Replicas is the second and final studio album by English new wave band Tubeway Army, released in April 1979 by Beggars Banquet Records. It followed their self-titled debut from the previous year. After this, Tubeway Army frontman Gary Numan would continue to release records under his own name, though the musicians in Tubeway Army would continue to work with him for some time. Replicas was the first album of what Numan termed the "machine" phase of his career, preceding The Pleasure Principle and Telekon, a collection linked by common themes of a dystopian science fiction future and transmutation of man/machine, coupled with an androgynous image and a synthetic rock sound. Fuelled by a surprise No. 1 hit single, "Are'Friends' Electric?", the album reached No. 1 in the UK charts in July 1979 and was certified Gold by the BPI for sales in excess of 100,000 copies. A loose concept album, Replicas was based on a dystopian book Numan hoped to complete someday, set in a not-too-distant future metropolis where Machmen and other machines keep the general public cowed on orders from the Grey Men.
While the album's setting and lyrics were directly inspired by the science fiction of Philip K. Dick his seminal work Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the title was not. Although Numan's Machmen were similar to Replicants, the term used for androids in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner, Scott’s film came out three years after Tubeway Army’s album and Dick never used the word "Replicant" in his original 1968 novel; the album cover shows Numan as a Machman staring out from his room at a waning crescent moon hovering above "The Park" as a visible man stands outside while Numan's reflection stares back at himself. Musically, Numan’s main influence was the commercially unsuccessful John Foxx-led incarnation of Ultravox. Tracks like "Speed of Life" and "Breaking Glass" from David Bowie’s Low were cited, along with Kraftwerk’s The Man-Machine album, in particular the long and wistful track "Neon Lights"; the recording was a development of the sound of the first Tubeway Army album. While the tracks "The Machman", "You Are in My Vision" and "It Must Have Been Years" recalled the earlier album’s guitar-oriented rock, the rest were built solidly around an analog synthesizer, the Minimoog.
Along with "Are'Friends' Electric?", this included "Me! I Disconnect from You", the atmospheric "Down in the Park", the multi-layered title track and the closing instrumentals "When the Machines Rock" and "I Nearly Married a Human", the latter featuring Numan's first use of a primitive drum machine. Replicas' synthesizer sound and nihilistic lyrics had a major impact on the industrial acts that came to prominence in the mid-1990s such as Marilyn Manson and Nine Inch Nails, both of whom covered Numan's songs on record. Both Manson and Foo Fighters released versions of "Down in the Park". "Are'Friends' Electric?" was covered by a number of artists, was most notably the basis for Sugababes' No. 1 hit "Freak Like Me" in 2002. Numan has continued to play tracks from Replicas on his live tours, with "Me! I Disconnect from You", "Are'Friends' Electric?" and "Down in the Park" being mainstays, whilst "Praying to the Aliens" and "Replicas" have lately become part of his live repertoire. The 1999 and 2008 reissue editions included several bonus tracks, including three single B-sides: "We Are So Fragile", "Do You Need the Service?" and "I Nearly Married a Human".
"The Crazies", "Only a Downstat" and "We Have a Technical" were outtakes from the Replicas sessions. All songs written by Gary Numan; the lightbulb on the front sleeve artwork was removed for the 1995 reissue to allow for a larger print of the album title. "Me! I Disconnect from You" – 3:23 "Are'Friends' Electric?" – 5:25 "The Machman" – 3:08 "Praying to the Aliens" – 4:00 "Down in the Park" – 4:24 "You Are in My Vision" – 3:15 "Replicas" – 5:01 "It Must Have Been Years" – 4:02 "When the Machines Rock" – 3:15 "I Nearly Married a Human" – 6:31 "Do You Need the Service?" - 3:40 "The Crazies" - 2:54 "Only a Downstat" - 3:36 "We Have a Technical" - 8:04 "We Are So Fragile" - 2:56 "I Nearly Married a Human 2" - 6:38 To coincide with Numan's 15-date Replicas Classic Album Tour in 2008, Beggars Banquet issued an expanded 2CD and limited 3CD version of Replicas, titled Replicas Redux. Disc One "We Are So Fragile" - 2:55 "Do You Need the Service?" - 3:39 "I Nearly Married a Human 2" - 6:38Disc Two This disc contained a complete earlier version of the Replicas album, recorded in late 1978 and January 1979.
