The many-flowered grass-pink, Calopogon multiflorus, is a species of orchid. It is a perennial forb, it falls under the genus Calopogon, meaning "beautiful beard" in Greek, referring to the stamen-like bristles or beard on the lip. Calopogon multiflorus is distributed throughout southeastern United States, it can be found in Florida and Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina. This species has become endangered in North Carolina. Calopogon multiflorus can be found in dry to moist flatwoods with wiregrass, longleaf pine, saw palmetto, its habitat includes mesic pine savannahs on flat or gently-sloping terrain. These longleaf pine savannas were once widespread in southeastern North America, they burned at least once a decade. Large areas of suitable habitat have since been lost from logging and fire suppression; the soil it grows in is sandy to loamy and acidic. Other species that are found growing nearby in the same habitat are blackjack oak, little gallberry/ink berry, slender bluestem, little bluestem, savannah meadow beauty.
Over a wide range, this species does not occur on wet savannahs and bogs with pitcher plants, although one location in Louisiana does have some plants coexisting with pitcher plants. C. Multiflorus requires prescribed annual winter fires for its appearance. In this way it is typical of many of the understory plants in pine savannas, it is known to bloom six to eight weeks after a burn benefiting from the lack of competition with other plants, the nutrients released during a fire. Characteristics of C. multiflorus are a forked corm. After sprouting in early spring, a single leaf, or sometimes two, appear clasping the bloom stem; the number of flowers can range from fifteen to just one flower on a stem. When the flower buds mature, they open in quick succession. Sometimes, it takes only two days for all of the flowers to open, they remain open for a couple days before dropping to the ground. The flowering season for C. multiflorus ranges from March to May. The average flowering season in Louisiana is mid-April.
This species requires full sun to light shade to grow ideally. This species falsely lures bees with the promise of pollen; the beard of the flower is deceptive in that once the insect lands on it, the lip of the beard swings down, hinge-like, placing the insect’s head and back on the column thereby picking up pollinium load, or placing the pollinium on the stigma if the insect carries a load on its back. Although this orchid is known in Florida and other managed areas, it is now rare due to fire suppression and conversion of habitat to pine plantations. One way to protect this species is to burn flatwoods every 2–3 years during the growing season; these flatwoods can be protected from bedding, clearcutting, roller-chopping and other soil and hydrology disturbances
Stone County, Mississippi
Stone County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,786, its county seat is Wiggins. Stone County was formed from the northern portion of Harrison County on June 5, 1916; the county was named for John M. Stone, who served as Governor of Mississippi from 1876 to 1882 and again from 1890 to 1896. In 1918, the Stone County Courthouse was completed at a cost of $29,515.18, is still in use today, after several renovations. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 448 square miles, of which 445 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 49 Mississippi Highway 15 Mississippi Highway 26 Mississippi Highway 29 Perry County George County Jackson County Harrison County Pearl River County Forrest County De Soto National Forest Sweetbay Bogs Preserve As of the census of 2010, there were 17,786 people, 6,165 households, 4,539 families residing in the county; the population density was 39.9 people per square mile.
There were 7,161 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 78.6% White, 19.1% Black or African American, with 2.3% being of other racial categories. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31.5% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male household with no wife present, 26.4% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.13. 24.4% were under the age of 18, 29.4% were under the age of 20, 32.3% from 20 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 11.9% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.9 years. 50.1% of the population was male, 49.9% was female. The median income for a household in the county was $42,862, the median family income was $48,083.
