Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
White House Press Secretary
The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act as spokesperson for the executive branch of the United States government administration with regard to the President, senior executives, policies. The press secretary is responsible for collecting information about actions and events within the president's administration and issues the administration's reactions to developments around the world; the press secretary interacts with the media, deals with the White House press corps on a daily basis in a daily press briefing. The press secretary serves at the pleasure of the president. S. Senate, though because of the frequent briefings given to the media, who in turn inform the public, the position is still a prominent non-Cabinet post; the current Press Secretary is Sarah Sanders. During the United States' somewhat early years, the White House staff or various White House Offices were not as robust as they are today and there was not a single designated staff person or office responsible for managing the relationship between the president and the growing number of journalists and media entities that were covering him.
It was not until after President Abraham Lincoln's administration that Congress formally appropriated funds for a White House Staff, which at first consisted of a Secretary. Ulysses S. Grant's White House Staff numbered six people at a cost of $13,800, though he supplemented with personnel from the War Department. Fifty years under the Coolidge Administration, the staff had increased to just fewer than fifty people at a cost of nearly $100,000; as presidents hired more staff, some showed a tendency to pick aides and confidantes who had backgrounds in the field of journalism. One of Abraham Lincoln's private secretaries, John G. Nicolay, had been an editor and owner of a newspaper in Illinois before he worked for the President in the White House. While the modern equivalent of a private or personal secretary to the President of the United States would be more narrowly concerned with the care and feeding of the president, the small size of the White House staff at that point meant that Nicolay interacted with the press in carrying out his duties.
He was asked to verify stories or information that various members of the press had heard. Though the title and establishment of the roles and responsibilities of the press secretary job was still decades in the future, the small and growing White House staff was interacting with a growing number of professional journalists and mass media entities covering the president and the White House. Andrew Johnson was the first president to grant a formal interview request to a reporter, sitting down with Col. Alexander K. McClure from Pennsylvania. Although various presidents and reporters had participated in conversations or dialogues prior to Johnson, the exchanges had been less formal. Prior to the 1880s and the Presidency of Grover Cleveland, the relationship between the president, his administration, the small but growing number of newspapers covering him was such that there was little need for a formal plan or designated spokesperson to manage it; the relationship between government and the press was not as inherently adversarial and arms length as in modern times.
In fact, prior to the establishment of the U. S. Government Printing Office, some newspapers were awarded contracts to print government publications and awarded the president with support in exchange. For example, the Gazette of the United States won an early U. S. Treasury was supportive of then-President Washington. In general, though coverage of the president could be harsh and opinionated, newspapers were to some degree extensions of the political party apparatus and subsequently not seen as entities requiring specific, sustained management by the White House or administration; the media had changed by 1884, when Grover Cleveland was elected as President of the United States. Between 1776 and 1884, the United States had quadrupled in size and increased in population from 2.5 million to 56 million. The number of newspaper publications in active circulation had increased from 37 to more than 1,200 dailies, in addition to the many new monthly magazines; the rapid growth in journalism as a booming industry resulted in an increase in reporters covering the activities of the president.
Grover Cleveland married 21-year-old Frances Folsom in 1886. The growing number of reporters and the increasing aggressiveness of their style of coverage led to frustrations when the President and his new bride were unable to rid themselves of reporters who followed them to their honeymoon in Deer Park, Maryland. President Cleveland relied on his private secretary, Daniel Lamont, who had once been an editor of the Albany Argus, to keep the reporters at bay; the controversy surrounding coverage of the trip resulted in a public debate about the balance between the right of the President and his family to privacy and the role of the press in covering the country's most public figure. In an editorial, the New York World defended the right of the press to cover the president at all times: The idea of offending the bachelor sensitiveness of President Cleveland or the maidenly reserve of his bride has been far from anybody's thought... We must insist; the debate over the coverage of Grover Cleveland's honeymoon is not dissimilar from disagreements between the first family and the press within the last decade.
