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Demographics of Nepal

In the 2011 census, Nepal's population was 26 million people with a population growth rate of 1.35% and a median age of 21.6 years. In 2016, the female median age was 25 years old and the male median age was 22 years old. Only 4.4% of the population is estimated to be more than 65 years old, comprising 681,252 females and 597,628 males. 61% of the population is between 15 and 64 years old, 34.6% is younger than 14 years. In 2011, the Birth rate is estimated to be 22.17 births per 1,000 people with an infant mortality rate of 46 deaths per 1,000 live births. Compared to the infant mortality rate in 2006 of 48 deaths per 1000 live births, the 2011 IMR is a slight decrease within that 5-year period. Infant mortality rate in Nepal is higher in rural regions at 44 deaths per 1000 live births, whereas in urban regions the IMR is lower at 40 deaths per 1000 live births; this difference is due to a lack of delivery assistance services in rural communities compared to their urban counterparts who have better access to hospitals and neonatal clinics.

Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 64.94 years for males. The mortality rate is estimated to be 681 deaths per 100,000 people. Net migration rate is estimated to be 61 migrants per 100,000 people. According to the 2011 census, 65.9% of the total population is literate. The population of Nepal has been rising in recent decades. In the June 2001 census, there was a population of about 23 million in Nepal; the population increased by 5 million from the preceding 1991 census. The current population is 30 million which contributes to an increase of about 3 million people every 5 years. Sixty caste and linguistic subgroups have formed throughout time with the waves of migration from Tibet and India. There was a moderate amount of immigration early in Nepal's history the population remained the same without any significant fluctuations for over one hundred years. Natural disasters and the following government resettlement programs in the 1950s led to a spike in internal migration from the hills to the Terai region.

In the 1980s the Western Chitwan Valley became a major transportation hub for all of Nepal. Along with this major change came a dramatic increase in government services, business expansion, growing employment in the agricultural industry; the valley's population grew through both in-migration and natural increase. Source:Births and deaths Structure of the population: Source: UN World Population Prospects Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: The following demographic statistics are from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Median birth intervals Total: 36.2 Rural: 35.9 Urban: 40.3 Median age at first birth Median age: 20.1 Fertility rate - past trend and present Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman Rural fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman Urban fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman Ideal family size - Mean ideal number of children Overall: 2.1 / 2.3 Currently married: 2.2 / 2.3 Urban: 1.9 / 2.0 Rural: 2.2 / 2.3 Ideal family size by gender and age group Below is a table of the ideal family size by gender and age for 2011.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook. Nationality Noun: Nepali, Gorkhali Adjective: Nepali, GorkhaliReligions Hindu 81.34%, Buddhist 9.04%, Muslim 4.38%, Kirant 3.04%, other 2.2%. Literacy Definition: age 15 and over can read and write Total population: 48.6% Male: 62.7% Female: 34.9% Population 29,033,914 Age structure 0-14 years: 30.93% 15-24 years: 21.86% 25-54 years: 35.99% 55-64 years: 6.22% 65 years and over: 5.02% Median age total: 23.6 years male: 22.4 years female: 24.8 years Population growth rate 1.24% Birth rate 19.9 births/1,000 population Death rate 5.7 deaths/1,000 population Net migration rate -1.9 migrant/1,000 population Total fertility rate 2.18 children born/woman Urbanization urban population: 18.6% of total population rate of urbanization: 3.18% annual rate of change Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male/female 0-14 years: 1.07 male/female 15-24 years: 1 male/female 25-54 years: 0.82 male/female 55-64 years: 0.95 male/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male/female total population: 0.99 male/female Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage evolved from three major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman languages, various indigenous language isolates.

According to the 2001 national census, 92 different living languages are spoken in Nepal. Based upon the 2011 census, the major languages spoken in Nepal includes Nepali is considered to be a member of Indo-European language and is written in Devanagari script. Nepali was the language of the house of Gorkhas in the late 18th century and became the official, national language that serves as the lingua franca among Nepalese of different ethnolinguistic groups. Maithili language—along with regional dialects Awadhi and Bhojpuri—are mother tongue Nepalese languages and spoken in the southern T

Joseph W. Barr

Joseph Walker Barr was an American businessman and politician from Indiana. He served one term in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Secretary of the Treasury from December 21, 1968 until January 20, 1969, in President Lyndon B. Johnson's cabinet, he was a member of the Democratic Party Barr was born in Bicknell, Indiana, on January 17, 1918, the son of Oscar Lynn Barr and Stella Florence Walker. He graduated from DePauw University, married the former Beth Ann Williston in Indianapolis on September 3, 1939, he was a member of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity and earned a master's degree in economics from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1941. He served in the United States Navy from 1942 to 1945, during World War II, with subchaser duty in the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, he received a Bronze Star for sinking a submarine off Anzio Beach. After Barr returned from the war, he engaged in the operation of grain elevators, real estate and publishing businesses.