Males had a median income of $42,773 versus $31,000 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,806. About 14.1% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.9% of those under age 18 and 11.5% of those age 65 or over. On April 25, during the 2012 regular session of the Mississippi Legislature, Concurrent Resolution 643 was adopted by the state Senate and state House of Representatives, stating that Stone County be named and declared the Mural County of Mississippi. During the previous 8 years, a Telling Trees Project was developed in Stone County to document and celebrate Stone County's history and heritage; as part of that project, 23 murals, in the form of paintings and mosaic tiles, were created in cooperation with the Art Department, Perkinston campus of Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College and are on public display throughout the county. The murals tell visual stories of Stone County's ecosystems, people and industries. Wiggins National Register of Historic Places listings in Stone County, Mississippi Land Trust for the Mississippi Coastal Plain Sweetbay Bogs Preserve
Natchez Trace Parkway
The Natchez Trace Parkway is a National Parkway in the southeastern United States that commemorates the historic Old Natchez Trace and preserves sections of the original trail. Its central feature is a two-lane parkway road that extends 444 miles from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Access to the parkway is limited, with more than fifty access points in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee; the southern end of the route is in Natchez at an intersection with Liberty Road, the northern end is northeast of Fairview, Tennessee, in the suburban community of Pasquo, Tennessee, at an intersection with Tennessee State Route 100. In addition to Natchez and Nashville, the larger cities along the route include Jackson and Tupelo and Florence, Alabama; the All-American Road is maintained by the National Park Service, to commemorate the original route of the Natchez Trace. The road has been designated an All-American Road. Commercial traffic is prohibited along the entire route, the speed limit is 50 miles per hour, except north of Leiper's Fork and Ridgeland, where the speed limit is reduced to 40 miles per hour.
The total area of the Parkway is 51,746.50 acres, of which 51,680.64 acres are federal, 65.86 acres are non-federal. The Parkway is headquartered in Tupelo and has nine district offices: Leipers Fork, Meriwether Lewis, Tupelo, Kosciusko, Port Gibson, Natchez; the Parkway manages two battlefields: Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site and Tupelo National Battlefield. The gentle sloping and curving alignment of the current route follows the original foot passage, its design harkens back to the way the original interweaving trails aligned as an ancient salt-lick-to-grazing-pasture migratory route of the American bison and other game that moved between grazing the pastures of central and western Mississippi and the salt and other mineral surface deposits of the Cumberland Plateau. The route traverses the tops of the low hills and ridges of the watershed divides from northeast to southwest. Native Americans, following the "traces" of bison and other game, further improved this "walking trail" for foot-borne commerce between major villages located in central Mississippi and middle Tennessee.
The route is locally circuitous. Avoided was the danger to a herd of being caught en-masse at the bottom of a hollow or valley if attacked by predators; the nature of the route, to this day, affords good all-around visibility for those. At all times the road is on the high ground of the ridge dividing the watersheds and provides a view to either see or catch the scent of danger, from a distance great enough to afford the time to flee to safety, if necessary. By the time of European exploration and settlement, the route had become well known and established as the fastest means of communication between the Cumberland Plateau, the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico settlements of Pensacola and New Orleans. In the early post-American Revolutionary War period of America's westward expansion, the Trace was the return route for American flat-boat commerce between the territories of the upper and lower Ohio and Cumberland River valleys; the Americans constructed flat-boats, loaded their commerce therein, drifted upon those rivers, one-way south-southwestward to New Orleans, Louisiana.
They would sell their goods, return home via the Trace, to as far away as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Improved communications and the development of ports along the rivers named above made the route obsolete as a means of passenger and freight commerce; as a result, no major population centers were born or developed along the Trace, because of its alignment, between its termini Nashville and Natchez. The two cities of note, near or on the Trace's alignment, developed only as a result of their alignment along axes of communication different from the Trace, thus the Trace and its alignment are today entirely undeveloped and unspoiled along its whole route. Many sections of the original footpath are visible today for observing and hiking the Parkway's right-of-way. Construction of the Parkway was begun by the federal government in the 1930s; the development of the modern roadway was one of the many projects of the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression. The road was the proposal of U.
S. Congressman T. Jeff Busby of Mississippi, who proposed it as a way to give tribute to the original Natchez Trace. Inspired by the proposal, the Daughters of the American Revolution began planting markers and monuments along the Trace. In 1934, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration ordered a survey. President Roosevelt signed the legislation to create the parkway on May 18, 1938. Construction on the Parkway began in 1939, the route was to be overseen by the National Park Service, its length includes more than 45,000 acres and the towering Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge in Williamson County, completed in 1994 and one of only two post-tensioned, segmental concrete arch bridges in the world. The Emergency Appropriations Act of June 19, 1934, allocated initia
An ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area, smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover large areas of land or water, contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species; the biodiversity of flora and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains constant, within an acceptable range of variation. Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa. Ecoregions reflect the best compromise for as many taxa as possible. Secondly, ecoregion boundaries form abrupt edges. Thirdly, most ecoregions contain habitats. Biogeographic provinces may originate due to various barriers.
