United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Los Angeles Air Force Base
Los Angeles Air Force Base is a non-flying United States Air Force Base located in El Segundo, California. Los Angeles Air Force Base houses and supports the headquarters of the Air Force Space Command's Space and Missile Systems Center; the center manages research and acquisition of military space systems. The 61st Air Base Wing provides support functions for the base. Los Angeles Air Force Base is headquarters to the Space and Missile Systems Center, part of Air Force Space Command. SMC is responsible for research, acquisition, on-orbit testing and sustainment of military space and missile systems. In addition to managing Air Force space and missile systems, SMC participated in space programs conducted by other U. S. military services, government agencies and North Atlantic Treaty Organization allies. SMC turns these systems over to the appropriate operating command. SMC serves as the integrating center for the Strategic Defense initiative within Air Force Material Command, it monitors progress in more than 70 Space Defense Initiative efforts throughout AFMC.
SMC itself has direct management responsibility for more than half of those efforts. Los Angeles AFB is the only active duty installation in Los Angeles County. In addition to personnel assigned to the base, it serves all active-duty military personnel in the Greater Los Angeles area; the base, located in El Segundo, houses the main installation. Fort MacArthur, located 20 miles south, is a separate part of the base. 61st Air Base GroupThe 61st Air Base Group provides medical, civil engineering, chaplain, logistics, personnel and quality-of-life services to the Space and Missile Systems Center and other Department of Defense units in the Los Angeles basin. It consists of five squadrons and six staff agencies, totaling more than 790 personnel with $608 million in plant assets and an annual budget of $60 million. Space and Missile Systems Center SMC is the birthplace of military space and center of military space acquisition excellence, their mission is to deliver affordable space capabilities for the nation.
Global Positioning Systems DirectorateFormerly the Global Positioning Systems Wing, the Global Positioning Systems Directorate is a joint-service, civil/military systems directorate with more than 700 DoD/contractor personnel responsible for development and sustainment of the Global Positioning System, the world's premier navigation and timing standard. The directorate is responsible for the development and procurement of over 250,000 receiver systems and the United States' nuclear detonation detection system. Annual funding is $1billion and total program value is $32 billion. Space Superiority Systems DirectorateFormerly the Space Superiority Systems Wing, the Space Superiority Systems Directorate is responsible for equiping the joint warfighter with unrivaled offensive and defensive counterspace, space situation awareness and special access capabilities required to gain and exploit space superiority; the directorate executes cradle-to-grave responsibility for weapon systems development and sustainment.
Launch Enterprise DirectorateThe Launch Enterprise Directorate provides DoD and the National Reconnaissance Office with assured access to space through launch systems modernization and development of worldwide range capability for all national security missions. The directorate conducts satellite mission integration and provides reliable, integrated tools to test and support the nation's space launch, ballistic missile and aeronautical testing. Infrared Space Systems DirectorateFormerly the Space-Based Infrared Systems Wing, the Infrared Space Systems Directorate develops and sustains $27 billion in surveillance satellites and ground stations to detect and report global and theater ballistic missile attacks against the United States, its allies and combat forces; the satellites and ground stations provides global surveillance and targeting information to warfighters and intelligence units. Defense Weather Systems DirectorateThe directorate equips worldwide strategic and tactical forces with weather and space environmental data for planning and executing aerospace and naval operations.
The $3.5-billion program develops, tests and sustains satellites and ground systems to meet warfighter requirements. It provides launch support, early orbit operations and spacecraft anomaly resolution of DoD's sole operational weather satellite system. MILSATCOM Systems DirectorateFormerly the Military Satellite Communications Systems Wing, the MILSATCOM Systems Directorate plans for and sustains space-enabled global communications in support of the president, secretary of Defense and combat forces. MILSATCOM systems consists of satellites and control stations, worth more than $42 billion providing communication for 16,000 aircraft, ships and fixed sites; as a jointly-manned directorate, it interfaces with major commands from each of the Armed Services, HQ Air Force and various DoD agencies. Advanced Systems and Development DirectorateThe premier organization for advanced systems and development planning to evolve and implement new affordable and resilient architectures for future Space capabilities through analytical rigor, collaborative innovation, requirements analysis, concept development, demonstrations.
