South Lake Tahoe, California
South Lake Tahoe is the most populous city in El Dorado County, United States, in the Sierra Nevada. As its name suggests, the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Tahoe; the city's population was 21,403 at the 2010 census, down from 23,609 at the 2000 census. The city extends about 5 miles west-southwest along U. S. Route 50 known as Lake Tahoe Boulevard; the east end of the city, on the California–Nevada state line right next to the town of Stateline, Nevada, is geared towards tourism, with T-shirt shops, restaurants and Heavenly Mountain Resort with the Nevada casinos just across the state line in Stateline. The western end of town is residential, clusters around "The Y", the X-shaped intersection of US 50, State Route 89, the continuation of Lake Tahoe Boulevard after it loses its federal highway designation. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.6 square miles, of which 10.2 square miles is land and 6.4 square miles, or 38.80%, is water. Its elevation is about 6,237 feet above sea level.
The 2010 United States Census reported that South Lake Tahoe had a population of 21,403. The population density was 1,289.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of South Lake Tahoe was 15,733 White, 182 African American, 232 Native American, 1,186 Asian, 39 Pacific Islander, 3,230 from other races, 801 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,665 persons; the Census reported that 21,034 people lived in households, 181 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 188 were institutionalized. There were 8,918 households, out of which 2,421 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,100 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 983 had a female householder with no husband present, 594 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 857 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 67 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,918 households were made up of individuals and 652 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36.
There were 4,677 families. The population was spread out with 4,400 people under the age of 18, 2,478 people aged 18 to 24, 6,416 people aged 25 to 44, 6,013 people aged 45 to 64, 2,096 people who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 35.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.7 males. There were 15,087 housing units at an average density of 908.7 per square mile, of which 8,918 were occupied, of which 3,473 were owner-occupied, 5,445 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.5%. 7,684 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 13,350 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,403 people, 9,410 households, 5,391 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,347.5 people per square mile. There were 14,005 housing units at an average density of 1,392.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.73% White, 0.75% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 6.01% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 12.48% from other races, 3.90% from two or more races.
26.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,410 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.3% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.7% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,707, the median income for a family was $40,572. Males had a median income of $26,352 versus $22,280 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,452. About 9.1% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those aged 65 or over.
South Lake Tahoe and the surrounding unincorporated communities are serviced by Lake Tahoe Unified School District, composed of four elementary schools a middle school and a high school. Due to budget cuts, Al Tahoe Elementary School and Meyers Elementary School closed in 2004. South Lake Tahoe houses a community college, Lake Tahoe Community College; the city council of South Lake Tahoe is composed of five elected members: three council members, a Mayor, a Mayor Pro Tem. The Mayor is elected by the City Council. In the state legislature, South Lake Tahoe is in the 1st Senate District, seat vacant, the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. Federally, South Lake Tahoe is in California's 4th congr
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Inyo County, California
Inyo County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,546; the county seat is Independence. Inyo County is on the east side of the Sierra Nevada and southeast of Yosemite National Park in Central California, it contains the Owens River Valley. With an area of 10,192 square miles, Inyo County is the second-largest county by area in California, after San Bernardino County. One-half of that area is within Death Valley National Park. However, with a population density of 1.8 people per square mile, it has the second-lowest population density in California, after Alpine County. Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the contiguous United States, is on Inyo County's western border; the Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park, the lowest place in North America, is in eastern Inyo County. The difference between the two points is about 14,700 feet, they are not visible from each other, but both can be observed from the Panamint Range on the west side of Death Valley, above the Panamint Valley.
Thus, Inyo County has the greatest elevation difference among all of the counties and county-equivalents in the contiguous United States. Present day Inyo county has been the historic homeland for thousands of years of the Mono tribe, Coso people and Kawaiisu Native Americans, they spoke the Mono language with Mono traditional narratives. The descendants of these ancestors continue to live in their traditional homelands in the Owens River Valley and in Death Valley National Park. Inyo County was formed in 1866 out of the territory of the unorganized Coso County, created on April 4, 1864 from parts of Mono and Tulare Counties, it acquired more territory from Mono County in 1870 and Kern County and San Bernardino County in 1872. For many years it has been believed that the county derived its name from the Mono tribe of Native Americans name for the mountains in its former homeland; the name came to be thought of, mistakenly, as the name of the mountains to the east of the Owens Valley when the first whites there asked the local Paiutes what the name of the mountains to the east was.
