Death of a Salesman is a 1949 stage play written by American playwright Arthur Miller. It won the 1949 Pulitzer Prize for Tony Award for Best Play; the play premiered on Broadway in February 1949, running for 742 performances, has been revived on Broadway four times, winning three Tony Awards for Best Revival. It is considered to be one of the greatest plays of the 20th century. William "Willy" Loman: The salesman, he is 63 years old and unstable and self-deluded. Willy tends to re-imagine events from the past, he vacillates between different eras of his life. Willy seems childlike and relies on others for support, coupled with his recurring flashbacks to various moments throughout his career, his first name, reflects this childlike aspect as well as sounding like the question "Will he?" His last name gives the feel of Willy's being someone who will not succeed. Linda Loman: Willy's loyal and loving wife. Linda is passively supportive and docile when Willy talks unrealistically about hopes for the future, although she seems to have a good knowledge of what is going on.
She chides her sons Biff, for not helping Willy more, supports Willy lovingly though Willy sometimes treats her poorly, ignoring her opinions over those of others. She is the first to realize that Willy is contemplating suicide at the beginning of the play, urges Biff to make something of himself, while expecting Willy to help Biff do so. Biff Loman: Willy's elder son. Biff was a football star with a lot of potential in high school, but failed math his senior year and dropped out of summer school when he saw Willy with another woman while visiting him in Boston, he wavers between going home to try to fulfill Willy's dream for him as a businessman or ignoring his father by going out West to be a farmhand where he feels happy. He likes being outdoors and working with his hands, yet wants to do something worthwhile so Willy will be proud of him. Biff steals because he wants evidence of success if it is false evidence, but overall Biff remains a realist and informs Willy that he is just a normal guy and will not be a great man.
Harold "Happy" Loman: Willy's younger son. He has lived in the shadow of his older brother Biff most of his life and seems to be ignored, but he still tries to be supportive toward his family, he has a restless lifestyle as a womanizer and dreams of moving beyond his current job as an assistant to the assistant buyer at the local store, but he is willing to cheat a little in order to do so, by taking bribes. He is always looking for approval from his parents, but he gets any, he goes as far as to make things up just for attention, such as telling his parents he is going to get married, he tries to keep his family's perceptions of each other positive or "happy" by defending each of them during their many arguments, but still has the most turbulent relationship with Linda, who looks down on him for his lifestyle and apparent cheapness, despite his giving them money. Charley: Willy's somewhat wisecracking yet understanding neighbor, he pities Willy and lends him money and comes over to play cards with him, although Willy treats him poorly.
Willy is envious of him. Charley offers Willy a job many times during visits to his office, yet Willy declines every time after he loses his job as a salesman. Bernard: Charley's son. In Willy's flashbacks, he is a nerd, Willy forces him to give Biff test answers, he does anything for him. He is a successful lawyer and expecting a second son – the same successes that Willy wants for his sons, in particular Biff. Bernard makes. Uncle Ben: Willy's older brother who became a diamond tycoon after a detour to Africa, he is dead, but Willy speaks to him in his hallucinations of the past. He is Willy's role model, although he is much older and has no real relationship with Willy, preferring to assert his superiority over his younger brother, he represents Willy's idea of the American Dream success story, is shown coming by the Lomans' house while on business trips to share stories. The Woman: A woman, whom Willy calls "Miss Francis", with whom Willy cheated on Linda. Howard Wagner: Willy's boss. Willy worked for Howard's father Frank and claims to have suggested the name Howard for his newborn son.
However, he sees Willy as a liability for the company and fires him, ignoring all the years that Willy has given to the company. Howard is proud of his wealth, manifested in his new wire recorder, of his family. Jenny: Charley's secretary. Stanley: A waiter at the restaurant who seems to be friends or acquainted with Happy. Miss Forsythe: A girl whom Happy picks up at the restaurant, she is pretty and claims she was on several magazine covers. Happy lies to her, making himself and Biff look like they are important and successful. Letta: Miss Forsythe's friend; as a flute melody plays, Willy Loman returns to his home in Brooklyn one night, exhausted from a failed sales trip. His wife, tries to persuade him to ask his boss, Howard Wagner, to let him work in New York so that he won't have to travel. Willy says. Willy complains that Biff, his older son who has come back home to visit, has yet to make something of himself. Linda scolds Willy for being so critical, Willy goes to the kitchen for a snack.
