Deconstruction is an approach to understanding the relationship between text and meaning. It was originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida, who conducted readings of texts looking for things that run counter to their intended meaning or structural unity; the purpose of deconstruction is to show that the usage of language in a given text, language as a whole, is irreducibly complex, unstable, or impossible. Many debates in continental philosophy surrounding ontology, ethics, aesthetics and philosophy of language refer to Derrida's observations. Since the 1980s, these observations have inspired a range of theoretical enterprises in the humanities, including the disciplines of law, historiography, sociolinguistics, psychoanalysis, LGBT studies, feminism. Deconstruction inspired deconstructivism in architecture and remains important within art and literary criticism. Jacques Derrida's 1967 book Of Grammatology introduced the majority of ideas influential within deconstruction. Derrida published a number of other works directly relevant to the concept of deconstruction.
Books showing deconstruction in action or defining it more include Différance and Phenomena, Writing and Difference. According to Derrida and taking inspiration from the work of Ferdinand de Saussure, language as a system of signs and words only has meaning because of the contrast between these signs; as Richard Rorty contends, "words have meaning only because of contrast-effects with other words...no word can acquire meaning in the way in which philosophers from Aristotle to Bertrand Russell have hoped it might—by being the unmediated expression of something non-linguistic". As a consequence, meaning is never present, but rather is deferred to other signs. Derrida refers to the—in this view, mistaken—belief that there is a self-sufficient, non-deferred meaning as metaphysics of presence. A concept must be understood in the context of its opposite, such as being/nothingness, normal/abnormal, speech/writing, etc. Further, Derrida contends that "in a classical philosophical opposition we are not dealing with the peaceful coexistence of a vis-a-vis, but rather with a violent hierarchy.
One of the two terms has the upper hand": signified over signifier. The first task of deconstruction would be to find and overturn these oppositions inside a text or a corpus of texts; the oppositions cannot be suspended once and for all. The hierarchy of dual oppositions always reestablishes itself. Deconstruction only points to the necessity of an unending analysis that can make explicit the decisions and arbitrary violence intrinsic to all texts. Derrida argues that it is not enough to expose and deconstruct the way oppositions work and stop there in a nihilistic or cynical position, "thereby preventing any means of intervening in the field effectively". To be effective, deconstruction needs to create new terms, not to synthesize the concepts in opposition, but to mark their difference and eternal interplay; this explains why Derrida always proposes new terms in his deconstruction, not as a free play but from the necessity of analysis. Derrida called undecidables—that is, unities of simulacrum—"false" verbal properties that can no longer be included within philosophical opposition, but which inhabit philosophical oppositions—resisting and organizing it—without constituting a third term or leaving room for a solution in the form of Hegelian dialectics.
Derrida's theories on deconstruction were themselves influenced by the work of linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and literary theorists such as Roland Barthes. Derrida's views on deconstruction stood in opposition to the theories of structuralists such as psychoanalytic theorist Jacques Lacan, anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss. However, Derrida resisted attempts to label his work as "post-structuralist". In order to understand Derrida's motivation, one must refer to Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy. Nietzsche's project began with Orpheus, the man underground; this foil to Platonic light was deliberately and self-consciously lauded in Daybreak, when Nietzsche announces, albeit retrospectively, "In this work you will discover a subterranean man at work", goes on to map the project of unreason: "All things that live long are so saturated with reason that their origin in unreason thereby becomes improbable. Does not every precise history of an origination impress our feelings as paradoxical and wantonly offensive?