The local Paiutes responded that, the land of Inyo. They meant by this that those lands belonged to the Shoshone tribe headed by a man whose name was Inyo. Inyo was the name of the headman of the Panamint band of Paiute-Shoshone people at the time of contact when the first whites, the Manly expedition of 1849, lost, into Death Valley on their expedition to the gold fields of western California; the Owens Valley whites misunderstood the local Paiute and thought that Inyo was the name of the mountains when it was the name of the chief, or headman, of the tribe that had those mountains as part of their homeland. "Indian George", a fixture of many of the stories of early Death Valley days, was Inyo's son. Indian George's Shoshone name was "Bah-Vanda-Sa-Va-Nu-Kee", which means "The Boy Who Ran Away", a name he was given when he became terrified of the whites and their wheeled wagons and huge buffalo, none of which the Shoshone had seen before when they came wandering down Furnace Creek Wash in December 1849.
In 1940, when Bah-vanda was around 100 years old, JC Boyles, a Panamint Shoshone who had become educated, came back to the Panamint Valley and interviewed Bah-Vanda at length about the early days of his life, including the events of 1849, it is in this interview that Bah-vanda refers to his father, Inyo. In order to provide water needs for the growing City of Los Angeles, water was diverted from the Owens River into the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913; the Owens River Valley cultures and environments changed substantially. From the 1910s to 1930s the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power purchased much of the valley for water rights and control. In 1941 the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power extended the Los Angeles Aqueduct system further upriver into the Mono Basin. Inyo County is host to a number of natural superlatives. Among them are: Mount Whitney, with an elevation of 14,505 feet, is the highest point in the contiguous United States, the 12th highest peak in the U. S. and the 24th highest peak in North America.
Badwater Basin, in Death Valley, the lowest point in North America Methuselah, an ancient Bristlecone pine tree and one of the oldest living trees on Earth Owens Valley, the deepest valley on the American continents Two mountain ranges exceeding 14,000 feet in elevation: The Sierra Nevada and the White Mountains Thirteen of California's fifteen peaks which exceed 14,000 feet in elevation. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,227 square miles, of which 10,181 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by the ninth-largest in the United States. Death Valley National Park Inyo National Forest Manzanar National Historic SiteThere are 22 official wilderness areas in Inyo County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the second-largest number of any county, exceeded only by San Bernardino County's 35 wilderness areas. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land
Victorville is a city located in the Victor Valley of southwestern San Bernardino County, California. Its estimated population as of July 1, 2013 was 121,096. In 1858, Aaron G. Lane came to what is now known as Victorville and founded a way station called "Lane's Crossing." For many years it provided shelter and supplies for people making the journey across the desert from the east to San Bernardino. Lane's Crossing was on the Mojave River on today's Turner Road, two miles north from where Interstate 15 crosses the river. Captain Lane was a veteran of the Mexican–American War who had suffered from malaria during that war, he migrated west to join the California gold rush, but he learned that he could make a better living selling supplies to the miners. He settled in Ione, near Sutter's Mill in northern California, during those years, but he migrated to San Bernardino in 1857, he settled on the Mojave River in 1858. He sold out to Texan John Fry Miller, who changed the name of Lane's Crossing to Pioneer Station.
Miller was a rancher and became involved in Mojave Valley politics, setting up the first polling place in the area at his home. That first year, ten citizens cast their votes at Lane's residence, rather than making the long trip to San Bernardino. Census records show that ten people lived in two residences on the river by 1860. Listed in Dwelling No. 703 were Aaron Lane, William R. Levick, the Nicholson family, consisting of George and Frances, their three children aged 9 to 13. Joseph and Mary Highmoor lived in Dwelling No. 704, with a seven-year-old female named Anna. The Levick and Highmoor families were Mormon pioneers. Highmoor established a way station called Highmoor's Crossing, near today's Oro Grande bridge of the National Trails Highway, over the Mojave River at what is called the Lower Narrows; the Nicholson family moved downriver a few miles and established a way station at "Point of Rocks" in today's Helendale area. In 1867, Lafayette Meacham, a Mormon who ran a way station near today's Barstow area, made a new wagon road from his stage stop to what is now Old Town Victorville.