Before he was preside
The West Wing
The West Wing is an American serial political drama television series created by Aaron Sorkin, broadcast on NBC from September 22, 1999, to May 14, 2006. The series is set in the West Wing of the White House, where the Oval Office and offices of presidential senior staff are located, during the fictitious Democratic administration of Josiah Bartlet; the West Wing was produced by Warner Bros. Television and featured an ensemble cast, including Martin Sheen, John Spencer, Allison Janney, Rob Lowe, Bradley Whitford and Richard Schiff. For the first four seasons, there were three executive producers: Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, John Wells. After Sorkin left the series, Wells assumed the role of head writer, with executive producers being directors Alex Graves and Christopher Misiano, writers Lawrence O'Donnell Jr. and Peter Noah. The West Wing is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential television series, it has been ranked among the best television shows of all time in publications such as, Time, TV Guide, Rolling Stone, the New York Daily News.
The Writers Guild of America ranked. It has received praise from critics, political science professors, former White House staffers and has been the subject of critical analysis; the West Wing received a multitude of accolades, including two Peabody Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, 26 Primetime Emmy Awards, including the award for Outstanding Drama Series, which it won four consecutive times from 2000–2003. The show's ratings waned in years following the departure of series creator Sorkin after the fourth season, yet it remained popular among high-income viewers, a key demographic for the show and its advertisers, with around 16 million viewers; the West Wing employed a broad ensemble cast to portray the many positions involved in the daily work of the federal government. The President, the First Lady, the President's senior staff and advisers form the core cast. Numerous secondary characters, appearing intermittently, complement storylines that revolve around this core group. Josiah "Jed" Bartlet is the President of the United States.
An economist by training, he is a former Congressman and Governor from New Hampshire who unexpectedly won the Democratic Party nomination. He suffers from multiple sclerosis, a fact he hides from the electorate, he is succeeded by Matt Santos. Leo McGarry is Chief of Staff. Following a heart attack, he becomes Counselor to the President, the Democratic Candidate for Vice President, he dies before assuming office. Josh Lyman is the Deputy Chief of Staff to Leo McGarry. Josh leaves the White House to become the "Santos for President" campaign manager; when Santos is elected, Josh becomes White House Chief of Staff. Toby Ziegler is the Communications Director, where he wrote many of Bartlet's speeches, including both Inaugural Addresses and many State of the Union Addresses, he is fired from the Bartlet administration during a leak investigation, though he is pardoned for his crimes at series' end. He has twin children with his ex-wife, a congresswoman from Maryland. Sam Seaborn is the Deputy Communications Director to Toby Ziegler.
In his time at the White House, Sam is responsible for writing many of Bartlet's speeches. He departs the White House following the re-election of President Bartlet to run for Congress, he is recruited to become Santos' Deputy Chief of Staff at the series end. C. J. Cregg is the Press Secretary, she succeeds Leo McGarry as Chief of Staff and departs the White House at the end of the Bartlet administration. Post-series, she has a child. Charlie Young is the Personal Aide to the President and a Deputy Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff, he is in a relationship with Zoey Bartlet. At the series end he begins to study law at Georgetown. Donna Moss is the Senior Assistant to Josh Lyman, she departs to be a spokesperson for the Russell campaign and the Santos campaign. Upon Santos' election, she becomes Chief of Staff to the First Lady. Abbey Bartlet is the First Lady, Jed's wife, a physician.. Mandy Hampton is Josh Lyman's ex-girlfriend and a media consultant contracted by the Bartlet administration.
She departs without explanation following the first season. Will Bailey is hired as a speechwriter and transitions into the role of Deputy Communications Director, he becomes Chief of Staff to the Vice President, Russell's Campaign Manager, Communications Director. After the series end he becomes a congressman for Oregon. Kate Harper is the Deputy National Security Advisor. Matt Santos is a Congressman from Texas, convinced by Josh Lyman to run for President, he wins the nomination and the election.. Arnold Vinick is a Senator from California. After his loss in the general election, he is appointed Secretary of State by President-elect Santos. Annabeth Schott (Kristin Chenowet
Jesse Jackson Jr.
