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Delta Works

The Delta Works is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Schelde delta from the sea. The works consist of dams, locks, dykes and storm surge barriers located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland; the aim of the dams and storm surge barriers was to shorten the Dutch coastline, thus reducing the number of dikes that had to be raised. Along with the Zuiderzee Works, the Delta Works have been declared one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers; the estuaries of the rivers Rhine and Schelde have been subject to flooding over the centuries. After building the Afsluitdijk, the Dutch started studying the damming of the Rhine-Meuse Delta. Plans were developed to shorten the coastline and turn the delta into a group of freshwater coastal lakes. By shortening the coastline, fewer dikes would have to be reinforced. Due to indecision and the Second World War, little action was taken.

In 1950 two small estuary mouths, the Brielse Gat near Brielle and the Botlek near Vlaardingen were dammed. After the North Sea flood of 1953, a Delta Works Commission was installed to research the causes and develop measures to prevent such disasters in future, they revised some of the old plans and came up with the "Deltaplan". Unlike the Zuiderzee Works, the Delta Plan's purpose is defensive and not for land reclamation; the Delta Plan is a national programme and demands collaboration between the national government, provincial authorities, municipal authorities and the water boards. The plan consisted of blocking the estuary mouths of the Oosterschelde, the Haringvliet and the Grevelingen; this reduced the length of the dikes exposed to the sea by 700 kilometres. The mouths of the Nieuwe Waterweg and the Westerschelde were to remain open because of the important shipping routes to the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp; the dikes along these waterways were to be strengthened. The works would be combined with road and waterway infrastructure to stimulate the economy of the province of Zeeland and improve the connection between the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp.

An important part of this project was fundamental research to come up with long term solutions, protecting the Netherlands against future floods. Instead of analysing past floods and building protection sufficient to deal with those, the Delta Works commission pioneered a conceptual framework to use as norm for investment in flood defences; the framework is called the'Delta norm'. These are called "dike ring areas"; the cost of flooding is assessed using a statistical model involving damage to property, lost production, a given amount per human life lost. For the purpose of this model, a human life is valued at €2.2 million. The chances of a significant flood within the given area are calculated; this is done using data from a purpose-built flood simulation lab, as well as empirical statistical data regarding water wave properties and distribution. Storm behaviour and spring tide distribution are taken into account; the most important "dike ring area" is the South Holland coast region. It is home to four million people.

The loss of human life in a catastrophic flood here can be large because there is little warning time with North Sea storms. Comprehensive evacuation is not a realistic option for the Holland coastal region; the commission set the acceptable risk for complete failure of every "dike ring" in the country at 1 in 125,000 years. But, it found, it set "acceptable" risks by region as follows: North and South Holland: 1 per 10,000 years Other areas at risk from sea flooding: 1 per 4,000 years Transition areas between high land and low land: 1 per 2,000 yearsRiver flooding causes less damage than salt water flooding, which causes long-term damage to agricultural lands. Areas at risk from river flooding were assigned a higher acceptable risk. River flooding has a longer warning time, producing a lower estimated death toll per event. South Holland at risk from river flooding: 1 per 1,250 years Other areas at risk from river flooding: 1 per 250 years; these acceptable risks were enshrined in the Delta Law.

This required the government to keep risks of catastrophic flooding within these limits and to upgrade defences should new insights into risks require this. The limits have been incorporated into the new Water Law, effective from 22 December 2009; the Delta Project has been designed with these guidelines in mind. All other primary defences have been upgraded to meet the norm. New data elevating the risk assessment on expected sea level rise due to global warming has identified ten'weak points.' These have been upgraded to meet future demands. The latest upgrades are made under the High Water Protection Program. During the execution of the works, changes were made in response to public pressure. In the Nieuwe Waterweg, the heightening and the associated widening of the dikes proved difficult because of public opposition to the planned destruction of important historic buildings to achieve this; the plan was changed to the construction of a storm surge barrier and dikes were only built up. The Delta Plan intended to create a large freshwater lake, the Zeeuwse Meer.

This would have caused major environmental destruction in Oosterschelde, with the

Immigration Tower

Immigration Tower is a skyscraper located in the Wan Chai District of Hong Kong completed in 1990. The tower rises 181 metres in height. Immigration Tower, which stands as the 93rd-tallest building in Hong Kong, is composed of office space; the building houses government offices, principally those of the Immigration Department. Immigration Tower is part of a three-tower complex of government offices surrounding the Gloucester Road Garden; the other two towers are the Revenue Tower. These government buildings were designed by the Architectural Services Department for the Government Property Agency; the Revenue Tower is nearly identical in design to the Immigration Tower. Most of the floors in the Immigration Tower are designed as open plan offices, which increases flexibility for tenants. For these floors, the usable floor area is as much as 80% of the gross floor area; the tower incorporates a sky lobby on the 38th storey to facilitate vertical transportation. The building is linked to Wan Chai Station by a long footbridge, so there are entrances and lobbies at both the ground level and the first floor.