"Me! I Disconnect From You" - 3:24 "Are'Friends' Electric?" - 5:25 "The Machman" - 3:08 "Praying to the Aliens" - 4:08 "Down in the Park" - 4:24 "Do You Need the Service?" - 3:42 "Only a Downstat" - 3:35 "We Have a Technical" - 8:00 "You Are in My Vision" - 3:22 "Replicas" - 5:02 "It Must Have Been Years" - 4:04 "When the Machines Rock" - 3:15 "The Crazies" - 2:54 "I Nearly Married a Human 3" - 6:24The early version of "When the Machines Rock" featured vocals by Numan, unlike the instrumental standard album version. Disc Three - Replicas - Mixes + Versions This disc of bonus tracks was only available for a limited time when Replicas Redux was purchased via Numan's official website. "Are'Friends' Electric?" - 5:15 "Replicas" - 5:05 "Down in the Park" - 4:23 "Are'Friends' Electric?" - 5:28 "Replicas" - 5:00 "Are'Friends' Electric?" - 5:14 Gary Numan – keybo
Dark wave is a music genre that emerged from the new wave and post-punk movement of the late 1970s. Dark wave compositions are based on minor key tonality and introspective lyrics, have been perceived as being dark and bleak, with an undertone of sorrow. Common features include the use of chordophones such as electric and acoustic guitar and piano, as well as electronic instruments such as synthesizer and drum machine; the genre embraces a range of styles including cold wave, ethereal wave, gothic rock, neoclassical dark wave, neofolk. In the 1980s, a subculture developed in Europe alongside dark wave music, whose followers were called wavers or dark wavers. In some countries such as Germany, the movement included fans of gothic rock. Since the 1980s, the term has been used in Europe to describe the gloomy and melancholy variant of new wave and post-punk music. At that time, the term "goth" was inseparably connected with gothic rock, whereas "dark wave" acquired a broader meaning, including music artists that were associated with gothic rock and synthesizer-based new wave music, such as Bauhaus, Joy Division, The Cure and the Banshees, The Sisters of Mercy, Anne Clark, Depeche Mode, Gary Numan, The Chameleons.
The term darkwave originated in the 1980s as an indicator of the dark counterpart of new wave. Bands such as Cocteau Twins, Soft Cell, Depeche Mode are exponents of this first generation of darkwave. Darkwave... employs slower tempos, lower pitches, more minor keys in its musical settings of melancholy texts than new wave. The movement spread internationally, developing such strands as ethereal wave, with bands such as Cocteau Twins, neoclassical dark wave, initiated by the music of Dead Can Dance and In the Nursery. French cold wave groups such as Clair Obscur and Opera Multi Steel have been associated with the dark wave scene. Different substyles associated with the new wave and dark wave movements started to merge and influence each other, e.g. synth-wave with gothic rock, or began to borrow elements of post-industrial music. Attrition, Die Form, Pink Industry, Kirlian Camera, Clan of Xymox performed this music in the 1980s. Other bands such as Malaria!, The Vyllies added elements of chanson and cabaret music.
This sort of dark wave music became known as cabaret noir. German dark wave bands were associated with the Neue Deutsche Welle, included Xmal Deutschland, Mask For, Asmodi Bizarr, II. Invasion, Unlimited Systems, Moloko †, Cyan Revue, Leningrad Sandwich, Stimmen der Stille and Pink Turns Blue. After the new wave and post-punk movements faded in the mid-1980s, dark wave was renewed as an underground movement by German bands such as Girls Under Glass, Deine Lakaien, Love Like Blood, Love Is Colder Than Death, Diary of Dreams, The Eternal Afflict, Wolfsheim, as well as Project Pitchfork and its offshoot Aurora Sutra. Ataraxia and The Frozen Autumn from Italy, the French Corpus Delicti evolved from this movement and became the leading artists of the west Romanesque scene. All of these bands followed a path based on the new wave and post-punk music of the 1980s. In the 1990s, a second generation of darkwave bands became popular, including Diary of Dreams, Deine Lakaien, The Frozen Autumn... The German band Deine Lakaien... is audibly influenced by the dark synthesizer sounds of Depeche Mode.
