Arkansas's 4th congressional district
Arkansas's 4th congressional district is a congressional district located in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of Arkansas. Notable towns in the district include Camden, Hot Springs, Pine Bluff, Texarkana; the district is represented by Republican Bruce Westerman. George W. Bush received 51% of the vote in this district in 2004. John McCain won the district in 2008 with 58.14% of the vote while Barack Obama received 39.33%. The 2018 election will be held on November 6, 2018; as of April 2017, there are four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Arkansas's 4th congressional district that are living; the most recent representative to die was Jay Dickey on April 20, 2017. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Broken Bow, Oklahoma
Broken Bow is a city in McCurtain County, United States. The population was 4,120 at the 2010 census, it is named after Broken Bow, the former hometown of the city's founders, the Dierks brothers. The land that would become Broken Bow was owned by the Choctaw tribe prior to being settled by colonizers. Growing around a lumber company started by two brothers, Broken Bow had a population of 1,983, just a decade after its incorporation in 1911; the city lies within the Little Dixie region of Oklahoma, an area settled by Southerners seeking a new start following the American Civil War. The city was the location of the wounding and capture of murderer Richard Wayne Snell in 1984, following his shootout with local police. Snell had shot and killed two men in Arkansas, a pawn shop owner and Arkansas State Trooper Louis P. Bryant. Broken Bow is located at 34°1′47″N 94°44′16″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which 5.0 square miles is land, 0.04 square miles is water.
The city of Broken Bow stands in a unique transition zone between the Red River basin and the Ouachita Mountains. While the Ouachita Mountains are sandstone ridges that are considered the roughest land in Oklahoma, the Red River basin is considered fertile. North of Broken Bow is Broken Bow Lake, created by the United States Army Corps of Engineers by damming the Mountain Fork River; the lake's creation forced Hochatown to relocate to its present-day location. The Broken Bow Lake has 180 miles of shoreline; the lake is surrounded by pine trees. The city sits at a subrange of the Ouachita Mountains; the Kiamichi Mountains sit within Le Flore, McCurtain counties near the towns of Poteau and Albion. The Kiamichi peaks reach 2,500 feet in elevation; the range is the namesake of Kiamichi Country, the official tourism designation for southeastern Oklahoma. Black bear, bobcat, minks, bald eagles, varieties of woodpeckers, doves and road runners are native to the Kiamichi Mountains region. In recent years, Broken Bow has seen a tremendous economic boom through the development of its timber and tourism industries.
The town is home to a chicken-processing plant owned by Tyson Industries. In addition to being home of Broken Bow Lake, the city is a gateway for tourists visiting Beavers Bend Resort Park, Hochatown State Park, Cedar Creek Golf Course at Beavers Bend. Hunters visit the region, which bills itself as the "deer capital of the world."Broken Bow is home to two museums containing Native American artifacts. The Gardner Mansion and Museum was the historic home of the "Chief of the Choctaws" and was built in 1884; the Indian Memorial Museum houses pre-historic Indian pottery, Quartz crystal and antique glass. The forest industry is by far the area's largest business concern; each year some 60 million cubic feet of lumber are harvested in McCurtain County, great care is taken to ensure the prolonged health of local pine and hardwood forests. The Oklahoma State Department of Agriculture Forestry Division and United States Forest Service have a large presence in the area and are surveying the area forests in order to prevent wildfires.
Weyerhaeuser Company operates a large plant in nearby Idabel, International Paper operates a large mill in Valliant. Additionally, Weyerhaeuser maintains several pine tree plantations throughout McCurtain County. Pan Pacific operates a fiberboard plant on the west side of Broken Bow. Huber Engineered Woods is the latest big player to enter the area, with a large oriented strand board plant on the west side of Broken Bow. Huber plans to employ about 160 people at the site and expects to create another 250 jobs within the local community. While Broken Bow's athletic history is limited to high school football, it is recognized as one of the top high school programs in the state of Oklahoma; the Broken Bow Savages hold four state football championships, ranking third in class AAAA in the state, behind the Clinton Red Tornadoes and the Ada Cougars. In addition to their four state championships, the Savages have numerous state title game appearances, the most recent of which came in 2004 when the Savages lost to Clinton.
The team's last real push for the OSSAA State Championship game was when the 2008 Savage football team lost to the Glenpool Warriors in a nail-biter 12-7 in the state semi-finals. Which ended their season with a record of 12-1. Broken Bow High School integrated in 1964. LeVell Hill and Larry Taylor were the first Black athletes to play for Broken Bow High School, they promptly led Broken Bow to its first appearance in a football state championship game. Broken Bow lost to the Clinton Red Tornadors in 1965. LeVell Hill and Larry Taylor led Broken Bow to Its first State Track Championship in 1966. Larry Taylor entered the United States Marine Corp after graduation, he was killed in Viet Nam in 1968. LeVell Hill accepted a football scholarship to Langston University, he played for the Philadelphia Bell in the World Football League. The Savages own a distinct lead in their all-time series with the Idabel Warriors; the Little River Rumble is played every year between these two schools and is one of the oldest rivalries in the state, dating back nearly an entire century.
