Llanddeiniolen is a community in the county of Gwynedd, is 124 miles from Cardiff and 206 miles from London. The community includes the villages of Rhiwlas, Bethel, Brynrefail and Deiniolen. In 2011 the population of Llanddeiniolen was 5072 with 76.2% of them able to speak Welsh. The Welsh wrestler and harpist Marged ferch Ifan was buried here in 1783. Castell Llanddeiniolen motte and bailey lies nearby; the name derives from the Welsh saint Deiniol. List of localities in Wales by population
The Wicklow Mountains form the largest continuous upland area in the Republic of Ireland. They occupy the whole centre of County Wicklow and stretch outside its borders into the counties of Dublin and Carlow. Where the mountains extend into County Dublin, they are known locally as the Dublin Mountains; the highest peak is Lugnaquilla at 925 metres. The mountains are composed of granite surrounded by an envelope of mica-schist and much older rocks such as quartzite, they were pushed up during the Caledonian orogeny at the start of the Devonian period and form part of the Leinster Chain, the largest continuous area of granite in Ireland and Britain. The mountains owe much of their present topography to the effects of the last ice age, which deepened the valleys and created corrie and ribbon lakes. Copper and lead have been the main metals mined in the mountains and a brief gold rush occurred in the 18th century. Several major river systems have their source in the mountains, such as the Liffey, Dargle and Avoca rivers.
Powerscourt Waterfall is the tallest in Ireland at 121 metres. A number of these rivers have been harnessed to create reservoirs for drinking water for Dublin and its surroundings; the Wicklow Mountains experience a temperate oceanic climate with mild, damp summers and cool, wet winters. The dominant habitat of the uplands consists of blanket bog and upland grassland; the uplands support a number of bird species, including peregrine falcon. The valleys are a mixture of deciduous woodland; the mountains have been inhabited since Neolithic times and a number of typical monuments, in particular a series of passage tombs, survive to the present day. The monastery at Glendalough, founded in the late 6th century by Saint Kevin, was an important centre of the Early Church in Ireland. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, the Wicklow Mountains became a stronghold and hiding place for Irish clans opposed to English rule; the O'Byrne and O'Toole families carried out a campaign of harassment against the settlers for five centuries.
The mountains harboured rebels during the 1798 Rising. Rebel activity died out after the construction of the Wicklow Military Road at the start of the 19th century and the mountains began to attract tourists to the ruins at Glendalough and to admire the mountain scenery; the Wicklow Mountains continue to be a major attraction for recreation. The entire upland area is designated as a Special Area of Conservation and as a Special Protection Area under European Union law; the Wicklow Mountains National Park was established in 1991 to conserve the local biodiversity and landscape. The Wicklow Mountains take their name from County Wicklow which in turn takes its name from Wicklow town; the origin of the name is from Wykinlo. The Irish name for Wicklow, Cill Mhantáin, means "Church of Mantan", named after an apostle of Saint Patrick. Wicklow was not established as a county until 1606. During the medieval period, prior to the establishment of County Wicklow, the English administration in Dublin referred to the region as the Leinster Mountains.
An early name for the whole area of the Wicklow Mountains was Cualu Cuala. The Irish name for Great Sugar Loaf mountain is Ó Cualann. There are historic names for various territories in the mountains held by local clans: the north part of Wicklow and south Dublin was known as Cualann or Fir Chualann, anglicized'Fercullen', while the Glen of Imaal takes its name from the territory of Uí Máil. A sept of the O'Byrne family called the Gaval Rannall possessed the area around Glenmalure, known as Gaval-Rannall or Ranelagh; the mountains were formerly known as Sliabh Ruadh or the Red Mountains. The Wicklow Mountains are the largest area of continuous high ground in Ireland, having an unbroken area of over 500 km2 above 300 metres, they occupy the centre of County Wicklow and extend into Counties Dublin and Wexford. The general direction of the mountain ranges is from north-east to south-west, they are formed into several distinct groups: that of Kippure in the north, on the boundary of Dublin and Wicklow.