Does the good historian not, at bottom contradict?". Nietzsche's point in Daybreak is that standing at the end of modern history, modern thinkers know too much to be deceived by the illusion of reason any more. Reason, logic and science are no longer sufficient as the royal roads to truth, and so Nietzsche decides to throw it in our faces, uncover the truth of Plato, that he—unlike Orpheus—just happened to discover his true love in the light instead of in the dark. This being one historical event amongst many, Nietzsche proposes that we revisualize the history of the West as the history of a series of political moves, that is
Theater Rigiblick or Theatersaal Rigiblick is a theatre in the German-speaking Switzerland situated in Zürich-Oberstrass. Built in 1901 as the restaurant Rigiblick, the theater houses guest performances, focussed on the dance theater; the theatre as institution is owned by the government of the city of Zürich, the building by the Zürcher Frauenverein cooperative. The Rigiblick building was built near the upper terminus of the present Seilbahn Rigiblick to house a restaurant with terrace and a large hall, it became a social meeting place and a popular destination. In 1914 the Zürcher Frauenverein bought the building complex, which remained until 1976 in its possession, went over to the city government of Zürich; the hall was henceforth utilized as a rehearsal room. There were plans to core the hall, intentionally to incorporate student housing. Local residents opposed the governmental plans, by establishing the Verein Quartierkultur im Kreis 6 in 1984, the next year they founded the Verein Theatersaal Rigiblick.
Bruno Steiner became the theater's first director, from spring 1986 the Vorbühne Zürich, first on a provisional basis, provided various events, chiefly theater and dance performances, readings, public discussions and exhibitions. Thanks to the urban subsidies, that have been doubled from 1987 by 2003, the theater operation was continuously expanded; the performances were operated by a small staff in voluntary work. One third of the performances were of Zürich artists from the city districts of Oberstrass and Fluntern, but artists from other parts of Switzerland and from neighboring countries denied the majority of the theater program; the theater thus transformed from a place for neighborhood culture to a stage for events of pan-municipal interest. Despite the mixed program, the performances of the free dance scene was the theater's traditional focus: the Swiss professional association for dance and gymnastics' organized decades before, from 1948 to 1968 regular international summer courses, which involved teachers from the whole European German-speaking linguistic area.
The importance of the theater as a venue grew after the "Depot Hardturm" and the "Theater West End" stages had been closed as venues for the free dance scene. In 2002 the ZFV-Unternehmungen cooperative repurchased the building complex, the hall of the theater remained in the possession of the city government of Zürich. An extensive renovation of the facility was carried out in the same year, under the direction of the Swiss actor Daniel Rohr, on 13 January 2005 Tania Blixen's "Babette's Fest", a guest performance of the Zimmertheater Tübingen, opened the venue's news season. Since 2003 the number of visitors has tripled to over 30,000 a year. About 250 events annually attract an audience far beyond the city of Zürich, its artistic broad and high-quality program both guest international performances as well as a podium for young performers and for creative artists of various lines. On occasion of Margrit Rainer's 100th birthday, in September 2014 premiered Euse Rainer chönnt das au!, a play musical dedicated to Margrit Rainer, who's still popular although she died 32 years ago.
In the fiscal period 2014–2017 an annual municipal subsidy of CHF 490,000, composed of an operating contribution of CHF 305,000 and an abatement of rent of CHF 185,000 financed the theater's operations. The equity ratio of the theater is over 75%, its staff consists of eight full-time jobs, other tasks, as the bar and technical staff, are carried out by voluntary workers of the Verein Theater Rigiblick association. Rigiblick has a capacity of 160 seats, the stage measures 12 metres and 8 metres at a height of 5.7 metres, a small backstage. The theatre building is listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class B object of regional importance. Tobias Hoffmann-Allenspach: Theaterlexikon der Schweiz. Volume 3, Chronos, Zürich 2005, ISBN 3-0340-0715-9. Official website
The Liga Stavok is one of the leading Russian gambling companies. It was established in Russia in 2008. Activities of this betting company are aimed at developing betting business in Russia, supporting national sports, creating new spheres of entertainment; the history of “Liga Stavok” is connected with the name of its founder Oleg Zhuravsky, a significant Russian lobbyist of bookmaker business interests. Zhuravsky was born in 1969, served in the Western Group of Forces in the GDR from 1988-1990, graduated from the Ugra State University in 1991. In 2010, he earned a degree from the St. Petersburg Institute of International Trade and Law, he took a great interest in the bookmaking business in Europe during the 1990s. Since 1997, Zhuravsky held leading positions in companies of the Russian gambling industry. In the mid-2000s, he founded the National Association of Russian Bookmakers and started lobbying the interests and development of this sphere. Under his leadership, the Association has united more than half of the largest actors in the Russian market.
After Zhuravsky's death, the media emphasized his decisive role in the progress of the Russian betting industry. As a result of the activists’ efforts, Russian bookmakers were exempted from the law “On state regulations of activities on organizing and conducting gambling.” In 2008 Zhuravsky together with his friend and business partner Yuriy Krasovsky founded "First International bookmaker company" that start its activity under the "Liga Stavok" brand. From 2017 Yuriy Krasovsky is a President of Bookmaker Company "Liga Stavok" and First self-regulated bookmaker's organization of Russia. Since 2010, the “Liga Stavok” began to cooperate with the Russian Premier League to counteract football match fixing and corruption in sport. Oleg Zhuravsky was appointed adviser to the President of the Premier League on the prevention of match-fixing, his company started monitoring and controlling the pre-match betting markets on the RPL matches in order to detect collusion between participating teams. In 2013, Zhuravsky promoted the adoption of a law that increased the penalty for participation in match-fixing.
Sports federations were obligated to take measures to combat match-fixing and to inform authorities about the unlawful effect of such competitions. For violation of these rules, state accreditation could be withdrawn. According to the law, bookmakers were required to accept bets only upon the presentation of identity documents, to keep records of gambling participants, as well as to inform the taxation organizations and sports federations of the payouts or payable winnings according to the results of wagers on matches which ended with the least probable outcome. Oleg Zhuravsky proposed amendments to federal law No. 244-ФЗ "On state regulation of activities for organizing and conducting gambling,” which came into effect in 2014. Legislative innovations obliged bookmakers and organizers of parimutuel betting to join self-regulatory organizations, introduced the notions of "interactive bets" and "the Сenter for taking interactive bets" through which bookmakers could be legalized via the Internet.
At the end of 2014, a number of large bookmakers, including the “Liga Stavok,” Winline, "1×Stavka" and 888.ru, united into the "First Self-Regulatory Organization" headed by Zhuravsky. Improvement of the legal framework for online bookmaking took another year, in February 2016 the first “Center” was launched by the “First SRO” on the platform of the non-banking credit organization “Mobil’naya karta”; the "Liga Stavok" was the first Russian bookmaker company, integrated with the “First Сenter for Taking Interactive Bets” and began to receive bets online. To make an interactive bet, customers had to go online to register at the “Liga Stavok” website on the “Center’s” website, confirm their identity by visiting the bookmaker's club or an office of its partner. In November 2016, the “Liga Stavok” was awarded the Runet Prize as the best online service offering sports entertainment. On April 1, 2017, the federal law "On Introducing Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in Formation of Mechanisms for Increasing the Income of the Subjects of Children's and Youth Sports as well as the Subjects of Professional Sports" was enacted.
This legalization expanded the ways in which the bookmaker business might be advertised, but at the same time affirmed that bookmakers should give part of their profits to sports associations that control matches. The target deductions of bookmakers were 5% of the positive difference between the number of accepted bets and paid wins. Of these deductions, 20% were to be spent on the development of children's and youth sports, another 80% - for professional sports; the “Liga Stavok,” led by Oleg Zhuravsky, was one of the main public supporters of the adoption of this law and participated in its elaboration. When the law was implemented, agreements were signed with the following sports associations: Since 2010, Liga Stavok has been cooperating with the Russian Premier League in the framework of the Pan-European Early Warning System, aimed at fighting match fixing. In September 2012, together with the head of the Russian Premier League Sergey Pryadkin, the company announced the creation of the All-Russian Football Lottery, 10% of the proceeds of, supposed to be sent to the RFPL for the development of youth football and mass football in the Russian Federation.
The projected revenue, according to the parties, should have been at least 1.6 billion rubles in five years. In 2014, Liga Stavok became the official betting company of the Russian Premier League, with which it works as the general partner of the