Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union)
The Communist Party of Ukraine, was the founding and ruling political party of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic operated as the Ukrainian branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPU was the sole governing party was founded in 1918 as the Communist Party of Ukraine until 1952, when it became the Communist Party of Ukraine; the party was abolished in 26 August 1991 after the failed Soviet coup. The CPU was organized on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Vladimir Lenin that entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies; the CPU's highest body was the Party Congress, convened every held every five years. When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body, but because the Central Committee met twice a year, most duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo; the party leader held the office of First Secretary.
Like all other CPSU republican branches, The CPU was committed, in accordance to the party statute, adhered to Marxism–Leninism ideology based on the writings of Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx, formalized under Joseph Stalin. The party had pursued state socialism, under which all industries were nationalized and a planned economy was introduced. Prior to the introduction of central planning was adopted in 1929, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy referred to as the New Economic Policy, in the 1920s, which allowed to introduce certain capitalist elements in the Soviet economy; the Communist Party of Ukraine was created in July 1918 in Moscow. Most of its constituent members were former members of the Russian Bolsheviks who in 1917 pronounced themselves "RSDRP – Social-Democracy of Ukraine" and with the help of the Antonov-Ovseyenko expeditionary forces of Petrograd and Moscow Red Guards instigated a civil war in Ukraine by routing local Red Guards. Number of Ukrainian politicians from left faction of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party joined the Bolsheviks in January 1918.
After the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk the Bolshevik faction Social-Democracy of Ukraine was forced to dissolve as all Bolsheviks were forced out of Ukraine. On October 13, 1952 the party was renamed as the Communist Party of Ukraine. On August 26, 1991 the Communist Party was outlawed in Ukraine. Different sectors reconstituted themselves in different parties. One group led by moderate members under Oleksandr Moroz formed the Socialist Party of Ukraine out of most of the former members, a group of agrarians led by Serhiy Dovhan and Oleksandr Tkachenko formed the Peasant Party of Ukraine, another group, the Communist Party of Ukraine, was re-created in 1993 in Donetsk under the leadership of Petro Symonenko when the ban was lifted; the remaining members either changed political direction or created their own left-wing parties such as the Vitrenko bloc, Social-Democratic party, others. Initial composition of the committee was elected at the 1st party Congress on July 12, 1918 and consisted of the following people: Ivan Amosov, Andrei Bubnov, Afanasiy Butsenko, Shulim Gruzman, Vladimir Zatonsky, Lavrentiy Kartvelishvili, Emmanuil Kviring, Stanislav Kosior, Isaak Kreisberg, Yuriy Lutovinov, Yuriy Pyatakov, Rafail Farbman, Pinkhus Rovner, Leonid Tarsky, Isaak Shvarts.
Beside full members there were candidate to the committee. The initial composition included Yan Hamarnik, Dmitriy Lebed, Mikhail Mayorov, Mykola Skrypnyk, Petro Slynko, Yakov Yakovlev. On September 9, 1918 Mayorov and Slynko replaced Kertvelishvili and Farbman as full members, while the last two lost their membership. During World War II on October 2, 1942 there was created the Illegal Central Committee of the Party consisting of 17 members; the committee was dissolved on June 29, 1943. Among the members of the committee were such personalities as Sydir Kovpak, Leonid Korniets, Oleksiy Fedorov, others; the party had its own Politburo created on March 6, 1919. On September 25, 1952 the committee was renamed into the Bureau of the Central Committee of CPU, in October the same year as the Bureau of the CC CPU. On October 10, 1952 it became the Presidium of the CC CPU. On June 26, 1966 again the bureau was left with its original name as the Politburo of the CC CPU. At first it consisted of five members and another one was added.