Serves as primary provider of launch, hosted payloads and on-orbit operations for the entire DoD space research and development community. Responsible for acquiring, integrating and operating R&D spacecraft, prototype operational systems and ballistic missiles supporting national security objectives/missile defense pr
Green Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Green Line is a 20-mile light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk within Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines forming the Los Angeles Metro Rail system; the line opened on August 12, 1995. It became the third line in the Metro Rail system after the opening of the Blue Red Line; the line was delayed due to a change of the line's route from Los Angeles International Airport to El Segundo. In addition to Redondo Beach and Norwalk, the route serves El Segundo, South Los Angeles, Lynwood and Willowbrook, it serves the Plaza Mexico shopping center at the Long Beach Boulevard station in the city of Lynwood. A free shuttle bus to Los Angeles International Airport is available at the line's Aviation/LAX Station; the line is suburb-to-suburb service, so it is the only one in the entire Metro Rail system not to serve Downtown Los Angeles but passengers can reach it by connecting with the Metro Silver Line busway at the Harbor Freeway Station, the Metro Blue Line light rail at Willowbrook Station or Metro Express 460 at Norwalk Station.
The grade-separated route runs in the median of the Century Freeway with a elevated section to the west. The line is maintained by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Green Line is internally known as Line 803: this designation appears on internal operating schedules, as well as in the hyperlink on Metro's timetable website. The Green Line is the fastest light rail line in the Metro light rail network. Green Line trains operate at 55–65 mph on the I-105 freeway portion and around 40 mph on the elevated portion west of Aviation/LAX Station; when the Green Line began service in 1995, it operated with only one-car trains. As ridership increased, two-car trains were used. Ridership on the Green Line has not been as high as the Blue Line, although it did have a higher ridership than the Gold Line until 2013. Additionally, the Green Line runs with one-car trains in the early mornings and late evenings on weekdays, on weekends. Although nearly all of the Green Line stations were built to accommodate three-car trains, the Green Line has never used trains consisting of more than two cars.
The stations west of Aviation/LAX Station were not built to accommodate three-car trains. However, it is possible that the Green Line would use three-car trains when the Crenshaw/LAX Line is complete. Beginning in 2019, Metro will rename all of their BRT lines from colors to letters; as such, the bulk of the current Green Line, combined with the soon-to-open Crenshaw/LAX Line project, will be renamed as C Line while retaining the current green coloring on maps. The entire route of the Green Line is grade-separated, with its tracks following a elevated route, either on a guideway or in the median of the Century Freeway; the line begins in the west at Redondo Beach station heads north through El Segundo. At Aviation/LAX, passengers can transfer to any one of several bus lines from different operators Shuttle Bus "G", a shuttle bus from the Green Line to LAX. From here, the Green Line heads east in the median of the Century Freeway, with a connection to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at the Harbor Freeway Station.
It continues to a major transfer connection at the Willowbrook Station. The line terminates in the city of Norwalk, just east of the 605 Freeway. Metro Green Line trains run between 3:36 a.m. and 11:55 p.m. daily. Service on Friday and Saturday nights continues until 2:15 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To Norwalk Station Eastbound First Train to Norwalk from Willowbrook/Rosa Parks Station: 3:33 a.m. First Train to Norwalk from Douglas Station: 3:41 a.m. Last Train to Norwalk: 11:59 p.m. To Redondo Beach Station Westbound First Train to Redondo Beach Station: 4:04 a.m. Last Train to Redondo Beach Station: 12:50 a.m. Trains on the Green Line operate every seven to eight minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every 15 minutes during the midday and all day on the weekends, with night service running every 20 minutes. As part of the consent decree signed by Caltrans in 1972 to allow construction of the fiercely opposed Century Freeway, provisions were made for a transit corridor in the freeway's median.