At the same time, a number of German artists, including Das Ich, Goethes Erben, Relatives Menschsein, Endraum, developed a more theatrical style, interspersed with German poetic, metaphorical lyrics, called Neue Deutsche Todeskunst. Other bands, such as Silke Bischoff, In My Rosary and Impressions of Winter combined synthesizers with elements of neofolk and neoclassical dark wave. After 1993, in the United States the term dark wave became associated with the Projekt Records label, because it was adopted by label founder Sam Rosenthal after leafing through the pages of German music magazines such as Zillo, has been used to promote and market artists from German label Hyperium Records in the U. S. e.g. Chandeen and Love Is Colder Than Death. I first became aware of the term "Dark Wave" back in 1992, it appeared in German magazines – such as Zillo – describing a style of European music that followed other "waves" such as New Wave... I found those two words quite interesting; this was something underground, obscure... which swept over you, immersed you, surrounded you.
It was a poetic phrase. At the time, I was looking for a name for my little mail-order company. I wanted something. Projekt features bands such as Lycia, Black Tape for a Blue Girl, Love Spirals Downwards, some of these characterized by atmospheric guitar and synth-sounds and female vocals; this style took cues from 1980s bands like Cocteau Twins and is referred to as ethereal dark wave. Projekt has had a long association with Attrition, who appeared on the label's earliest compilations. Another American record label in this vein was Tess Records, which featured This Ascension and the Muse, the reunited Clan of Xymox. Joshua Gunn, a professor of communication studies at Louisiana University, described the U. S. type of dark wave
Metal Rhythm is the ninth solo studio album by English musician Gary Numan released in September 1988 by I. R. S. Records. Gary Numan's previous three studio albums had been released on Numa Records. However, the disappointing sales of those albums led to Numan closing down the label and signing to I. R. S. Records. Most of the album had, in fact, been recorded before Numan signed with the record label. I. R. S; therefore had little opportunity to make changes to the recorded material, but the label was still able to exert influence on the album's release. Numan wanted to call the album Cold Metal Rhythm after its song of the same name, but I. R. S. Believed that the shortened title sounded less negative and more commercial. Musically, Metal Rhythm represented a move by Numan into a more commercial sound, although it preserved continuity with Numan's previous albums. Metal Rhythm made liberal use of female backing vocals, which Numan had incorporated into his four previous albums; the album's sense of aggression is present lyrically as well as musically.
In the songs "This is Emotion", "New Anger" and "Devious", Numan lashes out at the emotional desolation and manipulative personalities he had encountered throughout his career, "Respect" is rumoured to be about Numan's falling out with Hohokam, a band signed to Numa Records and Numan's support act during the 1984 Berserker tour. Numan himself remarked: Metal Rhythm was released in September 1988 and although its edgy, industrial-funk sound met with favour from fans and some positive reviews in the UK music press, it sold poorly; the album charted at No. 48, while its singles, "New Anger" and "America", charted at No. 49 respectively. Numan recalled: For its American release, against Numan's wishes, the record label changed the album's title to New Anger, changed the artwork colour shade from black to blue, remixed several of its tracks and replaced two tracks with tracks recorded for Numan's 1984 album Berserker. Numan would only release two more albums with I. R. S. – The Skin Mechanic, a live album from the Metal Rhythm tour, the studio album Outland – before quitting the label and reactivating Numa Records.