The first Politburo included Andriy Bubnov, Emanuel Kviring, Volodymyr Mescheriakov, Heorhiy Pyatakov, Christian Rakovsky, Stanislav Kosior, all centrists. From March 23 until April 15, 1920 there was elected a Provisional Bureau which the next day was ratified by the Russian Communist Party. Along with Politburo the party like its Russian counterpart had its own Orgburo, created the same day as Politburo; the party was headed by its secretary. The position was influential and was considered to be more important than the head of state; the following list is composed of the secretary of the Central Committee of the party who were the leaders of the Party. The position was changing names between being called the First Secretary or the General Secretary, depending on a political atmosphere in the Soviet Union; the position was not of the head of state, but was influential within the republic. The longest serving secretary was Vladimir Shcherbitsky with some 17 years as the head of the Communist Pa
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
Abstention is a term in election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not go to vote or, in parliamentary procedure, is present during the vote, but does not cast a ballot. Abstention must be contrasted with "blank vote", in which a voter casts a ballot willfully made invalid by marking it wrongly or by not marking anything at all. A "blank voter" has voted, although their vote may be considered a spoilt vote, depending on each legislation, while an abstaining voter hasn't voted. Both forms may or may not, depending on the circumstances, be considered to be a protest vote. An abstention may be used to indicate the voting individual's ambivalence about the measure, or mild disapproval that does not rise to the level of active opposition. Abstention can be used when someone has a certain position about an issue, but since the popular sentiment supports the opposite, it might not be politically expedient to vote according to his or her conscience. A person may abstain when they do not feel adequately informed about the issue at hand, or has not participated in relevant discussion.
In parliamentary procedure, a member may be required to abstain in the case of a real or perceived conflict of interest. Abstentions do not count in tallying the vote positively. White votes, may be counted in the total of votes, depending on the legislation. An active abstention can occur where a voter votes in a way that balances out their vote as if they had never voted; this has occurred many times in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. During a division, a Member of Parliament may abstain by voting both "yes" and "no"; this is the same as not voting at all, as the outcome will not be changed by the active abstention. However, in the House of Lords of the United Kingdom, active abstention is not possible as a Lord voting both ways will be removed from the list of votes. In another manner, an intentionally spoilt vote could be interpreted as an active abstention. An intentionally spoilt vote is caused by a voter who turns to an election and invalidates the ballot paper in some way; because of the nature of an abstention, only intentionally spoiled ballots could be counted as an active abstention.
In the United Nations Security Council, representatives of the five countries holding a veto power sometimes abstain rather than vetoing a measure about which they are less than enthusiastic if the measure otherwise has broad support. By convention, their abstention does not block the measure, despite the wording of Article 27.3 of the United Nations Charter. If a majority of members of the United Nations General Assembly or one of its committees abstain on a measure the measure fails. In the Council of the European Union, an abstention on a matter decided by unanimity has the effect of a yes vote. In the United States House of Representatives and many other legislatures, members may vote "present" rather than for or against a bill or resolution, which has the effect of an abstention. In the United States Senate, the Presiding Officer calls each Senator's name alphabetically, and, if abstaining, the Senator must give a reason for the abstention. Members may decline to vote, in committee or on the floor, on any matter which he or she believes would be a conflict of interest.
There have been a number of instances around the world where popular movements have boycotted elections. In South Africa, there is a strong presence of abstention campaigns that make the structural argument that no political party represents the poor; the "No Land! No House! No Vote!" Campaign, started by the Landless Peoples Movement in 2004, is the largest of such campaigns. These campaigns have been met with significant repression. In 1999, a human rights activist was convicted in Belarus for calling not to participate in the local elections he considered to be undemocratic. In 2004 the United Nations Human Rights Committee found the conviction to violate freedom of expression. Other social movements and civil society organisations in other parts of the world have similar campaigns or non-voting preferences; these include the Naxalites in India, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation in Mexico and various anarchist and left communist oriented movements. In Mexico's mid term 2009 elections there was strong support for'Nulo'—a campaign to vote for no one.