To the east, separated from the rest of the range by the Vartry Plateau, is the group comprising the Great Sugar Loaf, Little Sugar Loaf and Bray Head. Lugnaquilla is the highest peak in the Wicklow Mountains at 925 metres and the 13th highest in Ireland, it is the highest peak in Leinster and is the only Irish Munro to be found outside of Munster. Kippure stands at 757 metres. There are a total of 39 peaks over 600 metres in the Wicklow Mountains. There are only three passes through the mountains under 600 metres with the Sally Gap and the Wicklow Gap being the highest road passes in the country; the Wicklow Mountains are composed of granite surrounded by an envelope of mica-schist and much older rocks such as quartzite. The oldest rocks are the quartzites of the Bray Group that include Bray Head and the Little Sugar Loaf and Great Sugar Loaf mountains; these metamorphosed from sandstone deposited in the deep waters of the primeval Iapetus Ocean during the Cambrian period. Layers of sediment continued to form slates and shales along the ocean floor mixed with volcanic rock pushed up as Iapetus began to shrink by the process of subduction during the Ordovician period.
Plaid Cymru is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union. Plaid was formed in 1925 and won its first seat in the UK Parliament in 1966. By 2018, it held one of four Welsh seats in the European Parliament, four of 40 Welsh seats in the UK Parliament, 10 of 60 seats in the National Assembly for Wales, 202 of 1,264 principal local authority councillors. Plaid is a member of the European Free Alliance. Plaid Cymru's goals as set out in its constitution are: To promote the constitutional advancement of Wales with a view to attaining independence within the European Union. In September 2008, a senior Plaid assembly member spelled out her party's continuing support for an independent Wales; the Welsh Minister for Rural Affairs, Elin Jones, began Plaid's annual conference by pledging to uphold the goal of making Wales a European Union member state. She told the delegates in Aberystwyth that the party would continue its commitment to independence under the coalition with the Welsh Labour Party.
While both the Labour and Liberal parties of the early 20th century had accommodated demands for Welsh home rule, no political party existed for the purpose of establishing a Welsh government. Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru was formed on 5 August 1925, by Moses Gruffydd, H. R. Jones and Lewis Valentine, members of Byddin Ymreolwyr Cymru. Home rule for Wales was not an explicit aim of the new movement. In the 1929 general election the party contested its first parliamentary constituency, polling 609 votes, or 1.6% of the vote for that seat. The party contested few such elections in its early years due to its ambivalence towards Westminster politics. Indeed, the candidate Lewis Valentine, the party’s first president, offered himself in Caernarvonshire on a platform of demonstrating Welsh people's rejection of English dominion. By 1932, the aims of self-government and Welsh representation at the League of Nations had been added to that of preserving Welsh language and culture. However, this move, the party's early attempts to develop an economic critique, did not broaden its appeal beyond that of an intellectual and conservative Welsh language pressure group.
The alleged sympathy of the party's leading members towards Europe's totalitarian regimes compromised its early appeal further. Saunders Lewis, David John Williams and Lewis Valentine attacked and set fire to the newly constructed RAF Penyberth air base on the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd in 1936, in protest at its siting in the Welsh-speaking heartland; the leaders' treatment, including the trial judge's dismissal of the use of Welsh and their subsequent imprisonment in Wormwood Scrubs, led to "The Three" becoming a cause célèbre. This heightened the profile of the party and its membership had doubled to nearly 2,000 by 1939. Penyberth, Plaid Cymru’s neutral stance during the Second World War, prompted concerns within the UK Government that it might be used by Germany to insert spies or carry out other covert operations. In fact, the party urged conscientious objection to war service. In 1943 Saunders Lewis contested the University of Wales parliamentary seat at a by-election, gaining 1,330 votes, or 22%.
In the 1945 general election, with party membership at around 2,500, Plaid Cymru contested seven seats, as many as it had in the preceding 20 years, including constituencies in south Wales for the first time. At this time Gwynfor Evans was elected president. Gwynfor Evans's presidency coincided with the maturation of Plaid Cymru into a more recognisable political party, its share of the vote increased from 0.7% in the 1951 general election to 3.1% in 1955 and 5.2% in 1959. In the 1959 election, the party contested a majority of Welsh seats for the first time. Proposals to drown the village of Capel Celyn in the Tryweryn valley in Gwynedd in 1957 to supply the city of Liverpool with water played a part in Plaid Cymru's growth; the fact that the parliamentary bill authorising the drowning went through without support from any Welsh MPs showed that the MPs' votes in Westminster were not enough to prevent such bills from passing. Support for the party declined in the early 1960s as support for the Liberal Party began to stabilise from its long-term decline.