As Willy talks to himself in the kitchen and his younger brother, visiting, reminisce
Kathleen McDermott is Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, she is known for her research on how human memory is encoded and retrieved, with a specific interest in how false memories develop. In collaboration with Henry L. Roediger III, she developed the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm used to study the phenomenon of memory illusions. McDermott received the 2004-2005 F. J. McGuigan Young Investigator Prize for research on memory from the American Psychological Foundation and the American Psychological Association's Science Directorate, she was recognized by the Association for Psychological Science as a Rising Star in 2007. McDermott is a Fellow of the Psychonomic Society and was honored with a 2019 Psychonomic Society Mid-Career Award. McDermott received her Bachelors of Art degree in Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, she went to graduate school at Rice University where she completed her M. A and Ph. D under the advisement of Roediger. Upon graduating from Rice University in 1996, she completed a two-year postdoctoral fellowship at the Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine where she applied functional neuroimaging techniques to the study of human cognitive processes.
McDermott subsequently joined the faculty at Washington University in St. Louis where she holds the title Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences. McDermott is best known for her work with Roediger in which they developed and refined a free recall task for the purpose of eliciting false memories. Roediger and McDermott replicated a 1959 study by James Deese, they observed that participants were to recall semantic associates of the words on the list on an immediate free recall task: For example, participants falsely recalled the word sleep when shown a list of words related to sleep, they displayed a high level of confidence that the word sleep had been on the list. Roediger and McDermott suggested that participants confuse their memory of producing the word during the free recall test with having seen the word in the list. McDermott applied fMRI to examine neural activity associated with false memory generation in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, she and her colleagues observed similar patterns of activity in the parietal memory network when participants recall words that were on the list and those that were falsely recalled items.
Such findings fit with predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory, suggesting that individuals utilize memory representations that record the gist of experiences rather than on memory representations of verbatim content. In other work, McDermott and her colleagues used fMRI to create a map of human neural activity associated with word and face encoding, they observed differential patterns of activation in the frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe what varied as a function of the stimuli to be encoded, with greater left-lateralization of the dorsal frontal cortex for word encoding, bilateral activation for object encoding, greater right-lateralization activation for face encoding. In work with Karl Szpunar and Jason Watson, McDermott mapped patterns of neural activity associated with the act of envisioning significant events, such as one's birthday, they observed that a set of regions within the left lateral premotor cortex, left precuneus, right posterior cerebellum activate more when the participant envisions future events compared to recollecting past events.
They noticed that when participants envisioned a future event, a set of regions including the bilateral posterior cingulate, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left occipital cortex, which are associated with remembering encountered visual-spatial contexts is activated. Such findings suggests that participants tend to envision future scenarios in well known visual-spatial contexts, with similar patterns of neural activation coinciding with remembering the past and imagining the future. Kelley, W. M. Miezin, F. M. McDermott, K. B. Buckner, R. L. Raichle, M. E. Cohen, N. J.... & Petersen, S. E.. Hemispheric specialization in human dorsal frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe for verbal and nonverbal memory encoding. Neuron, 20, 927-936. McDermott, K. B.. The persistence of false memories in list recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 212-230. McDermott, K. B. & Watson, J. M.. The rise and fall of false recall: The impact of presentation duration. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 160-176. McDermott, K. B.
Petersen, S. E. Watson, J. M. & Ojemann, J. G.. A procedure for identifying regions preferentially activated by attention to semantic and phonological relations using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychologia, 41, 293-303. Roediger, H. L. & McDermott, K. B.. Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning and Cognition, 21, 803-314. McDermott's Memory and Cognition Lab
Kathy Aoki is a feminist artist who works in many different mediums, including printmaking and painting. Her work is in the permanent collections of the SFMoMA, the Fine Art Museums of San Francisco, the Harvard University Art Museums and in the collections of the city of Seattle. Aoki grew up in Natick and attended Rio Americano High School, graduating in 1986, she majored in French at UC Berkeley, receiving her bachelors in 1990. Aoki received her MFA in printmaking from Washington University in 1994, she lives in Santa Clara, California and is an associate professor of studio art at Santa Clara University. She has two daughters. Aoki's work explores "gender and culture consumerism." While she says that her work is feminist, she wants viewers to "feel comfortable" with her work "so that they want to stick around and get the message." Her work contains pop-culture themes, such as incorporating elements from anime and manga or by referencing My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. She has parodied superheroes and public service messages in her work.
In combination with her popular culture themes, Aoki has created the "role as'curator' of the fictitious Museum of Historical Makeovers" for herself, which allows her to examine consumerism and beauty in a humorous way. Aoki collaborated with composer Judith Shatin on the 2001 piece Grito del Corazón, inspired by Goya's Black Paintings; the first time she created a "Museum of Historical Makeovers" in 2009, she created works that superficially resembled actual artifacts until they were examined more closely. Works based on Ancient Egyptian art elevates pop-music stars like Gwen Stefani to roles as pharaohs, with fake hieroglyphs for words such as hip-hop and MP3. Official site