In India, poor peoples movements in Singur and Lalgarh have rejected parliamentary politics. There have been no vote campaigns in Canada and Spain. In September 2011, the New York Times argued that there was a growing "scorn for voting" around the world. In support for this non-political strategy, some non-voters claim that voting does not make any positive difference. "If voting changed anything, they’d make it illegal," is an oft-cited sentiment attributed to anarchist Emma Goldman. In addition to strategic non-voters, there are ethical non-voters, those who reject voting outright, not as an ineffective tactic for change, but moreover because they view the act as either a grant of consent to be governed by the state, a means of imposing illegitimate control over one's countrymen, or both. Thus, this view holds that through voting, one finds themselves violating the non-aggression principle. Herbert Spencer noted that whether a person votes for the winning candidate, votes for a losing candidate, or abstains f
Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada
The Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is the presiding officer of the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's unicameral parliament. The chairman presides over its procedures. Chairmen are elected by open voting from the parliament's deputy ranks. Andriy Parubiy is the current chairman since being confirmed on 14 April 2016; the office of Chairman has existed since the ratification of the Constitution of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on January 30, 1937. Mykhailo Burmystenko, appointed on January 30, 1937, was the inaugural holder of the office; the post replaced the existing position of a chairman of Central Executive Committee. Along with the chairman, from 1937 to 1990 Verkhovna Rada was governed by the Presidium of the Verkhovna Rada that consisted of about 20 members. There have been 18 Chairmen of the Verkhovna Rada since 1927; until Ukraine's independence in 1991, it was titled as Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR. According to Article 88 of the Ukrainian Constitution, the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada is allowed to: preside over meetings of parliament.
The chairman is allowed to call special sessions of parliament, enact bills vetoed by the president only when the Verkhovna Rada votes to overcome the veto by a two-thirds majority, participate in meetings of the National Security and Defence Council. The chairman and his two assistants cannot head factions of deputies; the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada is designated as the first in the order of succession to the presidency, with limited authority while new presidential elections are conducted. While the chairman serves as acting president, he is barred from taking the following actions: disbanding the parliament. No provisions for presidential succession are explicitly proscribed in case both the president's and chairman's positions are vacant. However, in case of vacancy of the post of Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, it is filled by deputies of the chairman. During the Soviet era, there was one more post known as the chairman of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR's, de jure head of state.
All former chairmen of the Verkhovna Rada receive special state privileges. After the completion of their tenure, former chairmen are provided with cabinets in the parliament's building, an official government car and an adviser and an aide at state expense; the respective decree #296 was signed by Volodymyr Lytvyn as early as on June 7, 2006 – a month before he was dismissed from the post of Parliament's Speaker. After three years since its adoption, Verkhovna Rada officials kept silent about the law, after which it was made public by an article in the DELO newspaper in mid-May 2009. "Official website of the Chairman". Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Высшие органы государственной власти Украинской ССР
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. A supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin emerged under the perestroika reforms as one of Gorbachev's most powerful political opponents. During the late 1980s, Yeltsin had been a candidate member of the Politburo, in late 1987 tendered a letter of resignation in protest, making him the first Politburo member to resign; this act branded Yeltsin as a rebel and led to his rise in popularity as an anti-establishment figure. On 29 May 1990, he was elected the chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet. On 12 June 1991 he was elected by popular vote to the newly created post of President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Upon the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev and the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 25 December 1991, the RSFSR became the sovereign state of the Russian Federation, Yeltsin remained in office as president, he was reelected in the 1996 election, in which critics claimed pervasive corruption.