Numan supported Metal Rhythm with an 18-date UK live tour from which the live album The Skin Mechanic was released in 1989. Culled from two shows at the Dominion Theatre, London in September 1988, The Skin Mechanic charted at UK No. 55, was followed by a 1990 video release of the tour. All tracks written by Gary Numan. All timings are approximate and will vary with different equipment. "This Is Emotion" – 4:05 "Hunger" – 4:30 "New Anger" – 3:22 "Devious" – 4:19 "America" – 3:32 "Voix" – 5:00 "Respect" – 4:10 "Young Heart" – 5:04 "Cold Metal Rhythm" – 4:28 "Don't Call My Name" – 3:42 "This Is Emotion" – 4:05 "Hunger" – 4:30 "New Anger" – 3:22 "Devious" – 4:19 "America" – 3:32 "Voix" – 5:00 "Respect" – 4:10 "Young Heart" – 5:04 "Cold Metal Rhythm" – 4:28 "Don't Call My Name" – 3:42 "I Don't Believe" – 3:22 "Children" – 3:10 "My Dying Machine" – 6:33 "Devious" – 3:37 "America" – 2:50 "Devious" – 3:37 "America" – 3:32 "Cold Metal Rhythm" – 4:28 "This Is Emotion" – 4:05 "Don't Call My Name" – 3:42 "Voix" – 5:00 "Respect" – 4:10 "New Anger" – 3:22 "My Dying Machine" – 6:33 "A Child with the Ghost" – 4:04"A Child with the Ghost" was released on Gary Numan's 1984 Berserker album, as was the original version of "My Dying Machine" "America" was released as a single on both vinyl and CD.
The CD version contains three bonus live tracks – "Respect" and "New Anger" being recorded on the Metal Rhythm tour at the Dominion Theatre, London on 28 September 1988 and "Call Out the Dogs" recorded on the Exhibition tour at the Hammersmith Odeon in London on 25 September 1987. Adapted from the Metal Rhythm liner notes. Gary Numan – vocals.
Savage (Songs from a Broken World)
Savage is the eighteenth solo studio album by English musician Gary Numan, released on 15 September 2017 by BMG and The End. The album was first announced to be a part of a fan-backed Pledge Music Campaign on 12 November 2015. On 9 November 2018, a followup EP titled; the EP features similar artwork to Savage, it was intended to complement the album. Savage is a concept album centred around the blending of Western and Eastern cultures in a post-apocalyptic world that has become desertified as a result of global warming. "The songs are about the things that people do in such a harsh and terrifying environment," Numan stated in an interview. "It's about a desperate need to survive and they do awful things in order to do so, some are haunted by what they've done. That desire to be forgiven, along with some discovered remnants of an old religious book encourages religion to resurface, it goes downhill from there." Per Numan's website. Standard CD Deluxe hardback book CD featuring the bonus track "If I Said" Double LP featuring two bonus tracks "If I Said" and "Cold" Exclusive vinyl picture disc, limited to only 500 copies and features two bonus tracks "If I Said" and "Cold" Cassette featuring the same tracks as the standard CD.
In order of appearance, working demo song titles included: "Song 1" "Dome" "Kontakt 7" "Nameless" "March" "I Heard a Voice" "Save Me" "Where Will You Be""When the world comes apart" is a line from the 1994 Sacrifice song "Magic", "Mercy" was an early demo title during the 2006 Jagged sessions, which would become "We Are the Lost" from Dead Son Rising. A'pre-Ade Fenton' mp3 of "Bed of Thorns" was made available to download on 3 September 2016; this demo version appears on the soundtrack to the 2017 film Ghost in the Shell. To quote Numan: "I have a new song'Bed of Thorns' on the released Ghost in the Shell album. To be exact it's my early demo version of the song; the version that will come out on my Savage album in a few months is different." "Bed of Thorns" debuted live on 2 October 2016. On 13 May 2016, Numan added a video and the following text to Facebook regarding the ballad "If I Said", wherein his daughters and Echo, sing the song in unison: Please forgive the proud Dad in me but this is a clip of Persia and Echo singing the "If I Said" piano demo.