Some physical, some climatic and some ocean chemical related. The history of the term is somewhat vague, it had been used in many contexts: forest classifications, biome classifications, biogeographic classifications, etc; the concept of ecoregion of Bailey gives more importance to ecological criteria, while the WWF concept gives more importance to biogeography, that is, distribution of distinct biotas. An ecoregion is a "recurring pattern of ecosystems associated with characteristic combinations of soil and landform that characterise that region". Omernik elaborates on this by defining ecoregions as: "areas within which there is spatial coincidence in characteristics of geographical phenomena associated with differences in the quality and integrity of ecosystems". "Characteristics of geographical phenomena" may include geology, vegetation, hydrology and aquatic fauna, soils, may or may not include the impacts of human activity. There is significant, but not absolute, spatial correlation among these characteristics, making the delineation of ecoregions an imperfect science.
Another complication is that environmental conditions across an ecoregion boundary may change gradually, e.g. the prairie-forest transition in the midwestern United States, making it difficult to identify an exact dividing boundary. Such transition zones are called ecotones. Ecoregions can be categorized using an algorithmic approach or a holistic, "weight-of-evidence" approach where the importance of various factors may vary. An example of the algorithmic approach is Robert Bailey's work for the U. S. Forest Service, which uses a hierarchical classification that first divides land areas into large regions based on climatic factors, subdivides these regions, based first on dominant potential vegetation, by geomorphology and soil characteristics; the weight-of-evidence approach is exemplified by James Omernik's work for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, subsequently adopted for North America by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. The intended purpose of ecoregion delineation may affect the method used.
For example, the WWF ecoregions were developed to aid in biodiversity conservation planning, place a greater emphasis than the Omernik or Bailey systems on floral and faunal differences between regions. The WWF classification defines an ecoregion as: A large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities that: Share a large majority of their species and ecological dynamics. According to WWF, the boundaries of an ecoregion approximate the original extent of the natural communities prior to any major recent disruptions or changes. WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions, 450 freshwater ecoregions across the Earth; the use of the term ecoregion is an outgrowth of a surge of interest in ecosystems and their functioning. In particular, there is awareness of issues relating to spatial scale in the study and management of landscapes, it is recognized that interlinked ecosystems combine to form a whole, "greater than the sum of its parts". There are many attempts to respond to ecosystems in an integrated way to achieve "multi-functional" landscapes, various interest groups from agricultural researchers to conservationists are using the "ecoregion" as a unit of analysis.
The "Global 200" is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF as priorities for conservation. Ecologically based movements like bioregionalism maintain that ecoregions, rather than arbitrarily defined political boundaries, provide a better foundation for the formation and governance of human communities, have proposed ecoregions and watersheds as the basis for bioregional democracy initiatives. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from marine ecoregions. In this context, terrestrial is used to mean "of land", rather than the more general sense "of Earth". WWF ecologists divide the land surface of the Earth into 8 major ecozones containing 867 smaller terrestrial ecoregions; the WWF effort is a synthesis of
Pearl River County, Mississippi
Pearl River County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi known as Hancock County. The population was 55,834 at the 2010 census, its county seat is Poplarville. Pearl River County comprises the Picayune, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the New Orleans-Metairie-Hammond, LA-MS Combined Statistical Area. Pearl River County is a dry county, as such, the sale and private possession of beverage alcohol is prohibited by law, except within The City of Picayune; the City of Poplarville passed a similar exemption referendum on March 25, 2014. On September 2, 2005, the 1st Battalion, 134th Field Artillery arrived at the National Guard armory in Poplarville to assist the community and Pearl River County in recovery efforts in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Initial efforts were the security of banks and gas stations as well as initial responses to rural emergencies; the unit stayed for three weeks checking on many families and structures in the county. Pearl River County was founded in 1890.