Yeltsin transformed Russia's socialist economy into a capitalist market economy, implementing economic shock therapy, market exchange rate of the ruble, nationwide privatization and lifting of price controls. Yeltsin proposed a new Russian constitution, popularly approved at the 1993 constitutional referendum. Rather than creating new enterprises, Yeltsin's policies led to international monopolies hijacking the former Soviet markets, arbitraging the huge difference between old domestic prices for Russian commodities and the prices prevailing on the world market. In the foreign policy Yeltsin offered cooperative and conciliatory relations with the Group of Seven, CIS and OSCE, as well as adherence to arms control agreements, such as START II. Much of the Yeltsin era was marked by widespread corruption, as a result of persistent low oil and commodity prices during the 1990s, Russia suffered inflation and economic collapse. Within a few years of his presidency, many of Yeltsin's initial supporters had started to criticize his leadership, Vice President Alexander Rutskoy denounced the reforms as "economic genocide".
Ongoing confrontations with the Supreme Soviet climaxed in the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis in which Yeltsin ordered the unconstitutional dissolution of the Supreme Soviet parliament, which as a result attempted to remove him from office. In October 1993, troops loyal to Yeltsin stopped an armed uprising outside of the parliament building, leading to a number of deaths. Boris Yeltsin visited Poland in 1993 and apologized to Poles for the Katyn massacre, a war crime committed by Stalin in 1940. On 31 December 1999, under enormous internal pressure, Yeltsin announced his resignation, leaving the presidency in the hands of his chosen successor, then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Yeltsin left office unpopular with the Russian population. Yeltsin kept a low profile after his resignation, though he did criticise his successor publicly. Yeltsin died of congestive heart failure on 23 April 2007. Boris Yeltsin was born in the village of Butka, Talitsky District, Sverdlovsk, USSR, on 1 February 1931.
In 1932, after the state took away the entire harvest from the collectivised Butka peasants, the Yeltsin family moved as far away as they could, to Kazan, more than 1,100 kilometres from Butka, where Boris' father, found work on a building site. Growing up in rural Sverdlovsk, he studied at the Ural State Technical University, began his career in the construction industry. In 1934, Nikolai Yeltsin was convicted of anti-Soviet agitation and sentenced to hard labour in a gulag for three years. Following his release in 1936 after serving two years, Nikolai took his family to live in Berezniki in Perm Krai, where his brother Ivan, a blacksmith, had been exiled the previous year for failing to deliver his grain quota. Nikolai remained unemployed for a period of time and worked again in construction, his mother, Klavdiya Vasilyevna Yeltsina, worked as a seamstress. Boris studied at Pushkin High School in Berezniki, he was fond of sports despite losing the thumb and index finger of his left hand when he and some friends furtively entered a Red Army supply depot, stole several grenades, tried to disassemble them.
In 1949, he was admitted to the Ural Polytechnic Institute in Yekaterinburg, majoring in construction, he graduated in 1955. The subject of his degree paper was "Construction of a Mine Shaft". From 1955 to 1957 he worked as a foreman with the building trust Uraltyazhtrubstroy. From 1957 to 1963, he worked in Sverdlovsk, was promoted from construction site superintendent to chief of the Construction Directorate with the Yuzhgorstroy Trust. In 1963, he became chief engineer, in 1965, head of the Sverdlovsk House-Building Combine, responsible for sewerage and technical plumbing, he joined the ranks of the CPSU nomenklatura in 1968 when he was appointed head of construction with the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee. In 1975, he became secretary of the regional committee in charge of the region's industrial development. In 1976, the Politburo of the CPSU promoted him to the post of the First Secr
Verkhovna Rada building
The Verkhovna Rada building is located in the center of Kiev, the Pecherskyi District. The building is located at the Constitution Square, it is the place where the Ukrainian parliament meets for all ceremonial sessions. The building was erected between 1936–38 to a design by Volodymyr Zabolotny in the neo-classical Ukrainian architectural style. Zabolotny was awarded the State prize for that project in 1940 and appointed the chief architect of the city. At the beginning of 1934, after the capital was transferred from Kharkiv to Kiev, many new projects were started for the reconstruction of the new capital. Many prominent administrative buildings to house the government institutions of the Ukrainian SSR were planned to be erected in downtown Kiev, including the building of the government and the building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the heart of the city was chosen for that purpose – the Pecherskyi District which lies on the right bank of Dnieper river. In February 1936, a contest for the best building design of the Verkhovna Rada was announced.