It crossed the Mojave River at today's Sixth Street. This new road, now called Stoddard Wells Road, was a short-cut across the desert and became a popular route for muleskinners and freighters; the river crossing was called the surrounding area became known by that name. In the 1870s, Heber "Pete" Huntington established a stage stop, Huntington Station, at Mormon Crossing. A Mormon pioneer, Huntington was leader Brigham Young's nephew. Huntington bought out the Stoddard brothers, who had a way station half way to today's Barstow from Victorville, bought out the Meachams, who ran the stage stop named Fish Ponds or Mormon Grocery. In 1885, the newly established telegraph station at the railroad siding of "Victor", named for the California Southern Railroad's General Manager Jacob Nash Victor, was the beginning of what developed as today's Old Town Victorville; the village which sprang up around that railroad facility became known by the same name of Victor. In 1901, at the suggestion of local postmistress Abbey Turner, the U.
S. Post Office Department changed that name to Victorville to stop the postal confusion with the town of Victor, Colorado. In 1926, U. S. Route 66 was begun. In Victorville, US 66 is marked on D and Seventh streets, with a section of Interstate 15 going towards the Cajon Pass, it is the primary street through Old Town Victorville. In 1940, Herman J. Mankiewicz and John Houseman wrote the first two drafts of the screenplay for the film Citizen Kane in Victorville, they worked in seclusion for 12 weeks while residing at the North Verde Ranch, now called the Kemper Campbell Ranch. The Victorville Army Airfield was constructed beginning in 1941, it was renamed as the George Air Force Base when the U. S. Air Force was established in October 1947. After decades of service to the Air Force, in 1992 George Air Force Base was closed, its land was turned over to other uses. Part of it is now the Southern California Logistics Airport; the former Air Force base housing area is now vacant. It forms a ghost town, used for military training by troops from the U.
S. Army's Fort Irwin Military Reservation; the Victorville Federal Penitentiary has been built on another part of the former air base. The city of Victorville was incorporated by the State of California on September 21, 1962. On August 14, 1977, actor Ron Haydock was killed while hitchhiking near Victorville. In 2003, the Roy Rogers and Dale Evans Museum was moved from Victorville to Missouri, it closed before 2015. On November 3, 2007, Victorville hosted the DARPA Urban Challenge, a six-hour autonomous robot driving contest through the streets of the Southern California Logistics Airport; the $2 million first prize went to the Carnegie Mellon University team. Victorville is located at the southwestern edge of the Mojave Desert, 85 miles northeast of Los Angeles, 32 miles south of Barstow, 48 miles east of Palmdale, 37 miles north of San Bernardino through the Cajon Pass on Interstate 15. Victorville is the location of offices of the "Mojave Desert Branch" of the San Bernardino County government.
Victorville is bordered by Apple Valley on the east, Hesperia on the south, Adelanto on the west. The Mojave River flows sporadically through Victorville; the elevation at City Hall is 2,950 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.7 square miles. 73.2 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water. The total area is 0.76% water. The city is located in
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, hierarchy and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity; the more extreme elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand during the period of Bourbon Restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. Associated with right-wing politics, the term has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time, thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues.
Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Great Britain in the 1790s. According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959: "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself". In contrast to the tradition-based definition of conservatism, some political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism in terms of a general defense of social and economic inequality. From this perspective, conservatism is less an attempt to uphold traditional institutions and more, "a meditation on—and theoretical rendition of—the felt experience of having power, seeing it threatened, trying to win it back". Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy.
Individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation. Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism, influenced by liberal stances; as these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism has a wide variety of meanings. The term referred to the combination of economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values, it contrasted itself with classical liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres. Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism.
This is the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition such as the United States and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain, the terms liberal and conservative may be synonymous; the liberal conservative tradition in the United States combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism. A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in Europe is a combination of more modern conservative views with those of social liberalism; this has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. This involves stressing what are now conservative views of free market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights and support for a limited welfare state. In continental Europe, this is sometimes translated into English as social conservatism.