In 1958, he won election to Congress from Indiana's 11th congressional district, a Republican stronghold. During his time in the House, he became friend with then-Senator John F. Kennedy, he served only one term before being defeated for re-election in 1960. After his electoral defeat, President Kennedy appointed him as the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Congressional Relations. In 1963, he was appointed Chairman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Barr served as the Undersecretary of the Treasury from 1965 to 1968, during the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson; when Henry H. Fowler resigned in December 1968, Barr became the Secretary of the Treasury. Barr's appointment was to be effective for the remainder of Johnson's term in office, his 28 days in the position was the shortest term of any Treasury Secretary. Given his short period in office, his signature appears only on the one-dollar bill. Barr was the president and the chairman of American Security and Trust Company from 1969 to 1974 and the chairman of Federal Home Loan Bank in Atlanta, Georgia from 1977 to 1981.

Barr died of a heart attack in Playa del Carmen and was interred in Leeds Episcopal Church Cemetery in Hume, Virginia. United States Congress. "Joseph W. Barr". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Joseph W. Barr at Find a Grave US Treasury - Biography of Secretary Joseph W. Barr US Bureau of Engraving and Printing - Barr Notes December 16, 1981 speech at DePauw University 1959 TV News segment Appearances on C-SPAN

Yaws

Yaws is a tropical infection of the skin and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue. The disease begins with hard swelling of the skin, 2 to 5 centimeters in diameter; the center may form an ulcer. This initial skin lesion heals after three to six months. After weeks to years and bones may become painful, fatigue may develop, new skin lesions may appear; the skin of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet may break open. The bones may become misshapen. After five years or more large areas of skin may die. Yaws is spread by direct contact with the fluid from a lesion of an infected person; the contact is of a non-sexual nature. The disease is most common among children. Other related treponemal diseases are bejel and syphilis. Yaws is diagnosed by the appearance of the lesions. Blood antibody tests can not separate previous from current infections. Polymerase chain reaction is the most accurate method of diagnosis. Prevention is, in part, by curing those who have the disease thereby decreasing the risk of transmission.

Where the disease is common, treating the entire community is effective. Improving cleanliness and sanitation will decrease spread. Treatment is with antibiotics including: azithromycin by mouth or benzathine penicillin by injection. Without treatment, physical deformities occur in 10% of cases. Yaws is common in at least 13 tropical countries as of 2012. 85% of infections occurred in three countries—Ghana, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands. The disease only infects humans. Efforts in the 1950s and 1960s by the World Health Organization decreased the number of cases by 95%. Since cases have increased and there are renewed efforts to globally eradicate the disease by 2020. In 1995 the number of people infected was estimated at more than 500,000. In 2016 the number of reported cases was 59,000. Although one of the first descriptions of the disease was made in 1679 by Willem Piso, archaeological evidence suggests that yaws may have been present among human ancestors as far back as 1.6 million years ago.

Within 90 days of infection a painless but distinctive "mother yaw" nodule appears, which enlarges and becomes warty in appearance. Nearby "daughter yaws" may appear simultaneously; this primary stage resolves within six months. The secondary stage occurs months to years with widespread skin lesions that vary in appearance, including "crab yaws" on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet with desquamation; these secondary lesions ulcerate and are highly infectious, but heal after six months or more. About 10% of people go on to develop tertiary disease within five to ten years, with widespread bone and soft tissue destruction, which may include extensive destruction of the bone and cartilage of the nose; the disease is transmitted by skin-to-skin contact with an infective lesion, with the bacterium entering through a pre-existing cut, bite or scratch. T. pallidum pertenue has been identified in non-human primates and studies show that experimental inoculation of human beings with a simian isolate causes yaws-like disease.

However, no evidence exists of cross-transmission between human beings and primates, but more research is needed to discount the possibility of a yaws animal reservoir in non-human primates. Most the diagnosis is made clinically. Dark field microscopy of samples taken from early lesions may show the responsible organism. Blood tests such as VDRL, Rapid Plasma Reagin and TPHA will be positive, but there are no current blood tests which distinguish among the four treponematoses, it is thought that it may be possible to eradicate yaws although it is not certain that humans are the only reservoir of infection. A single injection of long-acting penicillin or other beta lactam antibiotic cures the disease and is available, the disease is believed to be localised. In April 2012, WHO initiated a new global campaign for the eradication of yaws, on the WHO eradication list since 2011. According to the official roadmap, elimination should be achieved by 2020. Prior to the most recent WHO campaign, India launched its own national yaws elimination campaign which appears to have been successful.

Certification for disease-free status requires an absence of the disease for at least five years. In India this happened on 19 September 2011. In 1996 there were 3,571 yaws cases in India. By 2003 the number of cases was 46; the last clinical case in India was reported in 2003 and the last latent case in 2006. India is a country. In March 2013, WHO convened a new meeting of yaws experts in Geneva to further discuss the strategy of the new eradication campaign; the meeting was significant, representatives of most countries where yaws is endemic attended and described the epidemiological situation at the national level. The disease is known to be present in Indonesia and Timor-Leste in South-East Asia; as reported at the meeting, in several such countries, mapping of the disease i