Numerous prominent specialists were invited, including Volodymyr Zabolotnyi, Valerian Rykov, Yakiv Steinberg. The jury selected the design of Zabolotnyi; the construction was initiated in 1936 and lasted until 1939 with the final inspection taking place in the beginning of the summer, having the building passed with the excellent grade. The first session of the Verkhovna Rada took place at 5, Hrushevsky Street on 25 July 1939; the building is three floors high. It is crowned with a dome, made of glass, providing the building with natural lighting; the hundred-tonne glass dome over the main session hall is the building's most memorable feature. The red-and-blue Flag of Ukrainian SSR was flown on top of the dome for over 50 years, until it was replaced by the yellow-and-blue national Flag of Ukraine, following Ukraine's attainment of independence in 1991; the dome's multicolored illumination at night provides a memorable view, one of Kiev's tourist attractions. The diameter of the plafond is 16 meters.
In the center a crystal chandelier is located that, by its form, resembles a sunflower, a motif featured in the Ukrainian folk arts. Based on this design, the illuminating plafond of the hall was installed with colored glass; the interior of the building is generously decorated with intricate wood panels, multicolored marble, bronze artwork, a statuary. The flat rooftop of the modern structure adds harmony to its composition; the front of the building was decorated with ornaments and statues featuring Ukrainian SSR symbolism, with the Coat of Arms of the Ukrainian SSR in the center. Following Ukrainian independence, some of the decorations were altered and some replaced, to reflect the national symbolism of independent Ukraine; the stylized trident, the centerpiece of the modern Coat of Arms of Ukraine, is featured above the front entrance to the building. In 2016 the last decorations believed to show propaganda of communism were removed to comply with 2015 decommunization laws. Having been destroyed in the Second World War, the building was reconstructed in its original style in 1945-1947, with the reconstruction design provided by Zabolotnyi, once again.
The glass dome was rebuilt one meter higher than the original one. Although it is adjacent to Rastrelli's Baroque Mariyinsky Palace, the architect of the more monumental and imposing Rada building managed to avoid disharmony from the juxtaposition of such contrasting architectural styles. To the main building was added an adjacent three-story high building for servicemen, designed in a closed half-circle shape with an inner court. During the restoration works conducted in 1985 under the leadership of N. Chmutova, four sculptural groups were installed in front of the risalits of the central entrance as intended by Zabolotny's design; the sculptures represent various segments of the Ukrainian population: workers, peasants and intelligentsia. The building's exterior is addressed in light colors through the use of a light plaster and light-grey granite; these tones contrast with the dark shade of a socle, made out of polished labradorite, has a significant jut against a plane wall. All rooms of the three-story building were designed in a single compact scope.
The facades are symmetrical and have one order that received more extensive interpretation for the colonnade of the main facade, as well as the main planes of side facades. The building is located on the eastern side of Hrushevsky Street, across from the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine building, is surrounded by the Mariyinsky Palace, Mariyinsky Park, a pedestrian park square. From the square, the building and the palace are seen next to each other, along with views from the Kiev heights to the left-bank neighborhoods across the Dnieper River
Mykhailo Mykolayovych Horyn was a Ukrainian human rights activist and dissident. He was a People's Deputy of the first convocation of the Verkhovna Rada from May 15, 1990 to May 10, 1994, he played an important role in the country's struggle for independence. Regarding Russian-Ukrainian relations he said: "Our historical mission is to be the doctor who will cure Russia of its imperial ambition. Ukraine is a European power. Russia is not, it is a Eurasian power. It is sitting on top of the Ural mountains looking East and trying to decide how to tackle its problems", his younger brother is Bohdan Horyn a Ukrainian human rights activist and Soviet dissident. Ivan Drach, Ukrainian dissident