In 1962 Saunders Lewis gave a radio talk entitled Tynged yr Iaith in which he predicted the extinction of the Welsh language unless action was taken. This led to the formation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg the same year. Labour's return to power in 1964 and the creation of the post of Secretary of State for Wales appeared to represent a continuation of the incremental evolution of a
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Caernarfon is a royal town and port in Gwynedd, with a population of 9,615. It lies along the A487 road, on the eastern shore of the Menai Strait, opposite the Isle of Anglesey; the city of Bangor is 8.6 miles to the north-east, while Snowdonia fringes Caernarfon to the east and south-east. Carnarvon and Caernarvon are Anglicised spellings that were superseded in 1926 and 1974, respectively; the villages of Bontnewydd and Caeathro are close by. The town is noted for its high percentage of native Welsh speakers. Due to this, Welsh is the predominant language of the town. Abundant natural resources in and around the Menai Strait enabled human habitation in prehistoric Britain; the Ordovices, a Celtic tribe, lived in the region during the period known as Roman Britain. The Roman fort Segontium was established around AD 80 to subjugate the Ordovices during the Roman conquest of Britain; the Romans occupied the region until the end of Roman rule in Britain in 382, after which Caernarfon became part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd.
In the late 11th century, William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a motte-and-bailey castle at Caernarfon as part of the Norman invasion of Wales. He was unsuccessful, Wales remained independent until around 1283. In the 13th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, ruler of Gwynedd, refused to pay homage to Edward I of England, prompting the English conquest of Gwynedd; this was followed by the construction of Caernarfon Castle, one of the largest and most imposing fortifications built by the English in Wales. In 1284, the English-style county of Caernarfonshire was established by the Statute of Rhuddlan; the ascent of the House of Tudor to the throne of England eased hostilities between the English and resulted in Caernarfon Castle falling into a state of disrepair. The city has flourished, leading to its status as a major tourist centre and seat of Gwynedd Council, with a thriving harbour and marina. Caernarfon experienced heavy suburbanisation, its population includes the largest percentage of Welsh-speaking citizens anywhere in Wales.
The status of Royal Borough was granted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1963 and amended to Royal Town in 1974. The castle and town walls are part of a World Heritage Site described as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd; the present city of Caernarfon grew up around and owes its name to its Norman and late Medieval fortifications. The earlier British and Romano-British settlement at Segontium was named for the nearby Afon Seiont. After the end of Roman rule in Britain around 410, the settlement continued to be known as Cair Segeint and as Cair Custoient, of the History of the Britons, cited by James Ussher in Newman's life of Germanus of Auxerre, both of whose names appear among the 28 civitates of sub-Roman Britain in the Historia Brittonum traditionally ascribed to Nennius; the work states that the inscribed tomb of "Constantius the Emperor" was still present in the 9th century. The medieval romance about Maximus and Elen, Macsen's Dream, calls her home Caer Aber Sein and other pre-conquest poets such as Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd used the name Caer Gystennin.
The Norman motte was erected apart from the existing settlement and came to be known as y gaer yn Arfon, "the fortress in Arfon". A 1221 charter by Llywelyn the Great to the canons of Penmon priory on Anglesey mentions Kaerinarfon. In 1283, King Edward I completed his conquest of Wales which he secured by a chain of castles and walled towns; the construction of a new stone Caernarfon Castle seems to have started as soon as the campaign had finished. Edward's architect, James of St. George, may well have modelled the castle on the walls of Constantinople being aware of the town's legendary associations. Edward's fourth son, Edward of Caernarfon Edward II of England, was born at the castle in April 1284 and made Prince of Wales in 1301. A story recorded in the 16th century suggests that the new prince was offered to the native Welsh on the premise "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", however there is no contemporary evidence to support this. Caernarfon was constituted a borough in 1284 by charter of Edward I.