I'd just finished the lyric and they had just that minute come home from school. They didn't know the tune at all so it's a little wayward in places, they are both dyslexic, so them reading it at all was enough to make me watery-eyed, but having your own children sing one of your new songs is about as special as it gets. Following the album's release, it was revealed that, in spite of it being predominantly recorded with electronic instruments, it had been excluded from Billboard's dance/electronic music chart, with an executive from Billboard advising BMG that “Sonically, the Numan album just does not fit in" with Billboard's perception of electronic dance music; the Billboard dance/electronic chart's number one position for September 15 was held by Calvin Harris, whose album, Funk Wav Bounces Vol. 1, sold 600 fewer copies than Savage. Savage garnered positive reviews; the album received an average score of 74/100 from 11 reviews on Metacritic, indicating "generally favourable reviews". AllMusic's James Christopher Monger said that Numan "can still juggle melodrama and musicality with such effortlessness is impressive, to say the least, but that he can make it so compelling is what sets him apart from his old guard new wave contemporaries."
David Simpson of The Guardian had a mixed impression, saying that despite Numan sounding tired and like a faded star, his music still has a beating heart. The Quietus' Josh Gray criticised Savage's cover art and presentation as culturally and aesthetically offensive and in "poor taste," but he praised the album's songs and themes. Chris Ingalls of PopMatters called the album "a compelling cautionary tale of what may happen if we’re too complacent to give a damn about future generations. It’s a stunningly sharp and diverse collection of songs from a living legend." All tracks written by Gary Numan, except "What God Intended" written by Gary Numan/Ade Fenton. Gary Numan – vocals, keyboards Ade Fenton – keyboards, mixing, production Steve Harris – guitars Tim Slade – bass Persia Numan – backing vocals Nathan Boddy – mixing Paul Carr – mixing assistant Matt Colton – mastering
Exile (Gary Numan album)
Exile is the thirteenth solo studio album by English musician Gary Numan, released in October 1997 by Eagle Records. Its release continued a critical upswing in Numan's career which began three years earlier with the release of Sacrifice; the album followed a loose concept namely that, rather than being opposites and the Devil were two sides of the same coin. Each track reflected some aspect of this premise. Unlike Sacrifice, Numan’s theme in Exile was not so much atheistic as heretical. Shortly after the album's release, Numan explained: "Personally, I don't believe in God at all, but if I'm wrong and there is a God, what kind of god would it be who would give us the world we live in?"The opening number and single, "Dominion Day", set the album’s gothic/industrial rock tone, describing how a man's nightmare becomes reality as Christ returns to Earth in scenes suggestive of the Book of Revelation. The tale was set against a wall of drum loops and distorted guitars. "Dark", which further explored what the composer saw as an incestuous relationship between God and the Devil, became a favourite for movie trailers before being used on the soundtrack of Alex Proyas’ film Dark City.
"Dead Heaven" turned various biblical conceits on their head while "Absolution", a re-recording of a 1995 single, was a bitter reflection on the consequences of unquestioning faith. Though not a big chart success Exile scored universally positive reviews, a contrast to the situation in Numan’s early years when he had many hits but was condemned by critics; however it further alienated some fans, put off by Sacrifice’s anti-religious undertones. The website www.remindmetosmile.com changed from a tribute page to one critical of Numan for being "so bold that he feels he can mock God and feel good about it". Numan’s response was: "This sort of reaction always amazes me. Here you have people that genuinely believe that God created this entire bloody universe in just six days, without anybody's help, yet they seem to think that He needs their help to deal with little me. If God was bothered about me, He would deal with me"; the US edition of Exile included one extra track, a live recording of "Down in the Park" released on the double album Ghost.