The dominant tenant is the Immigration Department, the building is visited by members of the public who rely on the department for the issuance of Hong Kong Identity Cards and all types of visa. The lowest levels of the tower are thus served by escalators in order to accommodate the high patronage of the services found there; the Immigration Department maintains several unique facilities in the building. A restricted vault holds a collection of volumes dating back to 1873 which records in detail the births and deaths over the years, including information such as the occupation of new fathers or the causes of deaths; the oldest extant marriage registry is from 1945, as earlier volumes were lost during World War II. The department maintains a small detention facility on the 13th floor. There is a giant Philips advertisement on the roof, facing Kowloon, publicised in 2007 as the largest LED display panel in Hong Kong. Immigration Tower opened on 22 January 1990; the tower was built as part of a large government development on an 18,500 square metre site within the Wan Chai reclamation.

The tower was known as Wanchai Tower II, following its earlier neighbour, the Wanchai Tower. The Revenue Tower was known as Wanchai Tower III. In addition to the government offices the overall development included a garden and a fire station. In 1989, the commissioning of Immigration Tower was expected to achieve annual rental savings of $46.8 million for the government. The Immigration Department occupied 13 storeys of Mirror Tower in Tsim Sha Tsui East; the Chinese name of Immigration Tower changed from "人民入境事務大樓" to "入境事務大樓" when the Chinese name of the Immigration Department changed upon the 1997 handover of sovereignty from Britain. The glass curtain wall facade has suffered several failures during inclement weather; the building lost 40–50 sheets of glass during a 1994 typhoon. During Typhoon York in 1999, the tower and its twin, the Revenue Tower, together saw more than 370 panes of glass shatter. After this incident, the Architectural Services Department defended the standards of government building design and maintenance, stating that wind load tests for the curtain wall systems of the Immigration and Revenue towers were duly carried out in Florida, that the curtain walls met the wind load requirements of the Buildings Ordinance, that the incident was an isolated occurrence caused by the strongest typhoon to hit Hong Kong in 16 years.

In early 1996, hundreds of thousands of Hong Kongers who did not hold British passports rushed to Immigration Tower to apply for British Dependent Territories citizenship in order to acquire British National passports on. The cut-off date for British naturalisation was midnight on Sunday, 30 March 1996. More than 700 immigration officers worked throughout the final weekend, round the clock, processing 3,000 applications per hour; the massive queues were made worse by China's hardening stance toward Hong Kong, with Beijing announcing it would dismantle Hong Kong's democratic institutions following the handover, as well as the recent Chinese missile launches near Taiwan that Beijing admitted were intended to undermine the 1996 Taiwanese democratic presidential elections. Many Hong Kongers were thus prompted to acquire the BNO passport as a form of insurance amid rising uncertainty in Hong Kong's future; the Immigration Department announced that anyone who reached the queue before Sunday at midnight would be allowed to apply.

That night, a queue of nearly 60,000 snaked from Immigration Tower to Wan Chai Sports Ground, which the government hired to accommodate the crowd. Numerous fistfights broke out; the tower suffered an accidental fire in March 2000 which began in a ground-floor transformer room and burned for two hours, spreading smoke as high as the 39th storey, injuring one person. Around the turn of the millennium, the tower was the site of continual occupation by Mainland Chinese activists, led by Shi Junlong, demanding right of abode in Hong Kong. At 2:00 pm on 2 August 2000, visa overstayers petitioned immigration officers to issue them Hong Kong Identity Cards on the spot; the officers refused on the basis of the law, told them to apply in writing. They refused to leave, staging a sit-in until closing time at 6:00 pm when staff attempted to evict the protesters, who responded by splashing flammable paint thinner around the 13th storey and setting it ablaze with cigarette lighters. A massive fireball engulfed the crowded room 1301 and shot into the corridor where others were standing.

