Dead Kennedys are an American punk rock band that formed in San Francisco, California, in 1978. The band was one of the defining hardcore punk bands during its initial eight-year run. Dead Kennedys' lyrics were political in nature, satirizing establishment political figures and authority in general, as well as popular culture and the punk movement itself. During their initial incarnation between 1978 and 1986, they attracted considerable controversy for their provocative lyrics and artwork. Several stores refused provoking debate about censorship in rock music; this culminated in an obscenity trial between 1986, which resulted in a hung jury. The group released a total of four studio albums and one EP before disbanding in 1986. Following the band's dissolution, Biafra continued to collaborate and record with other artists including D. O. A. NoMeansNo and his own bands Lard and the Guantanamo School of Medicine, as well as releasing several spoken word performances. In 2000, Biafra lost an acrimonious legal case initiated by his former Dead Kennedys band mates over songwriting credits and unpaid royalties.
In 2001, the band reformed without Biafra. Dead Kennedys formed in June 1978 in San Francisco, when East Bay Ray advertised for bandmates in the newspaper The Recycler, after seeing a ska-punk show at Mabuhay Gardens in San Francisco; the original band lineup consisted of Jello Biafra on vocals, East Bay Ray on guitar, Klaus Flouride on bass, 6025 on rhythm guitar and Ted on drums and percussion. This lineup recorded their first demos, their first live show was on July 1978 at Mabuhay Gardens in San Francisco, California. They were the opening act on a bill. Dead Kennedys played numerous shows at local venues afterwards. Due to the provocative name of the band, they sometimes played under pseudonyms, including "The DK's", "The Sharks", "The Creamsicles" and "The Pink Twinkies"; the band's real name generated controversy. San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen wrote in November 1978, "Just when you think tastelessness has reached its nadir, along comes a punk rock group called'The Dead Kennedys', which will play at Mabuhay Gardens on Nov. 22, the 15th anniversary of John F. Kennedy's assassination."
Despite mounting protests, the owner of Mabuhay declared, "I can't cancel them NOW—there's a contract. Not the kind of contract some people have in mind." However, despite popular belief, the name was not meant to insult the Kennedy family, but according to Biafra, "to bring attention to the end of the American Dream". 6025 left the band in March 1979 under somewhat unclear circumstances considered to be musical differences. In June, the band released their first single, "California Über Alles", on Biafra and East Bay Ray's independent label, Alternative Tentacles; the band followed with a poorly attended East Coast tour, being a new and unknown band at the time, without a full album release. In early 1980, they recorded and released the single "Holiday in Cambodia". In June, the band recorded their debut album, Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables, released in September of that year on the UK label Cherry Red; the album reached number 33 on the UK Albums Chart. Since its initial release, it has been re-released by several other labels, including IRS, Alternative Tentacles, Cleopatra.
The newest reissue-- the special 25th anniversary edition-- features the original artwork and a bonus 55-minute DVD documenting the making of the album as well as the band's early years. On March 25, 1980, Dead Kennedys were invited to perform at the Bay Area Music Awards in an effort to give the event some "new wave credibility", in the words of the organizers; the day of the performance was spent practicing the song they were asked to play, the underground hit "California Über Alles". The band became the talking point of the ceremony when after about 15 seconds into the song, Biafra stopped the band—in a manner reminiscent of Elvis Costello's Saturday Night Live appearance—and said, "Hold it! We've got ta prove. We're not a punk rock band, we're a new wave band." The band, all wearing white shirts with a big, black S painted on the front, pulled black ties from around the backs of their necks to form a dollar sign started playing a new song titled "Pull My Strings", a barbed, satirical attack on the ethics of the mainstream music industry, which contained the lyrics, "Is my cock big enough, is my brain small enough, for you to make me a star?".
The song referenced The Knack's song "My Sharona". "Pull My Strings" was never recorded for a studio release, though the performance at the Bay Area Music Awards, the only time the song was performed, was released on the band's compilation album Give Me Convenience or Give Me Death. In January 1981, Ted announced that he wanted to leave to pursue a career in architecture and would help look for a replacement, he played his last concert in February 1981. His replacement was D. H. Peligro. Around the same time, East Bay Ray had tried to pressure the rest of the band to sign to the major record label Polydor Records. Polydor decided not to sign the band after they learned that Dead Kennedys' next single was to be entitled "Too Drunk to F
IdeasTap was a UK charitable organisation established to aid people in the creative industry at the start of their careers. The organisation offered a variety of free resources, including showcasing opportunities, funding and advice and membership was free. Despite an outcry from the creative community, the charity closed in 2015 due to a lack of public funding available to support it. IdeasTap supported young people working in creative disciplines including theatre, film and visual art, design, performance art and creative writing, it managed an online arts magazine, IdeasMag, which offered advice for emerging creatives through interviews and features. Members and their projects were promoted through the magazine. In March 2015 it was announced. IdeasTap was established in December 2008 by arts philanthropist Peter De Haan. Founding partners included National Youth Theatre and Polka Theatre; the organisation made its first funding award in April 2009 to young theatre companies going to the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.
A further £50,000 funding was awarded during that year through the Ideas Fund pilot scheme. In October 2011, membership of the site reached 50,000. In July 2013 membership reached 100,000 and it had awarded more than £1.5 million worth of direct funding and accompanying expert mentoring to emerging artists. IdeasTap's partners include the British Film Institute, Bush Theatre, HighTide Festival Theatre, IKON, Lyric Hammersmith, mac birmingham, Magnum Photos, National Theatre, National Youth Theatre, National Student Drama Festival, Royal Exchange Theatre, Sky Arts, Spread the Word and Writers' Centre Norwich. IdeasTap has worked with other organisations including The Barbican, BBC London, BBC Writersroom, Le Cool, The Royal Court Theatre, The Royal Shakespeare Company, Sheffield Doc/Fest and Theatre503. IdeasTap awards its funding and support through creative briefs. Notable brief winners include HighTide Festival Theatre. IdeasTap distributes its core funds through the Ideas Fund scheme, divided into five sections: Ideas Fund Innovators, Ideas Fund Shorts, Ideas Fund Green and the Top Up Fund.
Examples of opportunities offered to IdeasTap members include a workshop with the actor Kevin Spacey. Six emerging creative producers were commissioned to create the Coming Up Festival. In June 2012, IdeasTap launched a scheme trading free office space for creative skills. In May 2011, IdeasTap and Sky Arts launched the first round of the Sky Arts Ignition: Futures Fund. Through this bursary scheme, opera director Daisy Evans and visual artist Phoebe Boswell were each awarded £30,000 towards their creative development. A further three bursaries of £30,000 each were awarded to director Felix Mortimer, animator Drew Roper and performance artist Laurence Payot in May 2012. Official website
In optimization, the line search strategy is one of two basic iterative approaches to find a local minimum x ∗ of an objective function f: R n → R. The other approach is trust region; the line search approach first finds a descent direction along which the objective function f will be reduced and computes a step size that determines how far x should move along that direction. The descent direction can be computed by various methods, such as gradient descent, Newton's method and quasi-Newton method; the step size can be determined either or inexactly. Here is an example gradient method that uses a line search in step 4. Set iteration counter k = 0, make an initial guess x 0 for the minimum Repeat: Compute a descent direction p k Choose α k to'loosely' minimize h = f over α ∈ R + Update x k + 1 = x k + α k p k, k = k + 1 Until ‖ ∇ f ‖ < toleranceAt the line search step the algorithm might either minimize h, by solving h ′ = 0, or loosely, by asking for a sufficient decrease in h. One example of the former is conjugate gradient method.
The latter is called inexact line search and may be performed in a number of ways, such as a backtracking line search or using the Wolfe conditions. Like other optimization methods, line search may be combined with simulated annealing to allow it to jump over some local minima. In this method, the minimum must first be bracketed, so the algorithm must identify points x1 and x2 such that the sought minimum lies between them; the interval is divided by computing f at two internal points, x3 and x4, rejecting whichever of the two outer points is not adjacent to that of x3 and x4 which has the lowest function value. In subsequent steps, only one extra internal point needs to be calculated. Of the various methods of dividing the interval, golden section search is simple and effective, as the interval proportions are preserved regardless of how the search proceeds: 1 φ = x 4 − x 1 = x 2 − x 3 = φ = φ = φ 2 where φ = 1 2 ≈ 1.618 Backtracking line search Secant method Newton's method in optimization Pattern search Nelder–Mead method Golden section search
Anaximander is a lunar impact crater, located near the northwest limb of the Moon. It is joined at the northern rim by a younger and better-defined formation. To the southeast is the much larger J. Herschel, a formation of the variety known as a walled plain; the outer wall of Anaximander is worn and eroded, with multiple notches and breaks. There is no central peak, but the floor contains several small craterlets and a multitude of tiny pits from minor impacts; this crater has merged with the larger Anaximander D to the south, there is a wide break in their common rims where they have joined. To the northwest a low rise in the surface is all that separated Anaximander from the much larger satellite crater Anaximander B; the crater is named for the 6th century BCE Greek philosopher and astronomer Anaximander. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Anaximander. "A Violet Moon". Astronomy Picture of the Day. July 31, 1996.
