained with the airliner, the prototype build in MMZ Opit first flew on June 17,1955 with Yu. L.
It was fitted with a parachute to shorten the landing distance by up to 400 metres. In either case, Western observers at the thought the Soviets lacked the advanced technology required to build an airliner suitable for commercial performance. By the time production ceased in 1960, about 200 had been built, the Tu-104 was powered by two Mikulin AM-3 turbojets placed at the wing roots. The crew consisted of five people, two pilots, a navigator, an engineer and a radio operator. The airplane raised great curiosity by its lavish Victorian interior – called so by some Western-hemisphere observers – due to the used, copper. Tu-104 pilots were trained on the Il-28 bomber, followed by flights on an unarmed Tu-16 bomber painted in Aeroflot colors. Pilots with previous Tu-16 experience transitioned into the Tu-104 with relative ease, the flight time was reduced from 13 hours and 50 minutes to 7 hours and 40 minutes, and the new jet dramatically increased the level of passenger comfort. By 1957, Aeroflot had placed the Tu-104 in service on routes from Vnukovo Airport in Moscow to London, Copenhagen, Brussels, Ottawa and Prague.
In 1957, ČSA Czechoslovak Airlines became the only customer for the Tu-104, placing the aircraft on routes to Moscow, Paris. ČSA bought six Tu-104As configured for 81 passengers, three of these aircraft were subsequently written off. In 1959, the plane was leased to Sir Henry Lunn Ltd. of London which used the plane for 12 holidays to Russia, the Tu-104 continued to be used by Aeroflot throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Some 16 aircraft were lost in crashes, the safety record was comparable to other early jet airliners of its day, but was poor compared to more modern airliners
British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. It continued operating overseas services throughout World War II, after the passing of the Civil Aviation Act of 1946, European and South American services passed to two further state-owned airlines, British European Airways and British South American Airways. BOAC absorbed BSAA in 1949, but BEA continued to operate British domestic, a 1971 Act of Parliament merged BOAC and BEA with effect from 31 March 1974, forming todays British Airways. On 24 November 1939, BOAC was created by Act of Parliament to become the British state airline, formed from the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. The companies had been operating together since war was declared on 3 September 1939, on 1 April 1940, BOAC started operations as a single company. Linking Britain to the Horseshoe Route taxed the resources of BOAC, although Spain denied access, Portugal welcomed BOACs civilian aircraft at Lisbon.
The Empire flying-boats were at their limit on the 1,900 mile Lisbon-Bathurst sector, refuelling at Las Palmas in the Canary Islands was permitted by Spain for some Empire flying-boat flights in 1940 and 1941. In 1941 longer range Consolidated Catalinas, Boeing 314As were introduced to guarantee non-stop Lisbon to Bathurst sectors, BOACs flying-boat base for Britain was shifted from Southampton to Poole, but many flights used Foynes in Éire, reached by shuttle flight from Whitchurch. Use of Foynes reduced the chance of interception or friendly fire incidents over the English Channel. BOAC had large bases at Durban, Alexandria and a school at Soroti. These were BOACs first New York services and this was the first sustained North Atlantic landplane service. By September 1944 BOAC had made 1,000 transatlantic crossings, in late 1942, the new hard-surface airport at Lisbon permitted the use of civil registered Liberators to North and West Africa and Egypt. Arguably, BOACs most famous wartime route was the Ball-bearing Run from Leuchars to Stockholm in neutral Sweden, initially flown with Lockheed 14s and Lockheed Hudson transports, the unsuitable Armstrong Whitworth Whitley civilianised bombers were used between 9 August and 24 October 1942.
The much faster civilian registered de Havilland Mosquitoes were introduced by BOAC in 1943, between 1939 and 19456,000 passengers were transported by BOAC between Stockholm and Great Britain. At the end of the war, BOACs fleet consisted of Lockheed Lodestars, lend-lease Douglas DC-3s, converted Sunderlands, and the first Avro Lancastrians, Avro Yorks, and Handley Page Haltons. The Short Empire, Short S.26 and Boeing 314A flying boats, the Corporations aircraft and personnel were scattered around the world, and it took a decade to reorganise it into an efficient unit at Heathrow. Whilst the major world airlines abandoned flying-boats at the end of WWII, BOAC continued with theirs until 1950, and even introduced the new Short Solent on the leisurely Nile route to South Africa. In 1948, the unpressurised Yorks were still operating passenger services as far afield as Nairobi, Accra and Calcutta, after its first six Lockheed 049 Constellations, BOAC had to use some ingenuity to increase its Constellation fleet
The Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene was a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine. The Nene was a redesign, rather than a scaled-up Rolls-Royce Derwent with a design target of 5,000 lbf. It was Rolls-Royces third jet engine to enter production, and first ran less than 6 months from the start of design and it was named after the River Nene in keeping with the companys tradition of naming its early jet engines after rivers. The design saw little use in British aircraft designs, being passed over in favour of the axial-flow Avon that followed it. Its only widespread use in the UK was in the Hawker Sea Hawk, in the US it was built under licence as the Pratt & Whitney J42, and it powered the Grumman F9F Panther. A more powerful slightly enlarged version of the Nene was produced as the Rolls-Royce Tay. The Nene was designed and built as a result of an early 1944 Air Ministry request for an engine of 4,200 lbf thrust, and an engine was schemed-out by Stanley Hooker and Adrian Lombard as the B.40.
