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Death Valley

Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California, in the northern Mojave Desert bordering the Great Basin Desert. It is one of the hottest places in the world along with deserts in the Middle East. Death Valley's Badwater Basin is the point of the lowest elevation in North America, at 282 feet below sea level; this point is 84.6 miles east-southeast of Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous United States, with an elevation of 14,505 feet. On the afternoon of July 10, 1913, the United States Weather Bureau recorded a high temperature of 134 °F at Furnace Creek in Death Valley; this temperature stands as the highest ambient air temperature recorded at the surface of the Earth. Located near the border of California and Nevada, in the Great Basin, east of the Sierra Nevada mountains, Death Valley constitutes much of Death Valley National Park and is the principal feature of the Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve, it is located in Inyo County, California. It runs from north to south between the Amargosa Range on the east and the Panamint Range on the west.

It has an area of about 3,000 sq mi. The highest point in Death Valley itself is Telescope Peak in the Panamint Range, which has an elevation of 11,043 feet. Death Valley is a downdropped block of land between two mountain ranges, it lies at the southern end of a geological trough known as Walker Lane. The valley is bisected by a right lateral strike slip fault system, represented by the Death Valley Fault and the Furnace Creek Fault; the eastern end of the left lateral Garlock Fault intersects the Death Valley Fault. Furnace Creek and the Amargosa River flow through the valley but disappear into the sands of the valley floor. Death Valley contains salt pans. According to current geological consensus, at various times during the middle of the Pleistocene era, which ended 10,000–12,000 years ago, an inland lake referred to as Lake Manly formed in Death Valley. Lake Manly was nearly 100 miles long and 600 feet deep, the end-basin in a chain of lakes that began with Mono Lake in the north and continued through multiple basins down the Owens River Valley through Searles and China Lakes and the Panamint Valley to the immediate west.

As the area turned to desert, the water evaporated, leaving the abundance of evaporitic salts such as common sodium salts and borax, which were exploited during the modern history of the region 1883 to 1907. Death Valley has a subtropical, hot desert climate, with long hot summers and short, mild winters, as well as little rainfall. Death Valley is dry because it sits in the rain shadow of four major mountain ranges. Moisture moving inland from the Pacific Ocean must pass eastward over multiple mountains to reach Death Valley; when the air masses reach Death Valley, most of the moisture has been "squeezed out" and there is little left to fall as precipitation. The extreme heat of Death Valley is attributable to a confluence of geographic and topographic factors. Scientists have identified a number of key contributors to Death Valley's famously hot conditions: Solar heating: The valley's surface undergoes intense solar heating due to clear, dry air and dark, sparsely vegetated land; this is noticeable in summer when the sun is directly overhead.

Air sinking and warming: Any air mass that sinks into lower elevations gets compressed and warmed—due to the higher atmospheric pressure found at lower elevations. This is an example of adiabatic warming. Trapping of warm air: Warm air rises and cools, but in Death Valley this air is subject to continual reheating as it is trapped by high, steep valley walls and recycled back to the valley floor. Another factor that traps warm air is the valley's north-south orientation, which runs perpendicular to prevailing west-to-east winds. Migration of warm air from other areas: Warm desert regions surrounding Death Valley to the south and east heat air before it arrives in Death Valley. Warm mountain winds: As winds are forced up and over mountains, the winds can become progressively warmer due to several factors; the resulting dry, warm winds are known as foehn winds. Their warmth can in part be caused by the release of latent heat, which occurs when water vapor condenses into clouds. Severe heat and dryness contribute to perpetual drought-like conditions in Death Valley and prevent much cloud formation from passing through the confines of the valley, where precipitation is in the form of a virga.

The depth and shape of Death Valley influence its climate. The valley is a long, narrow basin that reaches down to below sea level, yet is walled by high, steep mountain ranges; the clear, dry air and sparse plant cover allow sunlight to heat the desert surface. Summer nights provide little relief. Moving masses of super-heated air blow through the valley creating high temperatures; the hottest air temperature recorded in Death Valley was 134 °F on July 10, 1913, at Greenland Ranch, the highest atmospheric temperature recorded on earth. A report of a temperature of 58 °C recorded in Libya in 1922 was la

Lenin Peak

Lenin Peak, or Ibn Sina Peak, rises to 7,134 metres in Gorno-Badakhshan on the border of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, is the second-highest point of both countries. It is considered one of the less technical 7000 m peaks in the world to climb and it has by far the most ascents of any 7000 m or higher peak on Earth, with every year seeing hundreds of mountaineers make their way to the summit. Lenin Peak is the highest mountain in the Trans-Alay Range of Central Asia, in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan it is exceeded only by Ismoil Somoni Peak, it was thought to be the highest point in the Pamirs in Tajikistan until 1933, when Ismoil Somoni Peak was climbed and found to be more than 300 metres higher. Two mountains in the Pamirs in China, Kongur Tagh and Muztagh Ata, are higher than the Tajik summits; the peak was discovered in 1871 and named Mount Kaufmann after Konstantin Kaufman, the first Governor-General of Turkestan. In 1928, the mountain was renamed Lenin Peak after the Russian revolutionary and first leader of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Lenin.

In Tajikistan, the peak was renamed again in July 2006, today it is called in Tajik Qullai Abuali ibni Sino after Abu Ali ibn Sina. In Kyrgyzstan, the peak is still called Lenin Chokusu. However, in October 2017, Kyrgyz president Almazbek Atambayev called for renaming the peak "Manas Peak", after the hero of the Epic of Manas. A peak named "Manas Peak" exists in Kyrgyzstan. Local Kyrgyz names include Achyk-Tash. Achik-Tash, is the name of a plateau and a base camp at an elevation of 3,600 m on a popular northern climbing route to Lenin Peak, which starts in the southern Kyrgyz city of Osh, a day's drive north of the border. Another suggested local name, Pik Kaman belongs to an unnamed peak west of Lenin Peak. Initial exploration of this part of Central Asia occurred in the period 1774–82. Arguably the first recorded travel through the region is the involuntary journey of the slave Filipp Efremov, who escaped from slavery in Bukhara, he crossed the Fergana valley via Osh, the Chigirik Pass and Terekdavan Pass he reached the Kashgar and came over the Karakorum.