Construction began in 1987 on the line as a light rail line, with a route following I-105 but a short section in the South Bay following the Harbor Subdivision. This western alignment was planned and constructed to connect with LAX, but the airport was planning a major renovation during the line's construction. Los Angeles World Airports wanted the connection to LAX to be integrated with this construction, but there were concerns from the Federal Aviation Administration that the overhead lines of the rail line would interfere with the landing paths of airplanes. Various studies have suggested extending the Green Line north to LAX, Loyola Marymount University, Santa Monica. A possible southern extension could take the Green Line's southern terminus farther southeast, to the South Bay Galleria or beyond, and on the line's east end, the line may one day be extended from its current terminus at Norwalk station to Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs station. The Crenshaw/LAX Line project extends from the existing Green Line, the question of how the new segment would be integrated into the Metro Rail system was the subject of some controversy in 2018 as completion of the project loomed.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Interstate 105 (California)
Interstate 105 is an Interstate Highway in southern Los Angeles County, California that runs east–west from near the Los Angeles International Airport to the City of Norwalk. It is known as the Glenn Anderson Freeway for the Democratic California politician who advocated its construction. I-105 has been referred to as the Century Freeway; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 105 as "from Pershing Drive near El Segundo to Route 605," but Caltrans never constructed the segment from Sepulveda Boulevard to Pershing Drive. Motorists can continue west via Imperial Highway over conventional roadway to Pershing Drive, but it is not part of Route 105 nor is it under state maintenance. I-105 begins at Sepulveda Boulevard on the southern edge of Los Angeles International Airport, adjacent to the city of El Segundo, it proceeds eastward from there on, crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers before terminating just east of the San Gabriel River Freeway in western Norwalk. The freeway stops short of intersecting with its parent interstate.
Instead, the primary lanes of I-105 terminate at an at-grade intersection with Studebaker Road. Much of the length of the Century Freeway runs parallel to Imperial Highway, it runs parallel to Century Boulevard, from which its original name is derived. Century Boulevard, in turn, is named for its position equivalent to 100th Street in the Los Angeles grid; the Los Angeles Metro Rail Green Line runs in the median of nearly the entire length of I-105. The Green Line's eastern terminus is at Norwalk, at the interchange between I-105 and I-605. I-105 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. Interstate 105 was an integral part of a Caltrans 1960s master plan for the Southern California freeway system, but did not open until 1993; the right-of-way was included on several early highway plans since at least 1947, although it was not named the "Century Freeway" until 1956, was numbered Route 42.
In 1965, the Century Freeway was added to the state system originated at State Route 1 east to Central Avenue in the City of Los Angeles along an alignment near to the current right-of-way. The current route was added to the Interstate system in 1968; the route was designed between 1968 and 1972, but opposition from some of the communities through which the right-of-way would pass slowed the process and led to some reroutings. Many factors contributed to the delay; the growth of the environmental movement in the 1960s created resistance to new freeway construction. Fiscal difficulties brought about by the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the California tax revolt of the late 1970s further hampered Caltrans' construction efforts. However, the major source of resistance to the freeway's construction was community opposition and the side effects of these demands. By the early 1970s, most of the areas in the freeway's path were predominantly African-American. Resentment over previous freeway projects' effects on other black communities resulted in significant modifications to the original route.
Most cities along the way, weary of the noise and visual blight created by elevated freeways, demanded that the route be built far below grade in a "trench." Another source for resistance to the freeway's construction was that much of the areas along the I-105 path was going to be built in low income, high crime neighborhoods, which delayed the freeway's construction until the crime in the areas went down. Norwalk, opposed to the freeway's proposed route through the center of the city, blocked the route from reaching its intended terminus at the Santa Ana Freeway. In 1972, community opposition resulted in a federal lawsuit, Keith v. Volpe, being filed, charging violation of various civil rights protections and the National Environmental Policy Act. An important figure in the freeway's history was Harry Pregerson, a United States federal judge who presided over the lawsuit concerning the freeway's construction and chose to continue presiding over the case despite being promoted to a higher level court.
The interchange with Interstate 110 is named the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange in his honor. In 1972, Judge Pregerson enjoined the further development of the freeway until it has complied with the requirements of NEPA, the California Environmental Quality Act, the Federal-Aid Highway Act, the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Act of 1970. In 1979, this lawsuit resulted in a Consent Decree, amended in 1981, which imposed several conditions on development of the freeway, including additional public hearings, preparation of an environmental report, alterations to the design to reduce lanes and intersections, improve carpooling and provide for a transit way, which became the Los Angeles Metro Rail Green Line. A portion of the right-of-way was to be constructed below grade to buffer adjacent areas from the effects of traffic noise. After construction began in the 1980s, failure to perform a full survey of the area's groundwater deposits, combined with the 20–30 f