Retrieved August 22, 2017. - includes several craters such as Anaximander
Benny Lee was a Scottish comedy actor and singer. He started his career in stage roles, he was best known for his television and film career. Lee was born on 11 August 1916 in Scotland, he started his singing career as tenor in the school choir. Leaving school at 14, he became a tailor's apprentice, but soon left to join an all-purpose act, which sang and performed acrobatics all around one of the main variety circuits of Britain. Lee's acrobatic days lasted for only one evening on account of a nose injury, he was back in Glasgow, tailoring shirts and in his spare time playing drums for his own semi-professional dance-band. Wishing to return to the stage full-time he joined the Glasgow Citizens Theatre, where he received a good grounding in straight acting; this led to his first BBC radio audition in 1938. In 1941, Lee was heard singing by Johnny Claes, a trumpeter who had formed a swinging dance-band called the "Claepigeons", he signed him on as a vocalist. Soon Lee was recording with many bands of the day, including that of Sid Phillips.
He was heard on the radio, not only as a band singer. He played the part of Eddie Cantor in a radio version of the film Show Business, his other radio series included Top Music from the Movies. Lee's voice became popular enough for him to be featured as a solo singer and not just a band singer. In 1948 he was supported by the close-harmony group the Keynotes on "Rambling Rose". Next year he duetted with Joy Nichols, the star of Take It From Here, singing "On the 5.45". The Decca company came in with a contract and from 1950 he recorded such hits of the time as "Enjoy Yourself", "Down at the Ferry Boat Inn" with the Stargazers; every type of pop song seemed to suit Lee, he covered Guy Mitchell's no 1, "Pretty Little Black-Eyed Susan", the Hank Williams hillbilly hit, "Your Cheatin' Heart". He enjoyed comedy numbers and sang "Close the Door" with a chorus of young children on a special series made for Christmas 1955 entitled Benny Lee's Children's Party. Television brought Lee a sequence of successes beginning when he was cast as the host of the BBC's first series for teenagers.
Cautiously subtitled "a fortnightly magazine for under 21s", Teleclub on its first outing introduced the pop star Teddy Johnson and radio's "Man In Black" with Valentine Dyall. This was in 1953, the same year that Lee played Mr Pegg the myopic tailor to Terry-Thomas in the fifth series of How Do You View? His short-sighted measuring of the elegant "Master Terry" was a highspot; the following year Lee was cast as Arthur Honeybee in an early situation comedy and Neighbours. Peter Butterworth played George Bird, with their small-screen wives, Avril Angers and Janet Brown, they recorded the programme's signature song, it became a hit, not for Billy Cotton and his band. Lee was one of the supporting comedy cast in the Michael Bentine series It's a Square World with Clive Dunn, Dick Emery, Bruce Lacey, the madcap inventor. Much he portrayed Mr. Klein in the British sitcom, Are You Being Served?. Lee appeared in the films, Keep It Clean, My Wife's Family, The Girl Hunters and Mahler, portraying Tarbottom, Nat Drutman and Uncle Arnold respectively.
Lee's stage appearances included the musical Two Gentlemen from Windy City. Lee died on 9 December 1995 at the age of 79, he left behind two daughters. Keep It Clean My Wife's Family Carry On Sergeant The Girl Hunters A Stitch in Time Mahler Benny Lee on IMDb
"Baby Mama" is a song by American singer Fantasia from her debut studio album, Free Yourself. The song was released on May 2005, as the third single from the album, it was written by Barbara Acklin, Vito Colapietro, Neely Dinkins, Harold Lilly, Eugene Record and produced by Co-Stars and Harold Lilly. The single was a moderate commercial success in the United States, peaking at number sixteen on the U. S Billboard R&B/Hip-Hop and number sixty on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 charts; the song is meaningful to Fantasia because it was written as an anthem to inspire single mothers across the United States to follow their dreams. Fantasia has stated that "Baby Mama" is dedicated to "all of those single moms out there who tough it out to take care of the kids and work two jobs, go to school". Critics have accused the song sending the wrong message about sexual activity and pregnancy to teens; the song takes its title from the slang term baby mama. A parody of the song was made by comedian Rickey Smiley.