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Death Valley National Park

Death Valley National Park is an American national park that straddles the California–Nevada border, east of the Sierra Nevada. The park boundaries include Death Valley, the northern section of Panamint Valley, the southern section of Eureka Valley, most of Saline Valley; the park occupies an interface zone between the arid Great Basin and Mojave deserts, protecting the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and its diverse environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. Death Valley is the largest national park in the contiguous United States, the hottest and lowest of all the national parks in the United States; the second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, 282 feet below sea level. 91% of the park is a designated wilderness area. The park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment; some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, a survivor from much wetter times. UNESCO included Death Valley as the principal feature of its Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve in 1984.

A series of Native American groups inhabited the area from as early as 7000 BC, most the Timbisha around 1000 AD who migrated between winter camps in the valleys and summer grounds in the mountains. A group of European-Americans, trapped in the valley in 1849 while looking for a shortcut to the gold fields of California, gave the valley its name though only one of their group died there. Several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver; the only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams. The valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, movies. Tourism expanded in the 1920s when resorts were built around Furnace Creek. Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was expanded and became a national park in 1994; the natural environment of the area has been shaped by its geology. The valley is a graben with the oldest rocks being extensively metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old.

Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean. Additional sedimentation occurred; the subduction created a line of volcanoes. The crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, such as Lake Manly. In 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two major valleys in Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years and both are bounded by north–south-trending mountain ranges; these and adjacent valleys follow the general trend of Basin and Range topography with one modification: there are parallel strike-slip faults that perpendicularly bound the central extent of Death Valley. The result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.

Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the valley floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the alluvial fans there are small and steep compared to the huge alluvial fans coming off the Panamint Range. Fast uplift of a mountain range in an arid environment does not allow its canyons enough time to cut a classic V-shape all the way down to the stream bed. Instead, a V-shape ends at a slot canyon halfway down, forming a'wine glass canyon.' Sediment is deposited on a steep alluvial fan. At 282 feet below sea level at its lowest point, Badwater Basin on Death Valley's floor is the second-lowest depression in the Western Hemisphere, while Mount Whitney, only 85 miles to the west, rises to 14,505 feet; this topographic relief is the greatest elevation gradient in the contiguous United States and is the terminus point of the Great Basin's southwestern drainage. Although the extreme lack of water in the Great Basin makes this distinction of little current practical use, it does mean that in wetter times the lake that once filled Death Valley was the last stop for water flowing in the region, meaning the water there was saturated in dissolved materials.

Thus the salt pans in Death Valley are among the largest in the world and are rich in minerals, such as borax and various salts and hydrates. The largest salt pan in the park extends 40 miles from the Ashford Mill Site to the Salt Creek Hills, covering some 200 square miles of the valley floor; the best known playa in the park is the Racetrack, known for its moving rocks. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Death Valley National Park has a Hot Desert Climate; the plant hardiness zone at Badwater Basin is 9b with an average annual extreme minimum temperature of 27.3 °F. Death Valley is the hottest and driest place in North America due to its lack of surface water and low relief, it is so the hottest spot in the United States that many tabulations of the highest daily temperatures in the country omit Death Valley as a matter of course. On the afternoon of July 10, 1913, the United States Weather Bureau recorded a high temperature of 134 °F at Greenland Ranch in Death Valley; this temperature stands as the highest ambient air temperature recorded at the su

Achille Vianelli

Achille Vianelli or Vianelly was an Italian painter of landscapes with genre scenes in watercolor. He was born near Genoa. In 1819, he moved to Naples, where he first worked in the Royal Topographic Office, where he met Giacinto Gigante. With Gigante, he began training first under Jakob Wilhelm Hüber in the Academy under Pitloo, he published a series of lithographs in a Viaggio pittorico nel Regno delle Due Sicilie. In 1848, he moved to Benevento, where he continued painting, he married Gigante's sister, vice versa, is considered a member of the School of Posillipo. His son, Alberto Vianelli a landscape painter moved to Paris. Vianelli's sister, married Theodore Witting, a German landscape artist and engraver, his nephew Gustavo Witting became a landscape painter. He was a knight of the Order of Francesco I of the Two Sicilies, honorary professor of the Academy of Fine Arts of Naples. Vianelli died in Benevento on 2 April 1894

Tenth Street Studio Building

The Tenth Street Studio Building, constructed in New York City in 1857, was the first modern facility designed to serve the needs of artists. It became the center of the New York art world for the remainder of the 19th century. Situated at 51 West 10th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues in Manhattan, the building was commissioned by James Boorman Johnston and designed by Richard Morris Hunt, its innovative design soon represented a national architectural prototype, featured a domed central gallery, from which interconnected rooms radiated. Hunt's studio within the building housed the first architectural school in the United States. Soon after its completion, the building helped to make Greenwich Village central to the arts in New York City, drawing artists from all over the country to work and sell their art. In its initial years, Winslow Homer took a studio there, as did Edward Lamson Henry, many of the artists of the Hudson River School, including Frederic Church, Lockwood de Forest and Albert Bierstadt.

In 1879, Johnston deeded the building to his brother John Taylor Johnston, who became the first president of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In that same year William Merritt Chase moved into the main gallery, was joined in the building by Walter Shirlaw and Frederick Dielman. Chase's studio in particular represented the sophisticated taste which came to characterize the building. In 1895, Chase departed the studio, the building subsequently lost its prominence as an art center. Kahlil Gibran lived on the third story from 1911 until his death in 1931. In 1920, the building was purchased by a group of artists. From that time forward, a number of New York City artists rented studio space in the building. In 1942, the building's basement became the meeting place for the Bombshell Artists Group, an alliance of 60 modernist painters and sculptors, a number of whom had studios in the building. Henry Becket, writing in the New York Post newspaper on March 2, 1942, noted that "The artists meet in a cellar that they call The Bomb Shelter at 51 West 10th Street."

He stated that the Bombshell Group's "exhibition chairman" was Joseph Manfredi and the Group's first show was on display at the Riverside Museum. In 1956, the Tenth Street Studio Building was razed to make way for an apartment building. A penthouse apartment in the subsequently constructed apartment building, 45 West 10th Street, was purchased by the actress Julia Roberts in 2010. Museum of the City of New York City woman | New York Post 4. History of the Tenth Street Studio