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or more the right-wing of the liberal movement. The roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism; until the two World Wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. Events after World War I brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative type of liberalism. Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within the United States and Canada which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism, its four main branches are constitutionalism, paleolibertarianism, small government conservatism and Christian libertarianism. They differ from paleoconservatives, in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom. Agorists such as Samuel Edward Konkin III labeled libertarian conservatism right-libertarianism.
In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare and other areas of economic intervention. Many conservatives in the United States, be
Modoc County, California
Modoc County is a county in the far northeast corner of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,686. Making it the third-least populous county in California; the county seat and only incorporated city is Alturas. Previous county seats include Lake Centerville; the county borders Oregon. A large portion of Modoc County is federal land. Several federal agencies, including the United States Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, have employees assigned to the area, their operations are a significant part of the area's economy and services; the county's official slogans include "The last best place" and "Where the West still lives". Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the region, varying cultures of Native Americans inhabited the county for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, the Modoc people lived in what is now northern California, near Lost River and Tule Lake.
The county was named after them. The Achumawi, the Paiute lived in the area. To the north were the Klamath in present-day Oregon; the first European explorers to visit Modoc County were the American John C. Frémont and his traveling party in 1846, who had departed from Sutter's Fort near the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers; the northern boundary of California, Modoc County, had been established as the 42nd parallel since the time of Mexican possession. In the absence of a reliable survey of the 120th meridian, the eastern boundary of northern California was a subject of contention before Modoc County formed; the Territory of Utah requested jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada. At the time, the Warner Mountains were believed to be a part of the Sierra Nevada, so this would have included Surprise Valley, but California denied the request. In 1856, the residents of Honey Lake Valley reckoned the 120th meridian to be west of their valley, placing them in Utah territory, attempted to secede and form a territory they called Nataqua.
Nataqua would have included Modoc County. In 1858, the Territory of Nevada, with its capital now in Carson City seceded from Utah, assumed jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada until the 120th meridian was surveyed in 1863. After Nevada was granted statehood in 1864, the region of current Modoc County was placed within jurisdiction of Shasta County and Siskiyou County was, in turn, generated from Shasta County in 1852. Increasing traffic on the emigrant trail, unprovoked militia raids on innocent Modoc, a cycle of retaliatory raids increased a cycle of violence between settlers and the tribes in the area. In 1864, the Klamath and Yahooskin band of the Shoshone signed a treaty ceding lands in both Oregon and California, the tribes were colocated on the Klamath Reservation. Harassed by the Klamath, traditional competitors, a band of Modoc led by Captain Jack returned to California and the Tule Lake area; the Modoc War of 1872-73 brought nationwide attention to the Modoc during the protracted battles.
From strong defensive positions in the lava tubes, 52 Modoc warriors held off hundreds of US Army forces, who called in artillery to help. Peace talks in 1873 stalled. Warriors urged killing the peace commissioners, thinking that the Americans would leave, Captain Jack and others shot and killed General Edward Canby and Rev. Eleazer Thomas, wounded others. More Army troops were called in to lay siege to Captain Jack's Stronghold. Dissension arose, some Modoc surrendered. Most were captured, those responsible for the assassinations were tried and executed. More than 150 Modoc were transported to Indian Territory as prisoners of war; the area has since been designated the Lava Beds National Monument. Settlement of the county began in earnest in the 1870s, with the timber, gold and railroad industries bringing most of the settlers into the area; the county was a crossroads for the Lassen Applegate Trail, which brought settlers north from Nevada to the Oregon Trail and south to trails leading into California's central valley.
Early settlers included the Dorris, Essex, Trumbo, Polander and Campbell families. Modoc County was formed when Governor Newton Booth signed an Act of the California Legislature on February 17, 1874 after residents of the Surprise Valley region lobbied for the creation of a new county from eastern Siskiyou County land; the county residents considered naming the newly formed county after General Edward Canby, killed the year before at peace talks in an ambush by Modoc. The idea of naming the county "Summit" was considered, but the populace settled on "Modoc"; the Dorris Bridge post office opened in 1871, was renamed Dorrisville in 1874. In 1876, it was renamed Alturas; the census of 1880 showed a population of 148. Settlement continued over the next two decades, until the city was incorporated on September 16, 1901. During World War II, the US government developed several thousand acres just south of Newell as a Japanese American internment camp. Tule Lake War Relocation Center was the site of temporary exile for thousands of Japa
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16