Jesse Louis Jackson Jr. is a former American politician who served as a Democratic Congressman representing Illinois's 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1995 until his resignation in 2012. He is the son of activist and former presidential candidate Jesse Jackson and, prior to his career in elected office, worked for his father in both the elder Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign and his social justice, civil rights and political activism organization, Operation PUSH. Jackson's wife, Sandi Jackson, served on the Chicago City Council, he served as a national co-chairman of the 2008 Barack Obama presidential campaign. Jackson established a consistent liberal record on both social and fiscal issues, he has co-authored books on civil rights and personal finance. In October 2012, Jackson was investigated for financial improprieties including misuse of campaign funds. Jackson resigned from Congress on November 21, 2012, citing mental and physical health problems, including bipolar disorder and gastrointestinal problems.
On February 8, 2013, Jackson admitted to violating federal campaign law by using campaign funds to make personal purchases. Jackson pleaded guilty on February 2013, to one count of wire and mail fraud. On August 14, 2013, he was sentenced to 30 months in federal prison. Jackson was released from prison on March 26, 2015. Jackson was born in Greenville, South Carolina, raised in the Jackson Park Highlands District of the South Shore community area on the South Side of Chicago, one of five children of Jesse and Jacqueline Jackson, he attended nursery school at the University of Chicago and attended John J. Pershing Elementary School. At age five, Jackson mimicked his father in a speech atop a milk crate at the Operation PUSH headquarters, his father sought media attention to shed light on important issues according to some accounts and as a result of his father's travels, his time with his father occurred in the time between meetings. He and his brother Jonathan were sent to Le Mans Military Academy in Rolling Prairie, after Jackson was diagnosed as hyperactive.
He was paddled at times as a young cadet for disciplinary reasons. During his tenure at LeMans Academy he earned the rank of Company Commander. Jackson was suspended from school twice. Jackson graduated from St. Albans School, he was an all-state running back on his football team in high school and was featured in the February 1984 issue of Sports Illustrated as part of their Faces in the Crowd section, which noted him for his 15 touchdowns, 889 rushing yards, 7.2 yards per carry in six games. Jackson enrolled in North Carolina A&T University, his father's alma mater, earning his Bachelor of Science degree magna cum laude in 1987, he decided to follow his father's advice to receive a seminary education at the Chicago Theological Seminary, where he earned his master's degree a year early but opted not to become ordained. Jackson proceeded to law school at the University of Illinois and convinced his future wife to transfer there from the Georgetown University Law Center, he earned a Juris Doctor from the University of Illinois College of Law in 1993.
Jackson never sat for the bar exam despite finishing his coursework a semester early. As a teenager and his brother Jonathan assisted in their father's civil rights activities. During the 1984 Democratic primaries, the three Jackson brothers sometimes appeared at events together in support of their father's presidential campaign. While in college, Jackson held a voter registration drive that registered 3,500 voters on a campus with 4,500 students, his first job after graduation was as an executive director for the Rainbow Coalition. Jackson was again involved in his father's campaigning during the 1988 Democratic primaries. In 1988, in the dealings between his father and Michael Dukakis at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, Jackson's father obtained for him a position as an at-large member of the Democratic National Committee by a nomination from Democratic Party chairman Paul Kirk. Jackson Jr. was the last of the five children to speak and introduced his father with the words "a man who fights against the odds, who lives against the odds, our dad, Jesse Jackson."
At the time, in Time magazine, Margaret Carlson depicted the younger Jackson as a well-spoken and compelling personality who would carry any of his father's political aspirations that his father was unable to achieve himself. His experience with the DNC gave him the opportunity to work on numerous congressional election races. After the convention he became a vice president of Operation PUSH. Jackson was arrested on his twenty-first birthday in Washington, D. C. following his participation in demonstrations against apartheid at the South African Embassy. He had been arrested with his brother the year before in a similar activity, his protest against apartheid extended to weekly demonstrations in front of the South African Consulate in Chicago. Jackson shared the stage with Nelson Mandela when Mandela made his historic speech following his release from a 27-year imprisonment in Cape Town in February 1990. Before entering the House, he became secretary of the Democratic National Committee's Black Caucus, the national field director of the National Rainbow Coalition and a member of the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition.