Some 50 people, immigration officers and protesters alike, were injured in the re

Gilbert Ashton

Gilbert Ashton MC was an English cricketer who played 62 first-class matches between the wars for Cambridge University and Worcestershire. His obituary in Wisden called him "a fine, aggressive stroke-player" and praised his fielding ability at cover point, his bowling was of the occasional variety, after he left Cambridge became non-existent. Ashton played less cricket than his ability merited as his "day job" for four decades from 1921 until 1961 was that of headmaster of the prep school of Abberley Hall School near Worcester. However, he played for Worcestershire when he could during the holidays, in 1922, on only his second appearance for the county, he made 125 and 84 in a match against Northamptonshire at New Road. Wisden's obituary praised his 36 for an England XI against Warwick Armstrong's Australians a year earlier, which gave the English hope after having been dismissed for 43 in the first innings, helped lay the ground for a fine victory. After 1927, Ashton ceased to play semi-regular county cricket, indeed after that year he was to make only two more first-class appearances: against Northamptonshire in June 1934 and against Leicestershire in July 1936.

He did little in either game. He did, play a minor single-innings game for his county against the Royal Air Force aged 47 in 1944. Before going up to Trinity College, Ashton had been captain of the Winchester College XI. Upon leaving the school, he served in the First World War in the Royal Field Artillery, he repaired his telephone line under a heavy fire, maintained communication with his Battery all day." He lost his left thumb during the war, although this was said not to have affected the quality of his fielding in years. After retiring from playing, Ashton served as a magistrate, was President of Worcestershire County Cricket Club from 1967 to 1969, he was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Worcestershire in 1968. Ashton's mother, Victoria Alexandrina Inglis, was the daughter of Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis, who commanded the British forces at the Siege of Lucknow, Julia Selina Thesiger. A number of his relatives played first-class cricket: his brothers Claude and Hubert had substantial careers for Cambridge and Essex, while another brother, had one game for Essex.

Two uncles, Alfred Inglis and John Inglis reached first-class level in the 1880s. Ashton's brother-in-law Ralph Huband played twice for Cambridge in 1923. ASHTON, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2016 Gilbert Ashton from CricketArchive Gilbert Ashton at ESPNcricinfo

Charles Montgomery (Royal Navy officer)

Vice Admiral Sir Charles Percival Ross Montgomery is a Royal Navy officer who, until 10 October 2012, served as Second Sea Lord. Montgomery was born in 1955, he was educated at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. He attended Sheffield University, graduating in 1976 with a degree in Electronic and Electrical Engineering. Montgomery joined the Royal Navy in 1973. After spending his first three years of service at university, he went to sea and rose through the officer ranks to become Commander of HMS Beaver, he became Training Director of the Naval Recruiting and Training Agency and Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Defence. He went on to become Director of Naval Personnel Strategy in 2005, Naval Secretary in 2007 and Second Sea Lord in 2010. On 25 January 2013 the Home Office announced that Montgomery had been appointed Director General of the Border Force. Sir Charles Montgomery joined Border Force as Director General in March 2013, he wears the Border Force uniform with the rank insignia of Director General.

Montgomery was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2006 Birthday Honours and Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2012 Birthday Honours. Montgomery became an honorary Doctor of Engineering from the University of Sheffield

Bob Satterfield (cartoonist)

Robert William Satterfield known as "Sat", was an American cartoonist known for his editorial cartoons. Satterfield's career began in 1896 when, after having studied art as a part-time student in Pittsburgh, he moved to Youngstown, Ohio for work and began sending unsolicited cartoons to the Cleveland Press. In 1898, Satterfield was transferred to the Kansas City World, where he functioned as that paper's entire art department for four years until 1902, when Mark Hanna hired him to be a full-time cartoonist for the Cleveland News. In 1924, Satterfield signed an exclusive contract with Publishers Autocaster Service. In 1928, he produced Picture Life of a Great American: Pictorial Life of Herbert Hoover, a prototype of a comic book, in association with the Herbert Hoover presidential campaign

Norway, Wisconsin

Norway is a town in Racine County, United States. The population was 8,067 at the 2018 census; the census-designated place of Wind Lake, Wisconsin is in the town of Norway. The unincorporated communities of North Cape and Union Church are located in the town. Muskego Settlement, in the town of Norway, was one of the first Norwegian-American settlements. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.7 square miles, of which, 33.7 square miles of it is land and 1.9 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,600 people, 2,641 households, 2,160 families residing in the town; the population density was 225.4 people per square mile. There were 2,775 housing units at an average density of 82.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.16% White, 0.26% African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.91% of the population.

There were 2,641 households out of which 41.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.5% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.2% were non-families. 13.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.18. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 33.8% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $65,513, the median income for a family was $71,997. Males had a median income of $45,525 versus $30,494 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,515. About 1.3% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.5% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over.

Town of Norway, Wisconsin website