A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product or process. The verb to design expresses the process of developing a design. In some cases, the direct construction of an object without an explicit prior plan may be considered to be a design activity; the design has to satisfy certain goals and constraints, may take into account aesthetic, economic, or socio-political considerations, is expected to interact with a certain environment. Major examples of designs include architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, sewing patterns; the person who produces a design is called a designer, a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas—usually specifying which area is being dealt with, but others such as architects and engineers. A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process using design methods.
The process of creating a design can be brief or lengthy and complicated, involving considerable research, reflection, interactive adjustment and re-design. Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs. Kees Dorst and Judith Dijkhuis, both designers themselves, argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways", both of which have several names; the prevailing view has been called "the rational model", "technical problem solving" and "the reason-centric perspective". The alternative view has been called "reflection-in-action", "co-evolution", "the action-centric perspective"; the rational model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon, an American scientist, Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists, it posits that: Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives.
The design process is plan-driven. The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages; the rational model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the waterfall model, systems development life cycle, much of the engineering design literature. According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Typical stages consistent with the rational model include the following: Pre-production design Design brief or Parti pris – an early statement of design goals Analysis – analysis of current design goals Research – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics Specification – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product or service. Problem solving – conceptualizing and documenting design solutions Presentation – presenting design solutions Design during production Development – continuation and improvement of a designed solution Testing – in situ testing of a designed solution Post-production design feedback for future designs Implementation – introducing the designed solution into the environment Evaluation and conclusion – summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated at any time before, during, or after production.
Each stage has many associated best practices. The rational model has been criticized on two primary grounds: Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are unknown when a design project begins, the requirements and constraints continue to change; the action-centric perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the rational model. It posits that: Designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates; the design process is improvised. No universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked; the action-centric perspective is based on an empiricist philosophy and broadly consistent with the agile approach and amethodical development. Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers. Like the rational model, the action-centric model sees design as informed by knowledge.
However and knowledge are brought into the design process through the judgment and common sense of designers – by designers "thinking on their feet" – more than through the predictable and controlled process stipulated by the rational model. At least two views of design activity are consistent with the action-centric perspective. Both involve three basic activities. In the reflection-in-action paradigm, designers alternate between "framing", "making moves", "evaluating moves". "Framing" refers to conceptualizing i.e. defining goals and objectives. A "move" is a tentative design decision; the evaluation process may lead to further moves in the design. In the sensemaking–coevolution–implementation framework, designers alternate between its three titular activities. Sensemaking includes both evaluating moves. Implementation is the process of constructing the design object. Coevolution is "the process where the design agent refines its men
This list is a partial list of animals that are poisonous to humans, or put another way, their flesh is toxic if consumed, or in some cases touched: Pitohui Blue-capped ifrit Little shrikethrush Spur-winged goose Common quail Rhabdophis keelback snakes Garter snake American toad Asiatic toad Cane toad Colorado River toad Common toad Corroboree frog European green toad Fowler's toad Mantella Poison dart frog Pacific newts Tetraodontidae Greenland shark Barracuda Blue-ringed octopus Pfeffer's flamboyant cuttlefish Blister beetle Birdwings Milkweed butterfly Battus Diamphidia Monarch Some members of the genus palythoa produce the toxic palytoxin Rhodactis species Poisonous amphibians Toxic birds List of venomous animals List of poisonous plants List of poisonous fungi
The 2012 Indiana gubernatorial election took place on November 6, 2012. Incumbent governor Mitch Daniels was unable to seek a third term; the Republican candidate, Congressman Mike Pence. This is the first open Indiana gubernatorial election since 1996 and the first gubernatorial election since 1972 without the governor or LT. governor as a nominee. Pence narrowly won the election, with it being the closest race for governor since 1960. Pence was elected Vice President of the United States four years as the running mate of Donald Trump. Mike Pence, U. S. Representative Jim Wallace, former Hamilton County councilman John R. Gregg, former Speaker of the Indiana House of Representatives Rupert Boneham, four-time contestant on Survivor and founder of Rupert's Kids. Boneham was nominated by delegates at his party's state convention. Mike Pence, U. S. RepresentativeRunning mate: Sue Ellspermann, state RepresentativeJohn Gregg, former Speaker of the Indiana House of RepresentativesRunning mate: Vi Simpson, state Senate Minority LeaderRupert Boneham, four-time contestant on Survivor and founder of Rupert's KidsRunning mate: Brad Klopfenstein, former executive director of the Libertarian Party of IndianaDonnie Harold Harris Running mate: George Fish The Indiana Debate Commission organized three televised debates between Indiana Gubernatorial candidates Republican Mike Pence, Democrat John R. Gregg and Libertarian Rupert Boneham.
Debate scheduleThe first debate was held on Wednesday, October 10, 2012 at the Zionsville Performing Arts Center in Zionsville and was moderated by former Indianapolis Star editor Dennis Ryerson. Complete video of debate, October 10, 2012 - C-SPANThe second debate was held on Wednesday, October 17, 2012 at the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center in South Bend and was moderated by Indiana Fiscal Policy Institute president John Ketzenberger. Complete video of debate, October 17, 2012 - C-SPANThe third debate was held on Thursday, October 25, 2012 at the WFWA PBS 39 studio in Fort Wayne and was moderated by DePauw University Executive Director of Media Relations Ken Owen. Complete video of debate, October 25, 2012 - YouTube When the polls closed, the election was close, continued to stay close throughout the night. Gregg performed well in Marion County and Lake County, which were Democratic strongholds. Pence performed well in the Fort Wayne area. At 12:34 am EST, the Associated Press called the race for Pence.
At 1:06 am, Gregg called Pence to concede, realizing there weren't enough votes left to overtake him. Pence won the election. Pence took office on January 13, 2013; this was one of Indiana's closest gubernatorial elections. Election Division at the Indiana Secretary of State office Indiana gubernatorial and lieutenant gubernatorial election, 2012 at BallotpediaCampaign websites Rupert Boneham for Governor John R. Gregg for Governor Mike Pence for Governor