An extended version of Exile, nearly twice as long as the original, was released in 1998. Numan toured the UK and US in support of the album to sell-out crowds, a concert recording from this period called Live at Shepherd’s Bush Empire being released in 2004. Gary Numan – vocals, keyboards, engineer, mixing Mike Smith – keyboards Rob Harris – guitar Simon Shazell – mastering John Burns – re-mastering Gemma Webb – assistant engineer, artwork Chris Poel – artwork Cürt Evans – design NuFederation – design Joseph Cultice – photography Perou – photography Paul Goodwin. Electric Pioneer: An Armchair Guide To Gary Numan
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Ambient music is a genre of music that emphasizes tone and atmosphere over traditional musical structure or rhythm. A form of slow instrumental music, it uses repetitive, but gentle, soothing sound patterns that can be described as sonic wallpaper to complement or alter one’s space and to generate a sense of calmness; the genre is said to evoke an "unobtrusive" quality. Ambient music focuses on creating a mood or atmosphere through synthesizers and timbral qualities lacking the presence of any net composition, beat, or structured melody, it uses textural layers of sound without prevalent musical tropes, rewarding both passive and active listening. Nature soundscapes are included, the sounds of acoustic instruments such as the piano and flute, among others, may be emulated through a synthesizer. According to Brian Eno, one of its pioneers, "Ambient music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular. Eno popularized ambient music in 1978 with his album Ambient 1: Music for Airports.
It saw a revival towards the late 1980s with the prominence of house and techno music, growing a cult following by the 1990s. Ambient music may have elements of new-age music and drone music, as some works may use sustained or repeated notes. Ambient music did not achieve large commercial success, being criticized as having a "boring" and "over-intellectual" sound, it has attained a certain degree of acclaim throughout the years in the Internet age. Due to its open style, ambient music takes influences from many other genres, ranging from classical, avant-garde music, folk and world music, among several others; as an early 20th-century French composer, Erik Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations to create an early form of ambient/background music that he labeled "furniture music". This he described as being the sort of music that could be played during a dinner to create a background atmosphere for that activity, rather than serving as the focus of attention. In his own words, Satie sought to create "a music...which will be part of the noises of the environment, will take them into consideration.
I think of it as melodious, softening the noises of the knives and forks at dinner, not dominating them, not imposing itself. It would fill up those heavy silences, it would spare them the trouble of paying attention to their own banal remarks. And at the same time it would neutralize the street noises which so indiscreetly enter into the play of conversation. To make such music would be to respond to a need." In the 1960s, many music groups experimented with unusual methods, with some of them creating what would be called ambient music. In 1969, the group Coum Transmissions were performing sonic experiments in British art schools. Many pieces of ambient music were released in England and the United States of America between the late 1960s and the 1990s; some 1960s music with ambient elements include Music for Zen Meditation by Tony Scott, Soothing Sounds for Baby by Raymond Scott, Music for Yoga Meditation and Other Joys by Tony Scott. Developing in the 1970s, ambient stemmed from the experimental and synthesizer-oriented styles of the period.
Although Jamaican dub musicians such as King Tubby, Japanese electronic music composers such as Isao Tomita, as well as the psychoacoustic soundscapes of Irv Teibel's Environments series, German bands such as Popol Vuh, Ash Ra Tempel and Tangerine Dream, predate him in the creation of ambient music and/or were contemporaneous with him, Brian Eno played a key role in its development and popularization. The concept of background or furniture music had existed some time before, but only in the 70s was ambient music first created, which incorporated New Age ideals with the newly invented modular synthesizer. Eno went on to record 1975's Discreet Music with this in mind, suggesting that it be listened to at "comparatively low levels to the extent that it falls below the threshold of audibility", referring to Satie's quote about his musique d'ameublement; the impact the rise of the synthesizer in modern music had on ambient as a genre cannot be overstated. The only limit is with the composer"; the Yellow Magic Orchestra developed a distinct style of ambient electronic music that would be developed into ambient house music.
The English producer Brian Eno is credited with coining the term "ambient music" in the mid-1970s. He said that "I just gave it a name. Which is what it needed... By naming something you create a difference. You say. Names are important." He used the term to describe music that can be "actively listened to with attention or as ignored, depending on the choice of the listener", which exists on the "cusp between melody and texture". In the liner notes for his 1978 album Ambient 1: Music for Airports, Eno wrote:Whereas the extant canned music companies proceed from the basis of regularizing environments by blanketing their acoustic and atmospheric idiosyncrasies, Ambient Music is intended to enhance these. Whereas conventional background music is produced by stripping away all sense of doubt and uncertainty from the music, Ambient Music retain