Jackson served as the national field director of the Rainbow Coalition from 1993 to 1995. Under Jackson's leadership, the Rainbow Coalition attempted to stimulate equitable hiring in the National Basketball Association because while 78% of the league's players were African American, 92% of the front-office executive positions, 88% of the administrative jobs, 85% of the support positions were held by whites. Wh
Aaron Benjamin Sorkin is an American screenwriter, director and playwright. His works include the Broadway plays A Few Good Men, The Farnsworth Invention and To Kill a Mockingbird. For writing The Social Network, he won the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, among other awards, he made his feature directorial debut in 2017 with Molly's Game, which he wrote. Sorkin's trademark rapid-fire dialogue and extended monologues are complemented, in television, by frequent collaborator Thomas Schlamme's characteristic directing technique called the "walk and talk"; these sequences consist of single tracking shots of long duration involving multiple characters engaging in conversation as they move through the set. Sorkin was born in Manhattan, New York City, to a Jewish family, was raised in the New York suburb of Scarsdale, his mother was a schoolteacher and his father a copyright lawyer who had fought in WWII and put himself through college on the G. I. Bill, his paternal grandfather was one of the founders of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.
Sorkin took an early interest in acting. Before he reached his teenage years, his parents were taking him to the theatre to see shows such as Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and That Championship Season. Sorkin attended Scarsdale High School where he became involved in the theatre club. In eighth grade he played General Bullmoose in the musical Li'l Abner. At Scarsdale High, he served as vice president of the drama club in his junior and senior years and graduated in 1979. In 1979, Sorkin attended Syracuse University. In his freshman year he failed a class, a core requirement – a devastating setback because he wanted to be an actor, the drama department did not allow students to take the stage until they completed all the core freshman classes. Determined to do better, he returned in his sophomore year, graduated in 1983. Recalling the influence on him at college of drama teacher Arthur Storch, Sorkin recalled, after Storch's death in March 2013, that "Arthur's reputation as a director, as a disciple of Lee Strasberg, was a big reason why a lot of us went to S.
U....'You have the capacity to be so much better than you are', he started saying to me in September of my senior year. He was still saying it in May. On the last day of classes, he said it again, I said,'How?', he answered,'Dare to fail'. I've been coming through on his admonition since". After graduating from Syracuse University with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Musical Theatre in 1983, Sorkin moved to New York City where he spent much of the 1980s as a struggling, sporadically-employed actor who worked odd jobs, such as delivering singing telegrams, driving a limousine, touring Alabama with the children's theatre company Traveling Playhouse, handing out fliers promoting a hunting-and-fishing show, bartending at Broadway's Palace Theatre. One weekend, while housesitting at a friend's place he found an IBM Selectric typewriter, started typing, "felt a phenomenal confidence and a kind of joy that had never experienced before in life."He continued writing and put together his first play, Removing All Doubt, which he sent to his old Syracuse theatre teacher, Arthur Storch, impressed.
In 1984, Removing All Doubt was staged for drama students at Syracuse University. After that, he wrote Hidden in This Picture which debuted off-off-Broadway at Steve Olsen's West Bank Cafe Downstairs Theatre Bar in New York City in 1988; the contents of his first two plays got him a theatrical agent. Producer John A. McQuiggan saw the production of Hidden in This Picture and commissioned Sorkin to turn the one-act into a full-length play called Making Movies. Sorkin got the inspiration to write his next play, a courtroom drama called A Few Good Men, from a phone conversation with his sister Deborah, who had graduated from Boston University Law School and signed up for a three-year stint with the U. S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps. Deborah told Sorkin that she was going to Guantanamo Bay to defend a group of Marines who came close to killing a fellow Marine in a hazing ordered by a superior officer. Sorkin took that information and wrote much of his story on cocktail napkins while bartending at the Palace Theatre.
He and his roommates had purchased a Macintosh 512K so when he returned home he would empty his pockets of the cocktail napkins and type them into the computer, forming a basis from which he wrote many drafts for A Few Good Men. In 1988, Sorkin sold the film rights for A Few Good Men to producer David Brown before it premiered, in a deal, "well into six figures". Brown had read an article in The New York Times about Sorkin's one-act play Hidden in This Picture and found out Sorkin had a play called A Few Good Men, having Off Broadway readings. Brown produced A Few Good Men on Broadway at the Music Box Theatre, it was directed by Don Scardino. After opening in late 1989, it ran for 497 performances. Sorkin continued writing Making Movies and in 1990 it debuted Off-Broadway at the Promenade Theatre, produced by John A. McQuiggan, again directed by Don Scardino. Meanwhile, David Brown was producing a few projects at TriStar Pictures and tried to interest them in making A Few Good Men into a film but his proposal was declined due to the lack of star actor involvement.