In the summer of 1944 Hooker visited the USA and discovered that General Electric already had two types, an axial and a centrifugal, of 4,000 lbf thrust running. On returning to the UK Hooker decided to go for 5,000 lbf of thrust and, working with Lombard and Morley, a complete redesign of the B.40 resulted in the B.41, to be called the Nene. The double-sided impeller was 28.8 inches in diameter, compared to 20.68 for the Derwent I, to produce an airflow of 80 lb/s, a scaled up Derwent would have a 60-inch diameter. The compressor casing was based on Whittles Type 16 W. 2/500 compressor case which was aerodynamically efficient than that on the Derwent. Other design advances included nine new low pressure-drop/high efficiency combustion chambers developed by Lucas, the first engine start was attempted on 27 October 1944. To everyones dismay the engine refused to light - positioning the igniter was an affair at the time. On the next attempt, Denis Drew unscrewed the igniter and as the motor ran the engine up to speed.
The engine was run up to 4,000 lbf and more, less thrust is generated with the same fuel flow. It was during the design of the Nene that Rolls decided to give their engines numbers as well as names, with the Welland and Derwent keeping their original Rover models, B/23 and B/26. It was decided that these model designations looked too much like RAF bomber designations, and R was added to the front, the R signifying Rolls, early airborne tests of the Nene were undertaken in an Avro Lancastrian operated by Rolls-Royce from their Hucknall airfield. The two outboard Rolls-Royce Merlins were replaced by the jet engine, the Nenes first flight however was in a modified Lockheed XP-80 Shooting Star
Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft. It and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype and it is the predominant variant of the C-135 Stratolifter family of transport aircraft. The KC-135 was the US Air Forces first jet-powered refueling tanker, the KC-135 entered service with the United States Air Force in 1957, it is one of six military fixed-wing aircraft with over 50 years of continuous service with its original operator. The KC-135 is supplemented by the larger KC-10, studies have concluded that many of the aircraft could be flown until 2040, although maintenance costs have greatly increased. The aircraft will eventually be replaced by the Boeing KC-46 Pegasus, like its sibling, the commercial Boeing 707 jet airliner, the KC-135 was derived from the Boeing 367-80 jet transport proof of concept demonstrator, which was commonly called the Dash-80. The KC-135 is similar in appearance to the 707, but has a fuselage and is shorter than the 707.
The KC-135 predates the 707, and is quite different from the civilian airliner. Boeing gave the future KC-135 tanker the initial designation Model 717, in 1954 USAFs Strategic Air Command held a competition for a jet-powered aerial refueling tanker. Lockheeds tanker version of the proposed Lockheed L-193 airliner with rear fuselage-mounted engines was declared the winner in 1955, in the end, orders for the Lockheed tanker were dropped rather than supporting two tanker designs. Lockheed never produced its jet airliner, while Boeing would eventually dominate the market with a family of airliners based on the 707. In 1954, the Air Force placed an order for 29 KC-135As. The first aircraft flew in August 1956 and the initial production Stratotanker was delivered to Castle Air Force Base, the last KC-135 was delivered to the Air Force in 1965. These basic features make it resemble the commercial Boeing 707 and 720 aircraft. The USAF EC-135 Looking Glass was subsequently replaced in its role by the U. S.
Navy E-6 Mercury aircraft, the KC-135Q variant was modified to carry JP-7 fuel necessary for the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, segregating the JP-7 from the KC-135s own fuel supply. The tanker had special fuel systems for moving the different fuels between different tanks, the only external difference between a KC-135R and a KC-135T is the presence of a clear window on the underside of the empennage of the KC-135T where a remote controlled searchlight is mounted. It has two ground refueling ports, located in rear wheel well so ground crews can fuel both the body tanks and wing tanks separately. Eight KC-135R aircraft are receiver-capable tankers, commonly referred to as KC-135R, All eight aircraft were with the 22d Air Refueling Wing at McConnell AFB, Kansas, in 1994. They are primarily used for extension and Special Operations missions
OJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines, commonly known as Aeroflot, is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation. The carrier operates domestic and international passenger and services, mainly from its hub at Sheremetyevo International Airport, Aeroflot is one of the oldest airlines in the world, tracing its history back to 1923. During the Soviet era, Aeroflot was the Soviet national airline, following the dissolution of the USSR, the carrier has been transformed from a state-run enterprise into a semi-privatised company which ranked 19th most profitable airline in the world in 2007. Aeroflot is still considered the de facto national airline of Russia and it is 51%-owned by the Russian Government. As of September 2013, the Aeroflot Group had 30,328 employees, the company has embarked on a fleet modernisation programme, extensive route restructuring, and an image overhaul. The airline joined SkyTeam in April 2006, becoming the 10th member of the alliance, on 17 January 1921, the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic published About Air Transportation.