For some time, it was believed the Little River Rumble was the oldest continuous-running rivalry game in the state of Oklahoma, until it was discovered the two schools did
Sevier County, Arkansas
Sevier County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,058; the county seat is De Queen. Sevier County is Arkansas's 16th county, formed on October 17, 1828, named for Ambrose Sevier, U. S. Senator from Arkansas, it is dry county. Sevier County was organized on October 1828 under legislative authority, it was formed from Miller Counties. Five days on October 22, 1818, the legislature expanded the county's border, incorporating more land south of the Red River. Hempstead and Crawford Counties as well as the Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory bound Sevier County; the establishment of Sevier County became effective on November 1, 1828. The county seat has undergone several changes; the first county seat was Paraclifta. In 1871, the Lockes donated 120 acres of land; as a result, the county seat was moved to Lockesburg. In 1905, the county seat was again moved to De Queen. Sevier County is known as "The Land of Lakes", "The Land of Fruits and Flowers" and "The Home of Friendly People".
The county has five lakes within five rivers and mountain streams and forests. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 581 square miles, of which 565 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Future Interstate 49 U. S. Highway 59 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 71 U. S. Highway 371 Highway 24 Highway 27 Highway 41 Polk County Howard County Hempstead County Little River County McCurtain County, Oklahoma Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 15,757 people, 5,708 households, 4,223 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 6,434 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.61% White, 4.94% Black or African American, 1.82% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 11.84% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. 19.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.32% reported speaking Spanish at home.
There were 5,708 households out of which 36.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.30% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.00% were non-families. 22.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,144, the median income for a family was $34,560. Males had a median income of $25,709 versus $17,666 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,122. About 14.40% of families and 19.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.90% of those under age 18 and 14.20% of those age 65 or over.
De Queen Horatio Lockesburg Ben Lomond Gillham Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Sevier County are listed below. Source: List of lakes in Sevier County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Sevier County, Arkansas Sevier County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Mena is a city in Polk County, United States. It is the county seat of Polk County; the population was 5,737 as of 2010 census. Mena is included in the Ark-La-Tex socio-economic region. Surrounded by the Ouachita National Forest, Mena is a gateway to some of the most visited tourist attractions in Arkansas. Mena was founded by Arthur Edward Stilwell during the building of the Kansas City and Gulf Railroad, which stretched from Kansas City, Missouri to Port Arthur, Texas. Train service to Mena began in 1896. Stilwell named the town in honor of Folmina Margaretha Janssen-De Goeijen, the wife of his friend and financier Jan De Goeijen, whom Mr. De Goeijen affectionately called Mena. Janssen Park in the center of Mena is named for her. Mena was incorporated on September 18 of that year. In 1897, the Bank of Mena was founded; the following year, the county seat was moved from nearby Dallas to Mena. Mena's population had grown to 3,423 by 1900; the main industries of the area were timber and mineral extraction, though it was advertised as a spa city located within a healthy environment.
Stilwell donated land to the city in 1906, a park and campground were constructed. In 1910, the railroad moved its shop facilities from Mena to Oklahoma; this created a loss of eight hundred jobs. A private school in Mena, Hendrix Academy, closed in 1905. In 1911, a damaging tornado struck the town. A black community called; the community was small, with a population of 152 in 1900. In 1901, a black man, Peter Berryman, was lynched after an alleged altercation with a white girl. No one was arrested for the crime. Several other instances of racially motivated hate and violence towards Mena's black community had been noted. This, combined with declining job prospects after the railway shops left town, led many blacks to leave Mena. By 1910, just 16 remained; the Mena Star advertised the town as being "100% white" in its March 18, 1920 edition, a local chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was organized in 1922. In 1927, the Mena Commercial Club created advertisements which stated that Mena, in addition to having "pure soft water" and "beautiful scenery" had "no Negroes".
Like many other communities in Arkansas, Mena had become a sundown town. In the 2010 census, 0.2% of Mena's population was black. In the 1950s, a government program to stockpile manganese led to the reopening of local mines closed since the 1890s; the program ended in 1959, the mines again closed. During the 1980s, drug smuggler Barry Seal moved his operations to the Mena Intermountain Municipal Airport, where he owned and operated many planes and helicopters, as well as advanced radar equipment. On April 9, 2009, a large and violent tornado devastated the town, killing three and injuring thirty. Many homes and businesses were destroyed; the Arkansas National Guard was deployed to the affected area. The tornado was rated as a high-end EF3, with winds near 165 mph, damages estimated at $25 million; some of the businesses in the community are working to create a Downtown Arts District in Mena, anchored by the Mena Art Gallery at 607 Mena Street. The gallery is a non-profit organization which exhibits about 12 shows a year ranging from invitational to open shows featuring local artists in a variety of media.
There is an annual Children's Exhibit and a High School Exhibit. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.8 square miles, of which 6.7 square miles is land. Mena's climate is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters, with precipitation occurring in all seasons; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". As of the census of 2000, there were 5,637 people, 2,431 households, 1,546 families residing in the city; the population density was 836.4 people per square mile. There were 2,771 housing units at an average density of 411.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.91% White, 0.20% Black or African American, 0.87% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.50% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. About 2.18 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 2,431 households, out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families.
Of all households 33.7% were made up of individuals, 18.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24, the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.1% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 24.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.1 males. For every 100 females, age 18 and over, there were 79.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,671, the median income for a family was $30,164. Males had a median income of $23,665 versus $18,472 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,710. About 12.1% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 16.8% of those age 65 or over. An estimated 1.2 million visitors each year come to Mena to enjoy its nearby natural features, which include the Talimena Scenic Drive, a National Scenic Byway, the Queen Wilhelmina State Park.
The Cossatot River is included in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System and runs through the Ouachita National F
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c