On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina inflicted heavy damage on the small town of Poplarville. The storm's most powerful, unofficially recorded gust of wind was reported at Pearl River Community College, at 135 mph. On September 2, 2005, the 1st Battalion, 134th Field Artillery arrived at the National Guard armory in Poplarville to assist the community and Pearl River County in recovery efforts in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Initial efforts were the security of banks and gas stations as well as initial responses to rural emergencies; the unit stayed for three weeks checking on every family and structure in the county. On September 5, 2005, Poplarville played host to a visit by George W. Bush, Laura Bush, Governor Haley Barbour to Pearl River Community College in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 819 square miles, of which 811 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Mississippi by land area.
Interstate 59 U. S. Highway 11 Mississippi Highway 13 Mississippi Highway 26 Mississippi Highway 43 Mississippi Highway 53 Lamar County Forrest County Stone County Hancock County St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana Washington Parish, Louisiana Marion County Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge De Soto National Forest Picayune's local newspaper is the Picayune Item; the local radio station is WRJW 1320-AM. Television and Radio stations of New Orleans and Biloxi/Gulfport listening areas are part of Picayune area; as of the 2010 census Pearl River County had a population of 55,834. The ethnic and racial make-up of the population was 82.2% non-Hispanic white, 12.3% African-American, 0.6% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanic from some other race, 1.7% from two or more races and 2.9% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 48,621 people, 18,078 households, 13,576 families residing in the county; the population density was 60 people per square mile. There were 20,610 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 85.55% White, 12.18% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. 1.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,078 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 12.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 21.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.00% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,912, the median income for a family was $35,924.
Males had a median income of $30,370 versus $21,519 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,160. About 15.50% of families and 18.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.60% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. SupervisorsDistrict 1: Donald Hart District 2: Malcolm Perry District 3: Hudson Holliday District 4: Farron Moeller District 5: Sandy Kane SmithCountywide Elected OfficialsSheriff - David Allison Circuit Clerk - Nance Fitzpatrick Stokes Chancery Clerk - Melinda Smith Bowman Tax Assessor/Collector - Gary Beech County Prosecutor - Aaron Russel, Jr. Coroner - Derek Turnage County Court Judge - Richelle LumpkinState LegislatureSenator Angela Burks-Hill - District 40 Senator Joseph "Mike" Seymour - District 47 Rep. John Corley - District 106 Rep. Stacey Wilkes- District 108 Rep. Timmy Ladner - District 93 Lumberton Picayune Poplarville Hide-A-Way Lake Nicholson Caesar Carriere Crossroads Henleyfield McNeill Ozona Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Pearl River County, Mississippi
George County, Mississippi
George County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,578, its county seat is Lucedale. The county is named for US Senator from Mississippi. George County is included in MS Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 484 square miles, of which 479 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 98 Mississippi Highway 26 Mississippi Highway 57 Mississippi Highway 63 Mississippi Highway 198 Greene County Mobile County, Alabama Jackson County Stone County Perry County De Soto National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,144 people, 6,742 households, 5,305 families residing in the county; the population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 7,513 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.38% White, 8.82% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.84% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races.
1.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,742 households out of which 38.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.00% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.30% were non-families. 19.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.20% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,730, the median income for a family was $39,386. Males had a median income of $33,575 versus $20,542 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,337.
About 13.00% of families and 16.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.80% of those under age 18 and 20.20% of those age 65 or over. The county has gone solidly Republican in the last nine Presidential elections. In past Presidential elections third party candidates sometimes did well here. In 1968 George Wallace won the county with over 90 percent of the vote, the second highest percentage he received in any county. In 1988 the county gave David Duke 4.21%, the highest percentage he received. In that election it gave more support to Lenora Fulani than she received in most of the nation. In 2012, President Obama only received 14% of the vote, Hillary Clinton received ten percent in 2016The county is located in Mississippi's 4th congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+16 and is represented by Republican Steven Palazzo. Lucedale Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in George County, Mississippi George County Courthouse Pictures George County Sheriff's Office