The document signed by Lenin set out the regulations on air transport over the territory of the RSFSR. The document was significant as it was the first time that a Russian state had declared sovereignty over its airspace, in addition, the document defined rules for the operation of foreign aircraft over the Soviet Unions airspace and territory. After Lenin issued an order, a State Commission was formed on 31 January 1921 for the purpose of civil aviation planning in the Soviet Union. This was followed by the formation of Deruluft-Deutsch Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. in Berlin on 11 November 1921, as a joint venture between the Soviet Union and Germany. The company, whose aircraft were registered in both Germany and the Soviet Union, began operations on 1 May 1922 with a Fokker F. III flying between Königsberg and Moscow, the service was initially operated twice a week and restricted to the carriage of mail. On 3 February 1923 Sovnarkom approved plans for the expansion of the Red Air Fleet, the artist Alexander Rodchenko became involved in the ODVF at this time.
He designed posters encouraging citizens to buy stock in Dobrolet and the famous Winged Hammer, regular flights by Dobrolet from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod commenced on 15 July 1923. During the same period, an additional two airlines were established, Zakavia being based in Tiflis, and Ukrvozdukhput based in Kharkov, during 1923 an agreement was signed establishing a subdivision of Dobrolet to be based in Tashkent, which would operate to points in Soviet Central Asia. Services between Tashkent and Alma Ata began on 27 April 1924, and by the end of 1924 the subdivision had carried 480 passengers and 500 kilograms of mail and freight, in March 1924, Dobrolet began operating flights from Sevastopol to Yalta and Yevpatoriya in the Crimea. Dobrolets route network was extended during the 1925–1927 period to include Kazan, plans were made for Dobrolet flights to Kharkov to connect with Ukrvozdukhput services to Kiev and Rostov-on-Don. Expansion of air routes which had taken shape in the late 1920s, the agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany relating to Deruluft expired on 1 January 1937 and wasnt renewed, which saw the joint venture carrier ceasing operations on 1 April 1937.
On that date Aeroflot began operations on the Moscow to Stockholm route, under the third Five-Year Plan, which began in 1938, civil aviation development continued, with improvements to airport installations being made and construction of airports being commenced
Pan American World Airways
It was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association, the global airline industry association. Identified by its blue logo, the use of the word Clipper in aircraft names and call signs, and the white pilot uniform caps. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, during most of the jet era, Pan Ams flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. Arnold and Spaatz drew up the prospectus for Pan American when SCADTA hired a company in Delaware to obtain air mail contracts from the U. S. government. Pan American was able to obtain the U. S. mail delivery contract to Cuba and their operation had the all-important landing rights for Havana, having acquired American International Airways, a small airline established in 1926 by John K. Bevier as a service from Key West, Florida, to Havana. ACA met its deadline of having an air service operating by October 19,1927 by chartering a Fairchild FC-2 floatplane from a small Dominican Republic carrier.
The Atlantic and Caribbean Airways company was established on October 11,1927 by New York City investment banker Richard Hoyt and this company merged with PAA and ACA on June 23,1928. Richard Hoyt was named as president of the new Aviation Corporation of the Americas, Trippe became operational head of Pan American Airways, the new companys principal operating subsidiary. The government further helped Pan Am by insulating it from its U. S. competitors, the airline expanded internationally, benefiting from a virtual monopoly on foreign routes. Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Ams network through all of Central, by the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru. Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was renamed as Panair do Brasil, Pan Am partnered with Grace Shipping Company in 1929 to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America. The Aviation Corporation of the Americas changed its name to Pan American Airways Corporation in 1931, during the day, use of the compass while judging drift from sea currents was normal procedure, at night, all flight crews were trained to use celestial navigation.
In bad weather, pilots used dead reckoning and timed turns, making landings at fogged-in harbors by landing out to sea. Many pilots had merchant marine certifications and radio licenses as well as pilot certificates, before World War II it was not unusual for a captain to make engine repairs at remote locations. Pan Ams mechanics and support staff were similarly trained, newly hired applicants were frequently paired with experienced flight mechanics in several areas of the company until they had achieved proficiency in all aircraft types. Many crews supported repair operations by flying in spare parts to planes stranded overseas, Pan Am started its South American routes with Consolidated Commodore and Sikorsky S-38 flying boats. The S-40, larger than the eight-passenger S-38, began flying for Pan Am in 1931, carrying the nicknames American Clipper, Southern Clipper, and Caribbean Clipper, they were the first of the series of 28 Clippers that symbolized Pan Am between 1931 and 1946