The charter, confirmed on a number of occasions, appointed the mayor of the borough Constable of the Castle ex officio. The former municipal borough was designated a royal borough in 1963; the borough was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in 1974, the status of "royal town" was granted to the community which succeeded it. Caernarfon was the county town of the historic county of Caernarfonshire. In 1911, David Lloyd George Member of Parliament for Caernarfon boroughs, which included various towns from Llŷn to Conwy, agreed to the British Royal Family's idea of holding the investiture of the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle; the ceremony took place on 13 July, with the royal family paying a rare visit to Wales, the future Edward VIII was duly invested. In 1955 Caernarfon was in the running for the title of Capital of Wales on historical grounds but the town's campaign was defeated in a ballot o
Arfon (Assembly constituency)
Arfon is a constituency of the National Assembly for Wales, created for the 2007 Assembly election. It elects one Assembly Member by the first past the post method of election. However, it is one of nine constituencies in the North Wales electoral region, which elects four additional members, in addition to nine constituency members, to produce a degree of proportional representation for the region as a whole; the constituency has the boundaries of the Arfon Westminster constituency within the preserved county of Gwynedd, which will come into use for the 2010 United Kingdom general election. The new constituency merged areas within the Caernarfon constituency and the Conwy constituency; the Caernarfon constituency was within the preserved county of Gwynedd. The Conwy constituency was a Gwynedd constituency and within the preserved county of Clwyd; the North Wales region was created for the first Assembly election, in 1999. For the 2007 election, however, it had new boundaries, it includes the constituencies of Aberconwy and Deeside, Clwyd South, Clwyd West, Vale of Clwyd and Ynys Môn.
This can be considered a safe Plaid Cymru seat having a 20.8% majority of the Welsh Labour Party. Party averages from 5 elections: Plaid Cymru - 54.6%, Labour - 29%, Conservative - 10.1%, Lib Dem - 4.9% In general elections for the National Assembly for Wales, each voter has two votes. The first vote may be used to vote for a candidate to become the Assembly Member for the voter's constituency, elected by the first past the post system; the second vote may be used to vote for a regional closed party list of candidates. Additional member seats are allocated from the lists by the d'Hondt method, with constituency results being taken into account in the allocation
Arfon (UK Parliament constituency)
Arfon is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Although the constituency is large by geographical area, it is a predominantly urban rather than rural seat, with the majority of the population living in the two towns on which the constituency is based and Caernarfon. "Arfon" is a historical name for the area, meaning "facing Anglesey". This seat was created by the Welsh Boundary Commission in time for the 2010 general election, replaced the old seat of Caernarfon. Bangor was in the old seat of Conwy; the same boundaries were used for the Arfon Welsh Assembly constituency in the 2007 Welsh Assembly election. It is the smallest constituency on the mainland of Great Britain by electorate, larger only than the two Scottish island constituencies, Na h-Eileanan an Iar and Orkney and Shetland; the total population as of the 2011 census was 60,573. The Arfon division of Caernarvonshire was a former UK Parliament constituency, which existed from 1885 until 1918.
Before 1885 and after 1918 the area was part of the Caernarvonshire constituency. The Liberal MP William Rathbone represented the Arfon seat until 1895, followed by fellow Liberal William Jones. Upon the death of Mr Jones, Griffith C. Rees, for the Liberal Party, was elected unopposed at the subsequent by-election; when first created in 1885, the constituency was defined as the Petty Sessional Divisions of Bangor and Nant-Conway, with the Parishes of Llanddeinilen and Llanberis. The constituency included the boroughs of Bangor and Conway which were part of the Carnarvon District of Boroughs constituency; the electoral wards which are used to create the current Arfon constituency are within the preserved county of Gwynedd. They are Arllechwedd, Bontnewydd, Cwm-y-Glo, Deiniolen, Garth, Glyder, Hendre, Llanberis, Llanrug, Marchog, Menai, Peblig, Pentir, Seiont, Talysarn and Mynydd Llandygai, Waunfawr and Y Felinheli; the latest boundary change created a battleground in Arfon for Labour, Plaid Cymru, the Conservatives, with the latter being labelled as a'resurgent' party by the Caernarfon Herald.
The scale of contention had been reached due to the large shift in boundary changes which in turn has created a need within each party to achieve a unforeseen outcome. Plaid Cymru had never represented Bangor, held by Conservative Wyn Roberts for twenty-seven years and a further thirteen under Labour's Betty Williams, it has however been more than thirty years since Caernarfon has been represented by anyone other than Plaid Cymru. In the event, Plaid gained the seat in 2010 and held it in 2015. *Served as MP for the predecessor seat of Caernarfon in the 2001-2010 Parliament Arfon List of Parliamentary constituencies in Gwynedd List of Parliamentary constituencies in Wales Politics Resources Electoral Calculus 2017 Election House Of Commons Library 2017 Election report A Vision Of Britain Through Time Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885-1972, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig