Celadon originated in China, though the term is purely European, and notable kilns such as the Longquan kiln in Zhejiang province are renowned for their celadon glazes. Celadon production spread to regions in Asia, such as Japan, Korea. Eventually European potteries produced some pieces, but it was never an element there. Finer pieces are in porcelain, but both the color and the glaze can be produced in stoneware and earthenware, most of the earlier Longquan celadon is on the border of stoneware and porcelain, meeting the Chinese but not the European definitions of porcelain. The similarity of the color to jade, traditionally the most highly valued material in China, was a part of its attraction. Celadon continued to be produced in China at a lower level, in Korea the celadons produced under the Goryeo Dynasty are regarded as the classic wares of Korean porcelain. The celadon colour is produced by firing a glaze containing a little iron oxide at a high temperature in a reducing kiln. The materials must be refined, as other chemicals can alter the color completely, too little iron oxide causes a blue colour, and too much gives olive and finally black, the right amount is between 0. 75% and 2. 5%.
The presence of chemicals may have effects, titanium dioxide gives a yellowish tinge. Pieces made with a celadon glaze are themselves often referred to as celadons, the term celadon for the potterys pale jade-green glaze was coined by European connoisseurs of the wares. Another theory is that the term is a corruption of the name of Saladin, the Ayyubid Sultan, yet a third theory is that the word derives from the Sanskrit sila and dhara, which mean green and stone respectively. The unique grey or green glaze is a result of iron oxides transformation from ferric to ferrous iron during the firing process. Individual pieces in a single firing can have different colours. Most of the time, green was the colour, reminding the Chinese of jade. The most famous and desired shades range from a pale green to deep intense green, often meaning to mimic the green shades of jade. The main color effect is produced by iron oxide in the recipe or clay body. Celadons are almost exclusively fired in a reducing atmosphere kiln as the changes in the iron oxide which accompany depriving it of free oxygen are what produce the desired colors.
As with most glazes, crazing can occur in the glaze and, greenwares are found in earthenware from the Shang dynasty onwards
Arts and Crafts movement
It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms, and often used medieval, romantic, or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform and was essentially anti-industrial and it had a strong influence on the arts in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s, and its influence continued among craft makers and town planners long afterwards. It was inspired by the ideas of architect Augustus Pugin, writer John Ruskin, the movement developed earliest and most fully in the British Isles, and spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and North America. It was largely a reaction against the perceived impoverished state of the arts at the time. The Arts and Crafts style emerged from the attempt to reform design, but it was as much a movement of social reform as design reform and its leading practitioners did not separate the two. The art historian Nikolaus Pevsner has said that exhibits in the Great Exhibition showed ignorance of basic need in creating patterns.
Owen Jones, for example, declared that Ornament, fiona MacCarthy says that unlike zealots like Gandhi, William Morris had no practical objections to the use of machinery per se so long as the machines produced the quality he needed. Morriss followers had differing views or changed their minds over time. C. R. Ashbee, for example, a figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement. At the time of his Guild of Handicraft, initiated in 1888, he said, We do not reject the machine, but we would desire to see it mastered. Morris insisted that the artist should be a working by hand and advocated a society of free craftspeople. Because craftsmen took pleasure in their work, he wrote, the Middle Ages was a period of greatness in the art of the common people. The treasures in our museums now are only the common used in households of that age. Medieval art was the model for much Arts and Crafts design and medieval life, before capitalism, the founders of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society did not insist that the designer should be the maker.
Peter Floud, writing in the 1950s, said that The founders of the Society, never executed their own designs, but invariably turned them over to commercial firms. The Arts and Crafts Movement was associated with socialist ideas in the persons of Morris, T. J. Cobden Sanderson, Walter Crane, Ashbee, in the early 1880s Morris was spending more of his time on socialist propaganda than on designing and making. Ashbee established a community of craftsmen, the Guild of Handicraft, in east London and those adherents who were not socialists, for example, Alfred Hoare Powell, advocated a more humane and personal relationship between employer and employee. Lewis Foreman Day, a successful and influential Arts and Crafts designer, was not a socialist either
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running a large workshop and, despite his death at 37. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings and he was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region and his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the very court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture, growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a humanistic education however, it is unclear how easily he read Latin. His mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1,1494 by his father, Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother. He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master and he had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been a great help to his father.
A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity and his fathers workshop continued and, probably together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a very early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello, previously the court painter, and Luca Signorelli, according to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice despite the tears of his mother. The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, an alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters, the Perugino workshop was active in both Perugia and Florence, perhaps maintaining two permanent branches. Raphael is described as a master, that is to say fully trained and his first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and Urbino.
Evangelista da Pian di Meleto, who had worked for his father, was named in the commission
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
The term monumental sculpture is often used in art history and criticism, but not always consistently. It combines two concepts, one of function, and one of size, and may include an element of a more subjective concept. It is often used for all sculptures that are large, human figures that are perhaps half life-size or above would usually be considered monumental in this sense by art historians, although in contemporary art a rather larger overall scale is implied. Monumental sculpture is distinguished from small portable figurines, small metal or ivory reliefs, diptychs. It is used of sculpture used to create or form part of a monument of some sort, the third concept that may be involved when the term is used is not specific to sculpture, as the other two essentially are. The entry for Monumental in A Dictionary of Art and Artists by Peter and Linda Murray describes it as, The most overworked word in current art history and it is not a synonym for large. For example, when Meyer Schapiro, after a chapter analysing the carved capitals at Moissac, says and it is placed above the level of the eye, and is so large as to dominate the entire entrance.
It is a gigantic semi-circular relief, size is certainly the dominant part of what he means by the word, and Schapiros further comments suggest that a lack of excess of virtuousity does not form part of what he intends to convey. Nonetheless, parts of the Murrays concept are included in his meaning, in Ancient Egypt, the Great Sphinx of Giza probably dates to the 3rd millennium BC, and may be older than the Pyramids of Egypt. Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as Ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, when a culture ceases to produce monumental sculpture, there may be a number of reasons. The most common is societal collapse, as in Europe during the so-called Dark Ages or the Classic Maya collapse in Mesoamerica, another may be aniconism, usually religiously motivated, as followed the Muslim conquests.
Monumental sculpture is used within the stoneworking and funeral trades to cover all forms of grave headstones and other funerary art. In contemporary art, however, it is used to refer to all large sculptures regardless of purpose, for example, by the Cass Sculpture Foundation, in the UK. Sculptures covered by the term in art are likely to be over two metres in at least one dimension, and sufficiently large not to need a high plinth. Many are still commissioned as public art, often for placing at outdoor sites, Meyer, Selected Papers, volume 2, Romanesque Art,1977, Chatto & Windus, London, ISBN 0-7011-2239-0 Contemporary monumental sculptures
Mass production, flow production or continuous production is the production of large amounts of standardized products and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods, the term mass production was popularized by a 1926 article in the Encyclopedia Britannica supplement that was written based on correspondence with Ford Motor Company. The New York Times used the term in the title of an article that appeared before publication of the Britannica article, the concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products, from fluids and particulates handled in bulk to discrete solid parts to assemblies of such parts. Mass production is a field, but it can generally be contrasted with craft production or distributed manufacturing. Mass production of fluid matter typically involves pipes with centrifugal pumps or screw conveyors to transfer raw materials or partially complete products between vessels, materials on pallets are handled with forklifts.
Also used for handling heavy items like reels of paper, steel or machinery are electric overhead cranes, sometimes called bridge cranes because they span large factory bays. Mass production is intensive and energy intensive, as it uses a high proportion of machinery. It is usually automated while total expenditure per unit of product is decreased, the machinery that is needed to set up a mass production line is so expensive that there must be some assurance that the product is to be successful to attain profits. One of the descriptions of mass production is that the skill is built into the tool, for example, in the 19th or early 20th century, this could be expressed as the craftsmanship is in the workbench itself. Later, once computerized control came about, jigs were obviated and this is the specialized capital required for mass production, each workbench and set of tools is different. Crossbows made with bronze parts were produced in China during the Warring States period, the Qin Emperor unified China at least in part by equipping large armies with these weapons, which were equipped with a sophisticated trigger mechanism made of interchangeable parts.
Ships of war were produced on a scale at a moderate cost by the Carthaginians in their excellent harbors. The Venetians themselves produced ships using prefabricated parts and assembly lines many centuries later, the Venetian Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day, in what was effectively the worlds first factory which, at its height, employed 16,000 people. Mass production in the industry has been commonplace since the Gutenberg Bible was published using a printing press in the mid-15th century. In the Industrial Revolution simple mass production techniques were used at the Portsmouth Block Mills in England to make ships pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. It was achieved in 1803 by Marc Isambard Brunel in cooperation with Henry Maudslay under the management of Sir Samuel Bentham, the Navy was in a state of expansion that required 100,000 pulley blocks to be manufactured a year. Bentham had already achieved remarkable efficiency at the docks by introducing power-driven machinery, by 1805, the dockyard had been fully updated with the revolutionary, purpose-built machinery at a time when products were still built individually with different components. A total of 45 machines were required to perform 22 processes on the blocks, the machines were almost entirely made of metal thus improving their accuracy and durability
National Museum, New Delhi
The National Museum in New Delhi, known as the National Museum of India, is one of the largest museums in India. Established in 1949, it holds variety of articles ranging from pre-historic era to modern works of art and it functions under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The museum is situated on the corner of Janpath and Maulana Azad Road, the blue–print of the National Museum had been prepared by the Gwyer Committee set up by the Government of India in 1946. The Museum has around 200,000 works of art, both of Indian and foreign origin, covering over 5,000 years, the roots of the National Museum begin with an exhibition of Indian art and artefacts at the Royal Academy in London in the winter of 1947-48. At the end of the London exhibition, the curators had decided to display the same collection intact in India before returning the artefacts to their individual museums. The Indian exhibition was shown at the Rashtrapati Bhawan in 1949, on 15 August 1949, the National Museum was formally inaugurated by the Governor-General of India, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari.
At that time, it was decided that until a permanent home could be found for the collection, it would continue to be housed at the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The cornerstone of the present museum building was laid by Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India, on 12 May 1955, the Museum is administered and funded by the Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Tourism. Presently, there are several departments in the National Museum, the Museum has in its possession over 200,000 works of art, of both Indian and foreign origin, covering more than 5,000 years of the rich cultural heritage of different parts of the world. The National Museum building has 2 floors and it has a rotunda around which the structure is based. The Museum has various artefacts from the Harappan Civilization known as Indus Valley Civilization or Indo- Saraswati, the whole collection of this gallery represents the advanced technology and sophisticated lifestyle of the Harappan people. Most of the objects on display are permanent loans from the Archaeological Survey of India, apart from these the gallery has Sculptures in Bronzes & Terracotta, Bone Objects, Steatite, Semi-Precious Stones, Painted Pottery and Jewellery items.
Many seals have been discovered during numerous excavations and these seals were probably used for trading purposes. These seals depict bulls, unicorns, crocodiles, on one of the seal, there is the depiction of Pasupati The gallery presents the vibrancy of human civilization in India at par with the contemporary civilizations of Mesopotamia and China. Among the artefacts, the most significant is the Dancing Girl which is a 4.5 inch bronze statue, the name Dancing Girl was coined by Sir John Marshall. It is made by the Lost Wax Method, the Chola bronzes and the Dhokra castings are still made this way. The gallery has objects from the 4th century BCE to the 1st century BCE and it has objects spanning three major dynasties, The Mauryas, the Shungas and the Satvahanas. Objects in the gallery have Greek influence characterized by the mirror like finishing, the gallery houses fragments of railings from various ancient Stupas that are carved on with episodes from Buddhas Life
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, casting, the trade has very often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing, compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, and it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may easily be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other such as bronzes. It is fairly easy to weld, wherein similarly to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal—because it does not react with most elements and it usually is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, and the history of these activities is extensive.
Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America, some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a level that was lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed. In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and usually were one of the most important, the guild kept records of members and the marks they used on their products. These records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths often acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the storage of valuable items. The Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, in India, Vishwakarma are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have an array of skills and knowledge at their disposal.
Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers opportunities for the worker. In todays world a variety of other metals, especially platinum alloys. 24 Carat is pure gold and historically, was known as fine gold, because it is so soft, however,24 Carat gold is rarely used
Ink wash painting
Ink wash painting, known as literati painting, is an East Asian type of brush painting of Chinese origin that uses black ink—the same as used in East Asian calligraphy, in various concentrations. For centuries, this most prestigious form of Chinese art was practiced by highly educated scholar gentlemen or literati, names used in the cultures concerned include, in Chinese shuǐ mò huà, in Japanese sumi-e or suibokuga, in Korean sumukhwa, and in Vietnamese tranh thủy mặc. Textual evidence suggests that Shan shui style painting existed during Chinas Liu Song dynasty of the fifth century, ink wash painting developed further during the Tang dynasty. The 8th-century poet/painter Wang Wei is generally credited as the painter who applied color to existing ink wash paintings, the art was further developed into a more polished style during the Song Dynasty. It was introduced to Korea shortly after Chinas discovery of the ink, Asian aesthetic writing is generally consistent in stating the goal of ink and wash painting is not simply to reproduce the appearance of the subject, but to capture its spirit.
To paint a horse, the ink wash painting artist must understand its temperament better than its muscles and bones, to paint a flower, there is no need to perfectly match its petals and colors, but it is essential to convey its liveliness and fragrance. East Asian ink wash painting may be regarded as a form of art that captures the unseen. In landscape painting the scenes depicted are typically imaginary, or very loose adaptations of actual views, mountain landscapes are by far the most common, often evoking particular areas traditionally famous for their beauty, from which the artist may have been very distant. East Asian ink wash painting has inspired modern artists in the West. In his classic book Composition, American artist and educator Arthur Wesley Dow wrote this about ink wash painting, put upon the paper the fewest possible lines and tones, just enough to cause form and effect to be felt. Every brush-touch must be full-charged with meaning, and useless detail eliminated, put together all the good points in such a method, and you have the qualities of the highest art.
Dow strived for harmonic compositions through three elements, line and color and he advocated practicing with East Asian brushes and ink to develop aesthetic acuity with line and shading. Ink wash painting artists spend years practicing basic brush strokes to refine their brush movement, in the hand of a master, a single stroke can produce astonishing variations in tonality, from deep black to silvery gray. Ink wash painting is usually done on paper or washi both of which are highly absorbent and unsized. Silk is used in forms of ink painting. Many types of paper and washi do not lend themselves readily to a smooth wash the way watercolor paper does. Each brush stroke is visible, so any wash in the sense of Western style painting requires partially sized paper, paper manufacturers today understand artists demands for more versatile papers and work to produce kinds that are more flexible. In ink wash paintings, as in calligraphy, artists usually grind inkstick over an inkstone to obtain black ink, most inksticks are made of soot from pine or oil combined with animal glue
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols.
In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, cobalt, and so on.
Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in music
The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol, was Persianate in terms of culture. The Mughal empire extended over parts of the Indian subcontinent. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire, the classic period of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as harmony. Akbar was a warrior who forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, the reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658 was the golden age of Mughal architecture.
He erected several monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi. By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies, during the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and following the defeat was therefore tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, another name was Hindustan, which was documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term Mughal was used for the emperor, and by extension, the use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, and it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term gained currency during the 19th century, but remains disputed by Indologists, similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including Mogul and Moghul. Nevertheless, Baburs ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture, ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. He established himself in Kabul and pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, Baburs forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526. The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India, the instability of the empire became evident under his son, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels. Humayuns exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire, the restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayuns triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards.
Humayuns son, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials and miniature illustrations. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted, islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical and economic history of the subject, for an art-historical account, the earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire. The significance of these works lies not only in their inherent artistic and historical value, had it not been for the monastic scribes of Late Antiquity, most literature of Greece and Rome would have perished in Europe. As it was, the patterns of textual survivals were shaped by their usefulness to the severely constricted literate group of Christians, the majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many survive from the Renaissance, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity.
The majority of manuscripts are of a religious nature. However, especially from the 13th century onward, a number of secular texts were illuminated. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices, which had superseded scrolls, a very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus, which does not last nearly as long as vellum or parchment. Most medieval manuscripts, illuminated or not, were written on parchment, beginning in the late Middle Ages manuscripts began to be produced on paper. Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced in the early 16th century, Manuscripts are among the most common items to survive from the Middle Ages, many thousands survive. They are the best surviving specimens of medieval painting, for many areas and time periods, they are the only surviving examples of painting. There are a few examples from periods, the type of book that was most often heavily and richly illuminated, sometimes known as a display book, varied between periods. In the first millennium, these were most likely to be Gospel Books, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Romanesque period saw the creation of many huge illuminated complete Bibles – one in Sweden requires three librarians to lift it.
Many Psalters were illuminated in both this and the Gothic period. Finally, the Book of Hours, very commonly the personal book of a wealthy layperson, was often richly illuminated in the Gothic period. Other books, both liturgical and not, continued to be illuminated at all periods, the Byzantine world continued to produce manuscripts in its own style, versions of which spread to other Orthodox and Eastern Christian areas. See Medieval art for other regions and types, reusing parchments by scraping the surface and reusing them was a common practice, the traces often left behind of the original text are known as palimpsests. The Gothic period, which saw an increase in the production of these beautiful artifacts, saw more secular works such as chronicles