Brown got a call from Alan Horn at Castle Rock Entertainment who wa
Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from California. She took office on November 4, 1992. A member of the Democratic Party, Feinstein was Mayor of San Francisco from 1978 to 1988. Born in San Francisco, Feinstein graduated from Stanford University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. In the 1960s, she worked in city government, she was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1969, she served as the board's first female president in 1978, during which time the assassinations of Mayor George Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk drew national attention. Feinstein succeeded Moscone as Mayor of San Francisco and became the first woman to assume the position. During her tenure, she led the renovation of the city's cable car system, oversaw the 1984 Democratic National Convention. After losing a race for governor in 1990, Feinstein won a 1992 special election to the U. S. Senate. Feinstein was first elected on the same ballot as her peer Barbara Boxer, the two women became California's first female U.
S. Senators. Feinstein has been re-elected five times since and in the 2012 election, she received 7.75 million votes--the most popular votes in any U. S. Senate election in history. Feinstein was the author of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban which expired in 2004. In 2013, she introduced a new assault weapons bill. Feinstein is the first and only woman to have chaired the Senate Rules Committee and the Select Committee on Intelligence. To date, she is the only woman to have presided over a U. S. presidential inauguration. At the age of 85, Feinstein is the oldest sitting U. S. Senator. Upon the retirement of Barbara Mikulski in January 2017, Feinstein became the longest-tenured female U. S. Senator serving in the Senate. Having won reelection in 2018 to a six-year term expiring in January 2025, Feinstein will become the longest serving woman Senator in history should she serve her full term. Feinstein was born Dianne Emiel Goldman in San Francisco, to Betty, a former model, Leon Goldman, a surgeon.
Feinstein's paternal grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Poland. Her maternal grandparents, the Rosenburg family, were from Russia. While they were of German-Jewish ancestry, they practiced the Russian Orthodox faith, as was required for Jews residing in Saint Petersburg. Feinstein graduated from Convent of the Sacred Heart High School, San Francisco in 1951 and from Stanford University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. Prior to elected service, Feinstein was appointed by then-California Governor Pat Brown to serve as a member of the California Women's Parole Board. Feinstein served as a fellow at the Coro Foundation in San Francisco. In 1969, Feinstein was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, she remained on the Board for nine years. During her tenure on the Board of Supervisors, she unsuccessfully ran for mayor of San Francisco twice, in 1971 against mayor Joseph Alioto, in 1975, when she lost the contest for a runoff slot by one percentage point, to supervisor John Barbagelata.
Because of her position, Feinstein became a target of the New World Liberation Front, an anti-capitalist and terrorist group which carried out bombings in California in the 1970s. The NWLF placed a bomb on the windowsill of the Feinstein home, they shot out the windows of a beach house she owned. She was elected president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1978 with initial opposition from Quentin Kopp. On November 27, 1978, Moscone and supervisor Harvey Milk were assassinated by a rival politician, Dan White, who had resigned from the Board of Supervisors two weeks earlier. Feinstein was in City Hall at the time of the shootings and discovered Milk's body after hearing the shots; that day Feinstein announced the assassinations had occurred. As President of the Board of Supervisors upon the death of Moscone, Feinstein succeeded to the mayoralty on December 4, 1978. Feinstein served out the remainder of Moscone's term and was elected in her own right in 1979, she served a full second term.
One of Feinstein's first challenges as mayor was the state of the San Francisco cable car system, shut down for emergency repairs in 1979. Feinstein helped win federal funding for the bulk of the work; the system closed for rebuilding in 1982 and the work was completed just in time for the 1984 Democratic National Convention. Feinstein oversaw planning policies to increase the number of high-rise buildings in San Francisco. Feinstein was seen as a moderate Democrat in one of the country's most liberal cities; as a supervisor, she was considered part of the centrist bloc that included Dan White and was opposed to Moscone. As mayor, Feinstein angered the city's large gay community by refusing to march in a gay rights parade and by vetoing domestic partner legislation in 1982. In the 1980 presidential election, while a majority of Bay Area Democrats continued to support Senator Ted Kennedy's primary challenge to President Jimmy Carter after it was clear Kennedy could not win, Feinstein was a strong supporter of the Carter–Mondale ticket.
She was given a high-profile speaking role on the opening night of the August Democratic National Convention, urging delegates to reject the Kennedy delegates' proposal to "open" the convention, thereby allowing delegates to ignore their states' popular vote, a proposal, soundly defeated. In the run-up to the 1984 Democratic National Convention, there was considerable media and public specu
Santa Clara University
Santa Clara's alumni have won a number of honors, including Pulitzer Prizes, the NBA MVP Award, induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Santa Clara alumni have served as mayors of San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Jose, Washington, DC; the two most recent Governors of California attended Santa Clara. Santa Clara's sports teams are called the Broncos, their colors are white. The Broncos compete at the NCAA Division I levels as members of the West Coast Conference in 19 sports. Broncos have won NCAA championships in women's soccer. Santa Clara's student athletes include current or former 58 MLB, 40 NFL, 12 NBA players and 13 Olympic gold medalists; the first two colleges in California were founded at the height of the Gold Rush in 1851, both in the small agricultural town of Santa Clara. Less than a year after California was granted statehood, Santa Clara College, forerunner of Santa Clara University, was the first to open its doors to students and thus is considered the state's oldest operating institution of higher education.
Shortly after Santa Clara began instruction, the Methodist-run California Wesleyan College received a charter from the State Superior Court on July 10, 1851—the first granted in California—and it began enrolling students in May of the following year. Santa Clara's Jesuit founders lacked the $20,000 endowment required for a charter, accumulated and a charter granted on April 28, 1855. Santa Clara bears the distinction of awarding California's first bachelor's degree, bestowed upon Thomas I. Bergin in 1857, as well as its first graduate degree granted two years later. Inheriting the grounds of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, Santa Clara University's campus, library holdings, art collection, many of its defining traditions date back to 1777 75 years before its founding. In January of that year, Saint Junipero Serra, a Spanish Franciscan friar, established Mission Santa Clara as the eighth of 21 Alta California missions. Fray Tomás de la Peña chose a site along the Guadalupe River for the future church, erecting a cross and celebrating the first Mass a few days later.
Natural disasters forced early priests to relocate and rebuild the church on several occasions, moving it westward and away from the river. Built of wood, the first permanent structure flooded and was replaced by a larger adobe building in 1784; this building suffered heavy damage in an 1818 earthquake and was replaced six years by a new adobe edifice. The mission flourished for more than 50 years despite these setbacks. Beginning in the 1830s, the mission lands were repossessed in conjunction with government policy implemented via the Mexico's secularization, church buildings fell into disrepair; the Bishop of Monterey, Dominican Joseph Sadoc Alemany, offered the site to Italian Jesuits John Nobili and Michael Accolti in 1851 on condition that they found a college for California's growing Catholic population when it became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War. In 1912 Santa Clara College became the University of Santa Clara, with the addition of the School of Engineering and School of Law.
In 1925 the Leavey School of Business was founded. Women were first admitted in 1961 to. In 2012, Santa Clara University celebrated 50 years of having women attend Santa Clara University; this step made Santa Clara University the first Catholic university in California to admit both men and women. In 1985, in part to avoid confusion with the University of Southern California, the University of Santa Clara, as it had been known since 1912, changed its name to Santa Clara University. Diplomas were printed with the new name beginning in 1986. In 2001 the School of Education and Counseling Psychology was formed to offer Master's level and other credential programs; the university is situated in Santa Clara, adjacent to the city of San Jose in Santa Clara County at the southern part of the Bay Area. Over the last century and a half, the Santa Clara University campus has expanded to more than 106 acres. In the 1950s, after the university constructed Walsh Hall and the de Saisset Museum on two of the last remaining open spaces on the old college campus, Santa Clara began purchasing and annexing land from the surrounding community.
The first addition, which occurred earlier, brought space for football and baseball playing fields. Thereafter in the 1960s when women were admitted to the school, more land was acquired for residence halls and other new buildings and facilities. In 1989 the Santa