He was the first European. Scientific expeditions to the Alai Mountains began in 1871, when Alexei Pavlovich Fedchenko discovered the Trans-Alai Range and its main peak; the first geographical expedition which came nearest to the base of the future Lenin Peak in the early 20th century was arguably the expedition of Nikolai Leopol'dovich Korzhenevskiy. In September 1928, three mountaineers -the Germans Eugen Allwein and Karl Wien, the Austrian Erwin Schneider- from a Soviet-German scientific expedition, made the first attempt to reach the highest point of the Trans-Alai Range, which at that time had the name Kaufman Peak, they started climbing upstream of the Saukdara river along the South slope of Trans-Alai Range Trans-Alay Range. From the river head they continued climbing along the Greater Saukdara Glacier towards a saddle at an elevation of 5820 m. On September 25, 1928 they started climbing from the saddle along the NE Ridge and at 15.30 they reached the summit. At the time, Kaufman Peak was the highest summit reached by men.

The title Lenin Peak was first applied to the highest point of the Trans-Alai Range in the same year. When it was renamed after Lenin it was believed to be the highest point in the USSR. On September 8, 1934, at 16:20 Kasian Chernuha, Vitaly Abalakov and Ivan Lukin, three members of a Soviet expedition, reached the summit at an elevation of 7,134 metres, their attempt lasted for four days with three camps. The expedition started climbing from the Achik-Tash canyon in the Alai valley; the summit attempt. They continued climbing along the North Face, passing the rocks that were given the name Lipkin's Rocks. At the end of the second day they reached the crest of the NE ridge at an elevation of about 6500 m. During the following day and a half they climbed along the NE Ridge and, utterly exhausted, reached the summit; the third ascent was three years in 1937, when eight Soviet climbers under the direction of Lev Barkhash reached the summit by the same route. This was at the beginning of mass political repressions in the Soviet Union and many of the most prominent Soviet climbers, including Lev Barkhash, were brought to trial.

Subsequent attempts to climb Lenin Peak could not begin until 1950, when the USSR began to recover from the Second World War. On August 14, 1950, twelve climbers under the direction of Vladimir Racek reached the summit for the fourth time. All three Soviet expeditions including Racec's expedition of 1950 were by the same route via the NE Ridge; the route which now is known as the classic route, via the Razdelnaya Peak and NW Ridge, was first climbed in 1954 by the team of Soviet climbers under the direction of V. Kovalev. In 1960, a group of eight Sov

Polish School of Posters

Beginning in the 1950s and through the 1980s, the Polish School of Posters combined the aesthetics of painting with the succinctness and simple metaphor of the poster. It developed characteristics such as painterly gesture, linear quality, vibrant colors, as well as a sense of individual personality and fantasy, it was in this way that the Polish poster was able to make the distinction between designer and artist less apparent. Posters of the Polish Poster School influenced the international development of graphic design in poster art, their major contribution is in their use of the power of suggestion through clever allusions. Using strong and vivid colors from folk art, they combine printed slogans hand-lettered, with popular symbols, to create a concise inventive metaphor; as a hybrid of words and images, these posters created a certain aesthetic tension. In addition to aesthetic aspects, these posters were able to reveal the artist's emotional involvement with the subject, they did not exist as an objective presentation, rather they were the artist's interpretation and commentary on the subject and on society.

Roman Cieślewicz Wojciech Fangor Mieczyslaw Gorowski Tadeusz Jodlowski Jan Lenica Bogusław Lustyk Jan Młodożeniec Józef Mroszczak Franciszek Starowieyski Waldemar Świerzy Henryk Tomaszewski Maciej Urbaniec Mieczyslaw Wasilewski Jan Sawka The largest and most complete private collection of Polish posters, dating from 1909 to the modern era, is the Rosenberg Poster Collection. The posters show a unique story of creativity under oppression; the courageous artists brought color and beauty to the streets as the war-torn cities were re-built and posters were displayed in street kiosks, on building walls and fences. The largest state-owned collection of Polish posters is the Poster Museum at Wilanów, it is the world's oldest poster museum, founded in 1968, housed at the Wilanów Palace complex in Warsaw. Praca Zbiorowa: Encyklopedia sztuki polskiej, hasło "plakat". Kraków: Wydawnictwo Ryszard Kluszczyński, 2002, s. 500–501. ISBN 8388080563. Praca Zbiorowa: Polska Szkoła Plakatu w latach 1956–1965. Warszawa: Muzeum Plakatu w Wilanowie, Oddz.

Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie, 1988. Elizabeth E. Guffey: Posters: A Global History. Reaktion Books, 2014. ISBN 9781780234113. Joseph Czestochowski: Contemporary Polish Posters in Full Color, Dover Publications Jacek Mrowczyk: VeryGraphic. Polish Designets of the 20th Century, Culture PL Kempa, Polnische Kulturplakate im Sozialismus. Eine kunstsoziologische Untersuchung zur Deutung des Werkes von Jan Lenica und Franciszek Starowieyski, Wiesbaden: Springer, ISBN 978-3658188542 The Origins of the Polish School of Posters 6 Legends of the Polish Poster School http://culture.pl/en/article/18-most-important-polish-graphic-designers-of-the-20th-century